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The government of the United Kingdom exercises its executive authority through a number of government departments or departments of state. A department is composed of employed officials, known as civil servants, and is politically accountable through a minister. Most major departments are headed by a secretary of state, who sits in the cabinet, and typically supported by a team of junior ministers.

There are also a number of non-ministerial departments. These are headed by senior civil servants, but are linked to a ministerial department through whose ministers they are accountable to Parliament. Departments serve to implement the policies of Her Majesty's Government, regardless of the government's political composition.[1] As a consequence, officials within government departments are generally required to adhere to varying levels of political impartiality and neutrality.

Contents

TypesEdit

There are two types of government departments.

Ministerial departments are led politically by a government minister, normally a member of the cabinet and cover matters that require direct political oversight. For most departments, the government minister in question is known as a secretary of state. He or she is generally supported by a team of junior ministers. The administrative management of a department is led by a senior civil servant, known as a permanent secretary. Subordinate to these ministerial departments are executive agencies. An executive agency has a degree of autonomy to perform an operational function and report to one or more specific government departments, which will set the funding and strategic policy for the agency. At "arm's length" from a parent or sponsor department there can be a number of non-departmental public bodies (NDPBs), known colloquially as quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisations (Quangos).

Non-ministerial departments generally cover matters for which direct political oversight is judged unnecessary or inappropriate. They are headed by senior civil servants. Some fulfil a regulatory or inspection function, and their status is therefore intended to protect them from political interference. Some are headed by Permanent Secretaries or Second Permanent Secretaries.

