British Rail Class 313
The British Rail Class 313 is a dual-voltage electric multiple unit (EMU) train built by British Rail Engineering Limited's Holgate Road carriage works between February 1976 and April 1977. They were the first second-generation EMUs to be constructed for British Rail and the first British Rail units with both a pantograph for 25 kV AC overhead lines and shoegear for 750 V DC third rail supply. They were the first units in Britain to have multi-function Tightlock couplers, allowing coupling and the connection of control electric and air supplies to be carried out from the cab.
|British Rail Class 313|
The interior of a Southern refurbished Class 313/2
|In service||1976 - present|
|Manufacturer||British Rail Engineering Limited|
|Built at||Holgate Road carriage works|
|Family name||BREL 1972 "PEP"|
|Constructed||1976 - 1977|
|Entered service||16 August 1976[full citation needed]|
|Refurbishment||23 Silverlink units 1997-2001 |
41 WAGN units 1999-2003
19 Southern units 2010-2011
|Number built||64 units|
|Number scrapped||21 units|
|Formation||3 cars per unit|
|Capacity||232 seats (as built)|
231 seats (Great Northern)
228 seats (Silverlink)
202 seats (London Overground)
194 seats (Southern)
Brighton Lovers Walk
|Line(s) served||East Coast Main Line|
Northern City Line
|Train length||60.83 m (199 ft 6 7⁄8 in)|
|Car length||DMS 20.33 m (66 ft 8 in)|
TS 19.92 m (65 ft 4 in)
|Width||2.82 m (9 ft 3 in)|
|Height||3.58 m (11 ft 9 in)|
|Maximum speed||75 mph (121 km/h) 30 mph (48 km/h) GN units on DC|
|Weight||104.5 tonnes (102.8 long tons)|
|Power output||656 kW (880 hp)|
|Electric system(s)||25 kV 50 Hz AC Overhead|
750 V DC 3rd rail
|Current collection method||Pantograph |
|UIC classification||Bo-Bo + 2-2 + Bo-Bo|
|Track gauge||1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge|
Following the withdrawal of most first-generation stock, they are the oldest EMUs in regular service on National Rail on the British mainland; the oldest units are now 43 years old.
The Class 313 was developed following extensive trials with the prototype Class 445 "PEP" built in the early 1970s. The 313 is similar to the Class 314 (Glasgow), Class 315 (Anglia suburban — east London), Class 507 (Merseyside) and Class 508 (Merseyside, formerly Southern Region). The Class 313 directly replaced the Classes 105 and 106 diesel multiple units previously on the Great Northern Inner Suburban services between London and Hertfordshire.
Since they were designed for use on Great Northern Inner Suburban services from Moorgate to Welwyn Garden City, Hertford North, and Letchworth Garden City, which included a section of 'tube' line built to take standard size trains between Drayton Park and Moorgate, they are built to a slightly smaller loading gauge than conventional trains. They are standard length and width, but the roof is lower, most noticeable due to the lack of a "well" for the Stone Faiveley AMBR pantograph on the centre coach. They have to comply with regulations for underground trains, such as having doors at each end of the train for evacuation onto the tracks, and when on 750 V DC supply the traction supply for each motor coach is separate, whereas on conventional 750 V DC trains each coach in a unit is linked by a 750 V bus line. Due to this, each motor coach has shoe gear on both bogies, whereas normally it would only be on the leading bogie. They are fitted with trip-cocks that are struck by a raised train-stop arm at red signals and will apply the brakes if the train passes one.
The units were originally numbered 313001-064. Each unit is formed of two outer driving motors and an intermediate trailer with a pantograph. This is a reversal of the practice started in the 1960s, where the motors and pantograph were on an intermediate vehicle, with the outer vehicles being driving trailers. Part of the reason was to simplify the equipment to allow dual-voltage operation, and to keep down weight by spreading the heavy transformer and motors between vehicles. The intermediate trailer carries the pantograph and a transformer and rectifier, which on 25 kV AC provides 750 V DC to the motor coaches, each of which has four 110 horsepower (82 kW) GEC G310AZ traction motors, two per bogie. On 750 V DC each motor coach draws its supply directly through its shoe gear.
