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Bolliger & Mabillard, officially Bolliger & Mabillard Consulting Engineers, Inc. and often abbreviated B&M, is a roller coaster design consultancy based in Monthey, Switzerland. The company was founded in 1988 by Walter Bolliger and Claude Mabillard.[1]

Bolliger & Mabillard Consulting Engineers Inc.
Private
IndustryRoller coaster design
Founded1988
Founder
  • Walter Bolliger
  • Claude Mabillard
Headquarters,
Switzerland
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
  • Walter Bolliger
  • Claude Mabillard
Products
Number of employees
37 (2012)
WebsiteOfficial website

B&M has built over a hundred roller coasters around the world and pioneered several new ride technologies, most notably the inverted roller coaster.[2][3] In 2016, the company completed its 100th roller coaster.

Contents

HistoryEdit

RootsEdit

Walter Bolliger and Claude Mabillard started working for Giovanola, a manufacturing company who supplied rides to Intamin, in the 1970s. During their time at Giovanola, they helped design the company's first stand-up roller coaster, Shockwave at Six Flags Magic Mountain. They also worked on other projects, such as Z-Force at Six Flags Great America.[4] Bolliger & Mabillard left Giovanola, but the company continued to use their track design, so the company's roller coasters, Goliath at Six Flags Magic Mountain and Titan at Six Flags Over Texas, use a track style very similar to B&M's.[5][6]

 
An inverted model with the angled drop, common on inverted coasters, Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great Adventure

LaunchEdit

In 1987, Giovanola underwent a change of management; Bolliger & Mabillard decided to leave and founded their own company.[4] At the time, B&M employed four people, including two draftsmen: Bolliger and Mabillard. When B&M was created, the pair had agreed not to make any more amusement attractions.[7][8] However, Robert Mampe, Six Flags Great America's staff engineer, who had worked with both men during the construction of Z-Force, contacted the new company and asked it to reconfigure the cars for its Giovanola-built, Intamin bobsled coaster that was to be relocated from Six Flags Great Adventure.[9]

Following that project Mampe asked the new company to design and build a stand-up roller coaster for Six Flags Great America, similar to Shockwave at Six Flags Magic Mountain.[9] B&M accepted the offer and hired two more draftsmen. But B&M had a problem regarding how and where to manufacture the track pieces for the roller coaster. With the impression of the work done by Clermont Steel Fabricators on Vortex at Kings Island and Shockwave Six Flags Great America, Walter Bolliger went to the steel plant and asked if they would be interested in manufacturing the track. Clermont Steel Fabricators accepted and currently manufactures all Bolliger and Mabillard roller coaster track pieces for all of North America.[10] Now with a company to manufacture the track, B&M built its first roller coaster, a stand-up roller coaster, Iron Wolf, which opened in 1990 at Six Flags Great America.[7][8] Two years later, Bolliger & Mabillard built another project for Six Flags Great America, Batman: The Ride, the world's first inverted roller coaster, which brought them to prominence in the industry.[11][12]

DevelopmentEdit

Bolliger & Mabillard also invented the Floorless Coaster[13] and the Dive Coaster. The company also built its first launched roller coaster, the Incredible Hulk, which is at Islands of Adventure.[14] In 2010, B&M unveiled its new Wing Coaster and premiered the prototype model, named Raptor, at Gardaland in 2011.[15] It has two seats on each side on the car that hang riders over the sides of the track. There are currently only eight in operation.[15] In 2013, In 2015, B&M constructed Thunderbird at Holiday World & Splashin' Safari, its first in-house launched coaster.[16]

By 2010, B&M employed twelve engineers, twelve draftsmen and two draftswomen.[7][8] The company has made other contributions to the roller coaster industry. The company built the trains for the Psyclone, a now-demolished wooden roller coaster at Six Flags Magic Mountain. The trains were later used on the park's Colossus wooden roller coaster (until it was refurbished by Rocky Mountain Construction), but were only used during October each year. The trains faced backward and usually raced against trains on the second track, which ran forward.[17]

In 2013, the company launched the construction of Banshee, the world's longest inverted roller coaster.[18] B&M supplied new trains for Steel Dragon 2000, built by D. H. Morgan Manufacturing in 2000.[19][20] As of 2012, Bolliger & Mabillard has 85 operating roller coasters worldwide,[2] twenty-two of which are listed among the Amusement Today Golden Ticket Awards Top 50 Steel Coasters List for 2012 and five are in the top 10.

