Executive agency

An executive agency is a part of a government department that is treated as managerially and budgetarily separate, to carry out some part of the executive functions of the United Kingdom government, Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive. Executive agencies are "machinery of government" devices distinct both from non-ministerial government departments and non-departmental public bodies (or "quangos"), each of which enjoy a real legal and constitutional separation from ministerial control. The model was also applied in several other countries.

Size and scopeEdit

Agencies with jurisdiction over all four countries with head offices outside of London — green=state agency, orange=state-owned company (Hover mouse over pog to popup clickable link)

Agencies[1] include well-known organisations such as Her Majesty's Prison Service and the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency. The annual budget for each agency, allocated by Her Majesty's Treasury ranges from a few million pounds for the smallest agencies to £700m for the Court Service. Virtually all government departments have at least one agency.

Issues and reportsEdit

The initial success or otherwise of executive agencies was examined in the Sir Angus Fraser's Fraser Report of 1991. Its main goal was to identify what good practices had emerged from the new model and spread them to other agencies and departments. The report also recommended further powers be devolved from ministers to chief executives.

A series of reports and white papers examining governmental delivery were published throughout the 1990s, under both Conservative and Labour governments. During these the agency model became the standard model for delivering public services in the United Kingdom. By 1997 76% of civil servants were employed by an agency. The new Labour government in its first such report – the 1998 Next Steps Report endorsed the model introduced by its predecessor. The most recent review (in 2002, linked below) made two central conclusions (their emphasis):

"The agency model has been a success. Since 1988 agencies have transformed the landscape of government and the responsive and effectiveness of services delivered by Government."
"Some agencies have, however, become disconnected from their departments ... The gulf between policy and delivery is considered by most to have widened."

The latter point is usually made more forcefully by Government critics, describing agencies as "unaccountable quangos".

List by departmentEdit

Attorney General's OfficeEdit

Non-ministerial departmentEdit

OtherEdit

  • HM Crown Prosecution Service Inspectorate

Cabinet OfficeEdit

Ministerial departmentEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

OtherEdit

Civil ServiceEdit

Department for Business, Energy & Industrial StrategyEdit

Non-ministerial departmentEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

Tribunal non-departmental public bodyEdit

OtherEdit

Ministry for Housing, Communities and Local GovernmentEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

Tribunal non-departmental public bodyEdit

  • Valuation Tribunal for England

Public corporationEdit

OtherEdit

Department for Digital, Culture, Media & SportEdit

Non-ministerial departmentEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

Public corporationEdit

Department for EducationEdit

Non-ministerial departmentEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

OtherEdit

  • Child Safeguarding Practice Review Panel
  • Independent Review Mechanism
  • Office of the Schools Adjudicator

Department for Environment, Food & Rural AffairsEdit

Non-ministerial departmentEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

  • Advisory Committee on Releases to the Environment
  • Independent Agricultural Appeals Panel
  • Science Advisory Council
  • Veterinary Products Committee

Tribunal non-departmental public bodyEdit

  • Plant Varieties and Seeds Tribunal

OtherEdit

Department for International TradeEdit

Department for TransportEdit

Non-ministerial departmentEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

  • Disabled Persons Transport Advisory Committee

Tribunal non-departmental public bodyEdit

Public corporationEdit

OtherEdit

Department for Work and PensionsEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

Tribunal non-departmental public bodyEdit

Public corporationEdit

OtherEdit

  • Independent Case Examiner

Department of HealthEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

OtherEdit

Foreign & Commonwealth OfficeEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Public corporationEdit

OtherEdit

HM TreasuryEdit

Non-ministerial departmentEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

  • Royal Mint Advisory Committee

OtherEdit

Home OfficeEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

Tribunal non-departmental public bodyEdit

Independent monitoring bodyEdit

  • Independent Anti-slavery Commissioner

OtherEdit

Ministry of DefenceEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

Public corporationEdit

Ad-hoc advisory groupEdit

  • Central Advisory Committee on Compensation

OtherEdit

Ministry of JusticeEdit

Executive agencyEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

OtherEdit

Northern Ireland OfficeEdit

Executive non-departmental public bodyEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

Office of the Advocate General for ScotlandEdit

Office of the Leader of the House of CommonsEdit

Office of the Leader of the House of LordsEdit

Office of the Secretary of State for WalesEdit

Scotland OfficeEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

UK Export FinanceEdit

Advisory non-departmental public bodyEdit

  • Export Guarantees Advisory Council

Non ministerial departmentsEdit

Not already listed above:

Other countriesEdit

Several other countries have an executive agency model.

In the United States, the Clinton administration imported the model, but with a modification of the name to "performance-based organizations."[2]

In Canada, executive agencies were adopted on a limited basis under the name "special operating agencies."[3] One example is the Translation Bureau under Public Services and Procurement Canada.

Executive agencies were also established in Australia, Jamaica, Japan and Tanzania.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cabinet Office - UK Government executive agencies (Archived Page, retrieved 29 August 2014)
  2. ^ Roberts, Alasdair. Performance-Based Organizations: Assessing the Gore Plan. Public Administration Review, Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 465-478, December 1997.
  3. ^ Roberts, Alasdair. Public Works and Government Services: Beautiful Theory Meets Ugly Reality. HOW OTTAWA SPENDS, G. Swimmer, ed., pp. 171-203 Ottawa: Carleton University Press, 1996

External linksEdit