313s have series-wound DC GEC G310AZ traction motors controlled by a camshaft controlled resistance system with series and parallel motor groupings and weak field steps. Originally the heating in the motor coaches was provided by passing air over the hot traction and braking resistors in addition to conventional heaters, but this feature is no longer in use and the pneumatic dampers have been disabled. Great Northern and Southern units have been retro-fitted with cab air conditioning.
313s have rheostatic braking (which was disabled on London Overground) in addition to conventional three-step air-operated disc braking. During braking if wheelslide is detected by the Wheel slide protection (WSP), rheostatic braking is disabled and disc-braking only is used. Great Northern units have sanding equipment. Unlike some other DMU/EMU classes, additional brake force is not available when the emergency brake application is initiated and is the equivalent force of a step 3/full service application. WSP is still active when making an emergency application.
In addition to the primary suspension of rubber chevron spring and oil dampers, secondary suspension is provided by two air bellows per bogie - flow into each bellows is controlled independently by a levelling valve and arm assembly that allows the suspension to inflate/deflate when the weight of the coach is increased or decreased by passenger loading. The air suspension is linked to the braking system via a Variable Load Valve (VLV), which increases air brake pressure when the coach is more heavily loaded to compensate for the additional weight.
The DMS A coach has a compressor and main reservoir tank, which provide air to the unit via the main reservoir pipe for friction braking, power doors, secondary suspension and pantograph operation.
The DMS B coach has an MA (Motor Alternator) set powered from the 750 V DC bus; the transformer and rectifier provide the supply when on 25 kV working and the shoegear provides traction current directly when on 3rd rail working. The MA provides power for the following:
- 415 V AC - headlight (lamp supplied through an additional transformer), traction/braking resistor cooling fan, coach heater fans (the heaters run on 750 V DC).
- 240 V AC - cab heater fan, thermostat fans, appliance sockets.
- 110 V DC - control supply, battery charging, train lighting, cab air conditioning, CCTV system.
V vehicles are numbered as follows.
All units have standard class seating only.
As built, the sliding doors were opened by the passengers. Once the driver had stopped the train and the guard had activated the master door release, a passenger could move the door handle gently sideways which operated a switch controlling the individual door opening circuit. Many people did not wait for the guard's release and gave the handle a much harder tug, which could open the door even if the train had not stopped. Concerns over passenger safety led to the handles being replaced by push-buttons from March 1977.
Modifications led to renumbering and reclassification. All units originally had shoebeams on the inner bogie of each motor coach, which was sufficient for third-rail duties between Drayton Park and Moorgate. Some units became surplus, and in 1987 four were transferred to the Colchester-Clacton/Walton route, which has no DC sections; they had the shoegear removed, and were renumbered from 313061-4 to 313096-9. Following an accident involving one unit at Walton on the Naze in August 1987, they were replaced by 310s in 1988. 313s had also worked on the Colchester-Walton/Clacton route between 1981 and 1983. 313001-016 had shoegear fitted to the outer bogies in addition, and were transferred to the Euston-Watford DC route where there are long gaps in the 3rd rail. They were not renumbered but reclassified 313/1, the unmodified units becoming 313/0 - prior to this the class had no sub classes.
Following the privatisation of British Rail, the Class 313s were divided between Silverlink and West Anglia Great Northern (WAGN). The entire class initially came under the ownership of leasing company Eversholt Rail Group. However, from June 2012, 20 of the fleet including those operated by Southern and departmental 313121 were passed onto newcomers Beacon Rail.
WAGN inherited 41 units operating inner suburban services out of Moorgate and London King's Cross, to Welwyn Garden City, Hertford North, Stevenage and Letchworth Garden City. From 1 April 2006 the Great Northern (GN) franchise merged with Thameslink to form the Thameslink Great Northern franchise, which was won by FirstGroup and became known as First Capital Connect. Three Class 313/1s were transferred to First Capital Connect from London Overground in September 2010 to augment the Class 313/0 fleet. They were repainted into the Urban Lights livery and lightly refreshed internally but retained their original low-backed seating, although the upholstery has been altered to First Capital Connect standard. Despite receiving modifications that have made them mechanically identical to the 313/0s, they have not been renumbered. The units were then transferred to Great Northern on 14 September 2014 when the Thameslink and Great Northern franchise was merged into the Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise.
Although the majority of the route is 25 kV AC overhead line equipment, the Northern City Line route between Moorgate and Drayton Park is third rail 750 V DC, formerly part of the London Underground's Northern line, and although built to full loading gauge there is insufficient clearance to add catenary.