By 2016 , Bolliger & Mabillard had completed their 100th coaster. The company has built more roller coasters than any other manufacturer on the list.[21]

FeaturesEdit

 
Raptor's cobra roll, a first for inverted roller coasters

Bolliger & Mabillard currently manufactures nine different roller coaster styles: Stand-Up Coaster, Inverted Coaster, Floorless Coaster, Flying Coaster, Hyper Coaster, Dive Coaster, Sitting Coaster, Wing Coaster and Family Coaster.[22][23] Bolliger & Mabillard has been involved in developing new technologies and concepts in roller coasters almost since its inception. It has often worked with engineer Werner Stengel and with designers and management of client theme parks.[24][25]

Lift hillsEdit

 
Diagram comparing a standard lift hill and the B&M pre-drop lift hill.

Many Bolliger & Mabillard coasters feature an element known as a "pre-drop", a short drop after the top of the lift hill and before the start of the first drop, designed to reduce stress on the lift chain. The flat section between the pre-drop and the first drop serves as a shelf to support the weight of the train, reducing related stresses on the chain. On most coasters without a pre-drop, the weight of the train tends to pull on the lift chain as it begins its descent because the latter half of the train is still being lifted by the chain. Pre-drops have not been used on the company's Dive or Flying coasters, or on hyper coasters built after 1999.[26][27] OzIris at Parc Astérix was the first B&M inverted roller coaster that does not feature a pre-drop.[28] Ever since, no coaster built by B&M has featured a pre-drop[29][30] because the chain accelerates on newer coasters of B&M after the train passes the crest to acquire the same speed as the train when it is being taken over by gravity.[31]

TrainsEdit

Most of Bolliger & Mabillard's roller coaster trains use four-abreast seating. Each car has one row of four seats, while the train length can vary between coasters. All of the company's coaster models, except the Dive Coaster and Wing Coaster use this configuration. The Dive Coaster uses six, eight or ten-abreast seating, with two or three rows of seats. For example, Griffon at Busch Gardens Williamsburg, uses ten seats in three rows, while Krake at Heide Park uses six-across seating in three rows.[32] On recent hyper coaster projects, B&M has used a new car design that has two rows of two seats; the two seats in the rear of the car pushed out from the centerline so that the four seats resemble a V formation. This formation has only been used on Behemoth at Canada's Wonderland, Diamondback at Kings Island, Intimidator at Carowinds and Shambhala: Expedición al Himalaya at PortAventura Park, in the resort PortAventura World. In 2013, B&M introduced a new car design that has two rows of two seats, however, they are not in a V formation.[19][20]

All B&M hyper coasters use a type of restraint called a "T-bar" or "Clamshell" restraint, which consists of bar with a cushioned lap bar with two handles for riders to hold on to. This type of restraint generally does not use a seat belt, however seat belts have been added to Behemoth and Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland, Diamondback at Kings Island, and Intimidator at Carowinds, all of which have the stadium style seating.[33] Bolliger & Mabillard also uses over-the-shoulder restraints, in that the restraint is placed over the riders' shoulders and sits and extends to the riders' laps. This type of restraint is used on Dive, Inverted, Sitting, Flying, Floorless, Stand-up and Wing Coasters.[34] Bolliger & Mabillard has recently begun using a vest like over the shoulder restraint, which reduces headbanging found on the older, more common padded over the shoulder restraints. These have been met with some criticism from the coaster community, due to the nature in which they tighten during the ride; stapling riders to their seats, resulting in less airtime (negative g-forces) being felt.