ListEdit

Ministerial departmentsEdit

Image Name Establishment Political Leader Head Civil Servant Headquarters Size Budget
  Attorney General's Office
(AGO)
Attorney General for England and Wales
Rt Hon Geoffrey Cox QC MP
Director General
Rowena Collins Rice
20 Victoria Street, London ???? £600 million
  Cabinet Office
(CO)
December 1916 Minister for the Cabinet Office
Rt Hon Dr David Lidington CBE MP
Permanent Secretary
John Manzoni
70 Whitehall, London 1668 £2100 million
  Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
(BEIS)
14 July 2016 Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Rt Hon Dr Greg Clark MP
Permanent Secretary
Alex Chisholm
1 Victoria Street, London ???? £13,800 million
  Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport
(DCMS)
3 May 1997 Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport
Rt Hon Jeremy Wright QC MP
Permanent Secretary
Sarah Healey
100 Parliament Street, London 900 £1,400 million
  Department for Education
(DfE)
13 May 2010 Secretary of State for Education
Rt Hon Damian Hinds MP
Permanent Secretary
Jonathan Slater
Sanctuary Buildings, Great Smith Street, London ???? £58,200 million
  Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
(DEFRA)
8 June 2001 Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Rt Hon Michael Gove MP
Permanent Secretary
[Vacant]
Nobel House, 17 Smith Square, London ???? £2,200 million
  Department for Exiting the European Union
(DExEU)
14 July 2016 Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union
Rt Hon Stephen Barclay MP
Permanent Secretary
Clare Moriarty CB
9 Downing Street, London 651 ????
  Department for International Development
(DFID)
3 May 1997 Secretary of State for International Development
Rt Hon Rory Stewart OBE MP
Permanent Secretary
Matthew Rycroft
22 Whitehall, London ???? £13,400 million
Department for International Trade
(DIT)
14 July 2016 Secretary of State for International Trade & President of the Board of Trade
Rt Hon Dr Liam Fox MP FRCGP
Permanent Secretary
Antonia Romeo
3 Whitehall Place, London ???? ???
  Department for Transport
(DfT)
29 May 2002 Secretary of State for Transport
Rt Hon Chris Grayling MP
Permanent Secretary
Bernadette Kelly CB
Great Minster House, 33 Horseferry Road, London ???? £5,300 million
  Department for Work and Pensions
(DWP)
8 June 2001 Secretary of State for Work and Pensions
Rt Hon Amber Rudd MP
Permanent Secretary
Peter Schofield CB
Caxton House, Tothill, London 84,718 £176,300 million
  Department for Health and Social Care
(DHSC)
25 July 1988 Secretary of State for Health and Social Care
Rt Hon Matt Hancock MP
Permanent Secretary
Sir Chris Wormald KCB
39 Victoria Street, London ???? £116,400 million
  Foreign and Commonwealth Office
(FCO)
17 October 1968 Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
Rt Hon Jeremy Hunt MP
Permanent Secretary
Sir Simon McDonald KCMG KCVO
39 Victoria Street, London ???? £1,100 million
  HM Treasury
(HMT)
1126[a] Chancellor of the Exchequer
Rt Hon Philip Hammond MP
Permanent Secretary to the Treasury
Sir Thomas Scholar KCB
1 Horse Guards Road, London 1169 £3,800 million
  Home Office
(HO)
2 March 1782 Secretary of State for the Home Department
Rt Hon Sajid Javid MP
Permanent Secretary
Sir Philip Rutnam KCB
2 Marsham Street, London ???? £8,900 million
  Ministry of Defence
(MOD)
1 April 1964 Secretary of State for Defence
Rt Hon Penny Mordaunt MP
Permanent Secretary
Stephen Lovegrove CB
Main Building, Whitehall, London 56,860 £46,000 million
  Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government
(MHCLG)
6 May 2006 Secretary of State for Housing, Communities and Local Government
Rt Hon James Brokenshire MP
Permanent Secretary
Melanie Dawes CB
2 Marsham Street, London ???? £28,200 million
  Ministry of Justice
(MoJ)
9 May 2007 Secretary of State for Justice & Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain
Rt Hon David Gauke MP
Permanent Secretary & Clerk of the Crown in Chancery
Sir Richard Heaton KCB
102 Petty France, London >77,000 £8,200 million
Northern Ireland Office
(NIO)
24 March 1972 Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
Rt Hon Karen Bradley MP
Permanent Secretary
Sir Jonathan Stephens KCB
1 Horse Guards Road, London 167 £23 million
  Office of the Advocate General for Scotland
19 May 1999 Advocate General of Scotland
Rt Hon The Lord Keen of Elie QC MP
Director
Neil Taylor
Victoria Quay, Edinburgh ???? ????
  Office of the Leader of the House of Commons
4 April 1721 Leader of the House of Commons & Lord President of the Council
Rt Hon Andrea Leadsom MP
Palace of Westminster, London ???? ????
  Office of the Leader of the House of Lords
4 April 1721 Leader of the House of Lords & Lord Privy Seal
Rt Hon The Baroness Evans of Bowes Park MBE PC
1 Horseguards Road, London ???? ????
  Scotland Office
13 June 2003 Secretary of State for Scotland
Rt Hon David Mundell WS MP
Director
Gillian McGregor CBE
Dover House, Whitehall, London ???? £8 million
  Wales Office
1 July 1999 Secretary of State for Wales
Rt Hon Alun Cairns MP
Director
Glynne Jones
Gwydyr House, Whitehall, London 52 £4.7 million
  Export Credits Guarantee Department
(ECGD)
1919 Secretary of State for International Trade & President of the Board of Trade
Rt Hon Dr Liam Fox MP FRCGP
Chief Executive
Louis Taylor
1 Horseguards Road, Whitehall, London ???? ????

NoteEdit

  1. ^ This is the date of the establishment of the department; the position of treasurer (now the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury) is attested to have existed from 1066.[2][3][4][5]

Non-ministerial departmentsEdit

List of executive agencies reporting to each department of the British governmentEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "How government works". gov.uk. British Government. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
  2. ^ C. Warren Hollister - The Origins of the English Treasury The English Historical Review Vol. 93, No. 367 (Apr., 1978) Retrieved 2012-06-25
  3. ^ Open Domesday Retrieved 2012-06-25
  4. ^ HM Treasury:History
  5. ^ D C Douglas - William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact Upon England University of California Press, 1 May 1967 ISBN 0520003500 Retrieved 2012-06-25

External linksEdit