Trains bound for Moorgate approach Drayton Park on a falling gradient, drawing power via the pantograph. After coming to a stand at the platform the driver opens the vacuum circuit breaker, lowers the pantograph and changes over to DC. Whilst at Drayton Park, the starting signal for the platform is held at danger until the pantograph is lowered. Unusually for dual voltage trains this stock (and the replacement Class 717) has a shunt resistor permanently connected to the pantograph. The detection of the small current drawn holds the signal at danger while the pantograph remains in contact with the overhead wire. This current is very audible as it manifests itself as a distinct "zzzZT" noise as an arc is struck and subsequently extinguished as the pantograph lowers. This prevents the driver from powering into the tunnel with the pantograph raised which would cause damage to the train as the pantograph runs off the end of the overhead line and strikes the tunnel portal. On journeys from Moorgate traction power is maintained into Drayton Park for the rising gradient. Once the train is at a stand the driver selects AC traction and raises the pantograph. There is no system forcing the driver to change traction supplies beyond the customary 'PANS UP' sign at the end of the platform. If the driver forgets to change to AC no damage will occur to the train or any infrastructure; there will simply be a loss of power as the train runs out of third rail.
Great Northern 313s are electrically limited to 30 mph in DC mode, the maximum line speed on the Northern City Line.
Nineteen 313s displaced by Class 378 Capitalstars on London Overground have been transferred to Southern, replacing the newer Class 377/3 Electrostars on East and West Coastway services from Brighton. They primarily operate local services from Brighton to Hove, West Worthing, Portsmouth Harbour, Lewes and Seaford. In addition, they work the Littlehampton to Bognor Regis and Portsmouth & Southsea services. During peak times, they can also be seen operating as far as Eastbourne and Ore.
These units were repainted at Wolverton Works. The full refurbishment began in June 2010 at Wabtec Doncaster and included new flooring and carpet, new seating, improved disabled and cycle space and the fitting of a Passenger Information System. Additional modifications were carried out at Stewarts Lane TMD including the installation of cab air-conditioning, sanding equipment, a 750 V busline, shore supply sockets and the removal of inboard shoegear.
The 313s commenced operations with Southern on 23 May 2010, providing a two-trains-per-hour service between Brighton and Seaford, and some trains between Brighton and Lewes, Hove, West Worthing and Littlehampton. From 13 December 2010, their operation expanded to stopping services from Brighton to Portsmouth Harbour and the Littlehampton to Bognor Regis shuttle.
The decision to use 313s on the Coastway lines has been controversial, as they are much older than the 377s and have fewer on-board passenger facilities. The rail union RMT criticised the move and many publications including the BBC have questioned the introduction of 35-year-old trains with no lavatories in place of much newer units. These trains are deployed on services that operate predominantly over short distances, such as Brighton to Hove and Brighton to Seaford, and some longer (but stopping) services that provide predominantly local links that run alongside 377s on faster services.
The introduction of 313s on the Coastway routes facilitated the delivery of additional capacity on high-demand suburban routes in South London, where 10-car trains services are to be introduced combined with platform lengthening.
The Class 313s operated by Southern were retained when Southern became part of Govia Thameslink Railway.
In December 2017, it was announced that unit 313 201 (former 313 001), the oldest Class 313 unit, had been repainted into the BR Blue livery originally used on the units. However, to meet today's accessibility requirements, the doors tonally contrast, rather than having its BR Blue and Grey colours. The repaint was part of the C6 overhaul, which included works on the doors, air system and interior, which includes new, modern LED lighting, and for bodywork repairs. The Director of Engineering for Beacon Rail, who owns the Class 313s, has said, "We wanted to celebrate the heritage of this special train, so the re-livery made perfect sense.”
Silverlink inherited 23 units, mainly operated as Silverlink Metro on the North London, West London and Watford DC Lines, and they were regulars on the St Albans Abbey–Watford Junction branch line between 1988 and 2007, when the Silverlink franchise ended.
In 2007 they were used on services transferred to London Overground, which replaced Silverlink Metro. London Overground branding was added, and some seats were removed to provide additional standing room. They were replaced by Class 378 trains, with longitudinal seating to improve standing room.