TrackEdit

 
CAD model of B&M's signature box-spined track

A notable feature of Bolliger & Mabillard roller coasters is the box-section track. The running rails are connected to a box-section spine, instead of the circular spine used by other manufacturers. When a train travels around a box-section track, it creates a distinctive roaring sound, which is unique to this style of track. However, on some Bolliger & Mabillard roller coasters, such as Talon at Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom and GateKeeper at Cedar Point, the track is filled with a proprietary sound dampening material to reduce this noise.[35]

Also, depending on the model of the roller coaster, the track size can vary. Models such as the Flying, Wing and Dive Coaster have heavier trains which require a larger track size while models with lighter trains, such as the Stand-Up and Hyper Coaster, do not and use a smaller sized track.[10]

BrakesEdit

As of 2016, Bolliger & Mabillard uses three types of braking system; friction, magnetic, and water.

Friction brakesEdit

When B&M was first founded, the linear magnetic eddy brake had yet to be developed, so it used friction brakes as its main braking system. On the train, pads are fitted beneath the seating areas. On the brakes, similar pads are connected to steel supports. When the pads on the train come into contact with the brakes, friction is created which slows the train.[36] Beginning with Kumba in 1993, friction brakes have also been used as trim brakes that regulate the speed of the train while it is still navigating the course.[37]

Magnetic brakesEdit

Magnetic brakes were first used on Nitro at Six Flags Great Adventure in 2001.[38] Magnetic brakes slow down trains much faster than friction brakes; most B&M roller coasters built in or after 2001 have at least one set of magnetic brakes. Magnetic brakes do not make contact with the train. Fins that run parallel to the train are fitted beneath the seats. As the fins pass through the brakes, the magnetic field created by the brakes slows the train. Magnetic brakes have also been used as an alternate type of trim brake on B&M roller coasters such as Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland.[39]

Water brakesEdit

Water brakes were first introduced on SheiKra at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay in 2005.[40] Water brakes can only be used when a splashdown element, in which a body of water surrounds a section of track, is present within the layout of the roller coaster. When scoops on the last car of each train come in contact with the surrounding water, the train slows down and the water is sprayed several feet into the air behind it.[41]

List of roller coastersEdit

In North America, B&M coaster designs have been manufactured by Ohio company Clermont Steel Fabricators since 1990.[42][43][10]

 
Vortex at Carowinds, a Stand-up Coaster model
 
Leviathan at Canada's Wonderland, a Hyper Coaster model
 
Batman: The Ride at Six Flags Great Adventure, an Inverted Coaster model
 
Dragon Khan at PortAventura Park, a Sitting Coaster model
 
Oblivion at Alton Towers, a Dive Coaster model
 
Hydra at Dorney Park, a Floorless Coaster model
 
Behemoth at Canada's Wonderland, a Hyper Coaster model
 
Manta at SeaWorld Orlando, a Flying Coaster model
 
Raptor at Gardaland, first Wing Coaster model


As of 2019, Bolliger & Mabillard has built 117 roller coasters around the world.[44].Some have either been relocated, renamed or closed.