The final day of scheduled 313 operation on the North and West London Lines was 19 February 2010, although units were used ad hoc substituting for unavailable 378/0s. By August 2010 only 313121 and 313123 were still in service with London Overground, as the 378/2 Capitalstars were by then in use on the Watford DC Line.
The final day of Class 313 use on London Overground was Monday 13 September 2010, the last passenger working being the 19.06 Clapham Junction - Willesden Junction. 313121 and 313123 moved from Willesden to Wolverton on Friday 17 September for repainting, ending 313 operation with London Overground.
By 15 December 2010 313121 had not been accepted by a new operator and was at Wolverton works. It was the last 313 to retain Silverlink livery.
Accidents and incidentsEdit
- On 15 October 1986, unit 313012 ran into the rear of a London Underground empty stock train at Kensal Green due to excessive speed after passing a signal at caution. Twenty-five people were injured.
- On 12 August 1987, unit 313063 overran the buffer stop at Walton-on-the-Naze and demolished the station building due to a brake fault on the train. Thirteen people were injured.
Network Rail leased Beacon Rail-owned unit 313121 as a test vehicle for European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) on the Hertford Loop. The project involved installing bi-directional signalling over a 5.5-mile section of the Up line to allow services to use just that line in either direction whenever ERTMS tests are being conducted over the specially fitted section of the Down line.
The unit was repainted into Network Rail's yellow house colours and internally refurbished at Alstom's Wembley Intercity Depot to include a new driving desk, technician's workstation, kitchen and toilet facilities and the necessary ERTMS equipment. The work was completed in June 2013 and the unit was tested for the first time on Friday 5 July 2013 between Wembley and Bletchley. It commenced testing on the Hertford Loop later that month. In May 2018 it was placed in store at Eastleigh Works. It will be returned to service when the Great Western Main Line ERTMS is ready for testing.
|Class||Operator||No. Built||Year Built||Cars per Unit||Unit nos.|
|Class 313/0||Great Northern||19||1976–1977||3||313030|
313032 - 313033
313044 - 313045
313047 - 313049
313051 - 313052
313059 - 313061
|Scrapped||20||313018, 313025 - 313029, 313031, 313036, 313038, 313040, 313042 - 313043, 313046, 313050, 313053 - 313055, 313058, 313062 - 313063|
|Class 313/1||Great Northern||2||313122, 313134|
|Class 313/2||Southern||19||313201 - 313217|
313219 - 313220
Named units are as follows:
- 313020 - Parliament Hill (denamed)
- 313054 - Captain William Leefe Robinson V.C.
- 313101 - Silvertown (denamed)
- 313109 - Arnold Leah (denamed)
- 313111 - London TravelWatch (denamed)
- 313116 - Nikola Tesla (denamed)
- 313122 - Eric Roberts 1946 - 2012 "The Flying Nottsman"
- 313134 - The Hackney Empire (denamed); City of London
- Blake 2015.
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- Haresnape & Swain 1989, p. 82.
- Pritchard, Fox & Hall 2009, pp. 262–3.
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- Haresnape & Swain 1989, p. 84.
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- "Over 6,500 more seats added to London commuter routes". Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
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- "YouTube - 313123 leaving Willesden Junction, and shunting around in the low level". Retrieved 27 September 2010.
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- "LocoScene". Retrieved 15 December 2010.
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- "Railway Industry Association: Update #52 page 6" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
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- Job Done Rail Express issue 266 July 2018 page 91
- 313 stored ahead of GWML duty Rail issue 860 29 August 2018 page 29
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- "Govia chosen for new Thameslink contract". Railnews. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
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- Class 313 Rail Express April 2019 page 99
- "First Great Northern Class 313s for Scrap". Rail Record. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
- First Class 313 is sent for scrap as 717 use increases The Railway Magazine issue 1418 May 2019 page 105
- NRM stops main line diesel locomotive operation Rail issue 876 10 April 2019 page 10
- "The Encyclopaedia of Modern Traction Names". Retrieved 15 December 2010.
- Haresnape, Brian; Swain, Alec (1989). 10: Third Rail DC Electric Multiple-Units. British Rail Fleet Survey. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1760-3.
- Pritchard, Robert; Fox, Peter; Hall, Peter (2009). British Railways Locomotives & Coaching Stock 2009. Sheffield: Platform 5 Publishing. ISBN 1-902336-70-4.