Name Model Park Country Opened Status Ref
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Great America   United States 1992 Operating [45]
Vortex Stand-Up Coaster Carowinds   United States 1992 Operating [46]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure   United States 1993 Operating [47]
Flight Deck
Formerly Top Gun
Inverted Coaster California's Great America   United States 1993 Operating [48]
Kumba Sitting Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa   United States 1993 Operating [49]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain   United States 1994 Operating [50]
Diavlo Inverted Coaster Himeji Central Park   Japan 1994 Operating [51]
Nemesis Inverted Coaster Alton Towers   United Kingdom 1994 Operating [52]
Raptor Inverted Coaster Cedar Point   United States 1994 Operating [53]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags St. Louis   United States 1995 Operating [54]
Dragon Khan Sitting Coaster PortAventura Park   Spain 1995 Operating [55]
Montu Inverted Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa   United States 1996 Operating [56]
Alpengeist Inverted Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg   United States 1997 Operating [57]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia   United States 1997 Operating [58]
Pyrenees Inverted Coaster Parque Espana-Shima Spain Village   Japan 1997 Operating [59]
Great White Inverted Coaster SeaWorld San Antonio   United States 1997 Operating [60]
Oblivion Dive Coaster Alton Towers   United Kingdom 1998 Operating [61]
Great Bear Inverted Coaster Hersheypark   United States 1998 Operating [62]
The Riddler's Revenge Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain   United States 1998 Operating [63]
Afterburn
Formerly Top Gun - The Jet Coaster
Inverted Coaster Carowinds   United States 1999 Operating [64]
Bizarro
Formerly Medusa
Floorless Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure   United States 1999 Operating [65]
Incredible Hulk Sitting Coaster Universal Studios Islands of Adventure   United States 1999 Operating [66]
Dragon Challenge
Formerly Dueling Dragons
Inverted Coaster Universal Studios Islands of Adventure   United States 1999 Removed [67]
Batman: The Ride Inverted Coaster Six Flags Over Texas   United States 1999 Operating [68]
Raging Bull Hyper Coaster Six Flags Great America   United States 1999 Operating [69]
Georgia Scorcher Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia   United States 1999 Operating [70]
Apollo's Chariot Hyper Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg   United States 1999 Operating [71]
Kraken Floorless Coaster SeaWorld Orlando   United States 2000 Operating [72]
Medusa Floorless Coaster Six Flags Discovery Kingdom   United States 2000 Operating [73]
Katun Inverted Coaster Mirabilandia   Italy 2000 Operating [74]
Superman: Krypton Coaster Floorless Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas   United States 2000 Operating [75]
Diving Machine G5 Dive Coaster Janfusun Fancyworld   Taiwan 2000 Operating [76]
Insane Speed Floorless Coaster Janfusun Fancyworld   Taiwan 2001 Operating [77]
Nitro Hyper Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure   United States 2001 Operating [78]
Talon Inverted Coaster Dorney Park   United States 2001 Operating [79]
Wildfire Sitting Coaster Silver Dollar City   United States 2001 Operating [80]
Galactica
Formerly Air
Flying Coaster Alton Towers   United Kingdom 2002 Operating [81]
Batman: The Dark Knight Floorless Coaster Six Flags New England   United States 2002 Operating [82]
Batman: Arkham Asylum
Formerly Batman: La Fuga
Inverted Coaster Parque Warner Madrid   Spain 2002 Operating [83]
Silver Star Hyper Coaster Europa Park   Germany 2002 Operating [84]
Superman: La Atracción de Acero Floorless Coaster Parque Warner Madrid   Spain 2002 Operating [85]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia   United States 2002 Operating [86]
Vampire Inverted Coaster La Ronde   Canada 2002 Operating [87]
Nemesis Inferno Inverted Coaster Thorpe Park   United Kingdom 2003 Operating [88]
Scream! Floorless Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain   United States 2003 Operating [89]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Great America   United States 2003 Operating [90]
Superman: Ultimate Flight Flying Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure   United States 2003 Operating [91]
Dæmonen Floorless Coaster Tivoli Gardens   Denmark 2004 Operating [92]
Lightning Inverted Coaster Kuwait Entertainment City   Kuwait 2004 Closed [93]
Silver Bullet Inverted Coaster Knott's Berry Farm   United States 2004 Operating [94]
Hydra the Revenge Floorless Coaster Dorney Park   United States 2005 Operating [95]
SheiKra Dive Coaster Busch Gardens Tampa   United States 2005 Operating [96]
Black Mamba Inverted Coaster Phantasialand   Germany 2006 Operating [97]
Crystal Wing Flying Coaster Happy Valley Beijing   China 2006 Operating [98]
Goliath Hyper Coaster La Ronde   Canada 2006 Operating [99]
Goliath Hyper Coaster Six Flags Over Georgia   United States 2006 Operating [100]
Patriot Inverted Coaster Worlds of Fun   United States 2006 Operating [101]
Tatsu Flying Coaster Six Flags Magic Mountain   United States 2006 Operating [102]
Griffon Dive Coaster Busch Gardens Williamsburg   United States 2007 Operating [103]
Hollywood Dream: The Ride Hyper Coaster Universal Studios Japan   Japan 2007 Operating [104]
Phaethon Inverted Coaster Gyeongju World   South Korea 2007 Operating [105]
Behemoth Hyper Coaster Canada's Wonderland   Canada 2008 Operating [106]
Dive Coaster Dive Coaster Chimelong Paradise   China 2008 Operating [107]
Dominator
Formerly Batman: Knight Flight
Floorless Coaster Kings Dominion
Geauga Lake
  United States 2008
2000 to 2007
Operating [108]
[109]
Goliath
Formerly Batman: The Ride
Formerly Gambit
Inverted Coaster Six Flags Fiesta Texas
Six Flags New Orleans
Thrill Valley
  United States 2008
2003 to 2005
1995 to 2002
Operating [110]
[111]
[112]
Diamondback Hyper Coaster Kings Island   United States 2009 Operating [113]
Diving Coaster Dive Coaster Happy Valley Shanghai   China 2009 Operating [114]
Manta Flying Coaster SeaWorld Orlando   United States 2009 Operating [115]
Monster
Formerly Orochi
Inverted Coaster Walygator Parc
Expoland
  France 2010
1996 to 2007
Operating [116]
[117]
Intimidator Hyper Coaster Carowinds   United States 2010 Operating [118]
Green Lantern
Formerly Chang
Stand-Up Coaster Six Flags Great Adventure
Kentucky Kingdom
  United States 2011
1997 to 2009
Operating [119]
[120]
Hair Raiser Floorless Coaster Ocean Park Hong Kong   China
  Hong Kong
2011 Operating [121]
Krake Dive Coaster Heide Park   Germany 2011 Operating [122]
Raptor Wing Coaster Gardaland   Italy 2011 Operating [123]
Starry Sky Ripper
Formerly Sky Scrapper
Flying Coaster Joyland   China 2011 Operating [124]
Leviathan Hyper Coaster Canada's Wonderland   Canada 2012 Operating [125]
OzIris Inverted Coaster Parc Astérix   France 2012 Operating [126]
Shambhala Hyper Coaster PortAventura Park   Spain 2012 Operating [127]
Swarm Wing Coaster Thorpe Park   United Kingdom 2012 Operating [128]
Wild Eagle Wing Coaster Dollywood   United States 2012 Operating [129]
X-Flight Wing Coaster Six Flags Great America   United States 2012 Operating [130]
GateKeeper Wing Coaster Cedar Point   United States 2013 Operating [131]
Nitro Floorless Coaster Adlabs Imagica   India 2013 Operating [132]
Banshee Inverted Coaster Kings Island   United States 2014 Operating [133]
Parrot Coaster
Formerly Flying over the Rainforest
Wing Coaster Chimelong Ocean Kingdom   China 2014 Operating [134]
Flug der Dämonen Wing Coaster Heide Park   Germany 2014 Operating [135]
Family Inverted Coaster Family Inverted Coaster Happy Valley Shanghai   China 2014 Operating [136]
Harpy Flying Coaster Xishuangbanna Theme Park   China 2015 Operating [137]
Rougarou
Formerly Mantis
Floorless Coaster
Formerly Stand-Up Coaster
Cedar Point   United States 2015
1996 to 2014
Operating [138]
Acrobat Flying Coaster Nagashima Spa Land   Japan 2015 Operating [139]
Thunderbird Wing Coaster Holiday World   United States 2015 Operating [140]
Oblivion: The Black Hole Dive Coaster Gardaland   Italy 2015 Operating [141]
Baron 1898 Dive Coaster Efteling   Netherlands 2015 Operating [142]
Fury 325 Hyper Coaster Carowinds   United States 2015 Operating [143]
Mako Hyper Coaster SeaWorld Orlando   United States 2016 Operating [144]
The Flying Dinosaur Flying Coaster Universal Studios Japan   Japan 2016 Operating [145]
Valravn Dive Coaster Cedar Point   United States 2016 Operating [146]
Dragon's Run
Formerly Time Machine
Formerly Led Zeppelin - The Ride
Sitting Coaster Dragon Park Ha Long
Freestyle Music Park
Hard Rock Park
  Vietnam 2017
2009
2008
Operating [147]
[148]
Patriot
Formerly Vortex
Floorless Coaster
Formerly Stand-Up Coaster
California's Great America   United States 2017
1991 to 2016
Operating [149]
Flying Wing Coaster Wing Coaster Happy Valley Chongqing   China 2017 Operating [150]
Draken Dive Coaster Gyeongju World   South Korea 2018 Operating [151]
Western Regions Heaven Dive Coaster Happy Valley Chengdu   China 2018 Operating [152]
Valkyria Dive Coaster Liseberg   Sweden 2018 Operating [153]
Family Inverted Coaster Family Inverted Coaster Happy Valley Beijing   China 2018 Operating [154]
Wing Coaster Wing Coaster Colourful Yunnan Happy World   China 2018 Operating [155]
Fēnix Wing Coaster Toverland   Netherlands 2018 Operating [156]
Heaven's Wing Wing Coaster Huayi Brothers Movie World   China 2018 Under construction [157]
Yukon Striker Dive Coaster Canada's Wonderland   Canada 2019 Operating [158]
Firebird
Formerly Apocalypse
Formerly Iron Wolf
Floorless Coaster
Formerly Stand-Up Coaster
Six Flags America
Six Flags Great America
  United States 2019
2012 to 2018
1990 to 2011
Operating [159]
[160]
Unknown Wing Coaster Hot Go Dreamworld   China 2019 Under construction [161]
Unknown Hyper Coaster Hot Go Dreamworld   China 2019 Under construction [162]
Himalayan Eagle Music Roller Coaster Hyper Coaster Happy Valley Beijing   China 2019 Under construction [163]
Soaring with Eagle Wing Coaster Wuxi Sunac Land   China 2019 Under construction [164]
Unknown Wing Coaster Happy Valley Nanjing   China 2019 Under construction [165]
Unknown Hyper Coaster Hersheypark   United States 2020 Under construction [166]
Mako Dive Coaster SeaWorld San Diego   United States 2020 Under construction [167]
Blue Harvest Inverted Coaster Gröna Lund   Sweden 2021 Under construction [168]

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  57. ^ Marden, Duane. "Alpengeist  (Bush Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  58. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  59. ^ Marden, Duane. "Pyrenees  (Parque Espana)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  60. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Great White  (SeaWorld San Antonio)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  61. ^ Marden, Duane. "Oblivion  (Alton Towers)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  62. ^ Marden, Duane. "Great Bear  (Hersheypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  63. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Riddler's Revenge  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  64. ^ Marden, Duane. "Afterburn  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  65. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bizarro  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  66. ^ Marden, Duane. "Incredible Hulk  (Universal Studios Islands of Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  67. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dragon Challenge  (Universal Studios Islands of Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  68. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags Over Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  69. ^ Marden, Duane. "Raging Bull  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  70. ^ Marden, Duane. "Georgia Scorcher  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  71. ^ Marden, Duane. "Apollo's Chariot  (Busch Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  72. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kraken  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  73. ^ Marden, Duane. "Medusa  (Six Flags Discovery Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  74. ^ Marden, Duane. "Katun  (Mirabilandia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  75. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman: Krypton Coaster  (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  76. ^ Marden, Duane. "Diving Machine G5  (Janfusun Fancyworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  77. ^ Marden, Duane. "Insane Speed  (Janfusun Fancyworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  78. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nitro  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  79. ^ Marden, Duane. "Talon  (Dorney Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  80. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wildfire  (Silver Dollar City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  81. ^ Marden, Duane. "Air  (Alton Towers)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 14, 2012.
  82. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman – The Dark Knight  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  83. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman: Arkham Asylum  (Parque Warner Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  84. ^ Marden, Duane. "Silver Star  (Europa Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  85. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman: La Atracción de Acero  (Parque Warner Madrid)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  86. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman: Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  87. ^ Marden, Duane. "Vampire  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
  88. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nemesis Inferno  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  89. ^ Marden, Duane. "Scream!  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  90. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman: Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  91. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman:Ultimate Flight  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  92. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dæmonen  (Tivoli Gardens)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  93. ^ Marden, Duane. "Lightning  (Kuwait Entertainment City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  94. ^ Marden, Duane. "Silver Bullet  (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  95. ^ Marden, Duane. "Hydra the Revenge  (Dorney Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  96. ^ Marden, Duane. "SheiKra  (Bush Gardens Tampa Bay)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  97. ^ Marden, Duane. "Black Mamba  (Phantasialand)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  98. ^ Marden, Duane. "Crystal Wing  (Happy Valley Beijing)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  99. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (La Ronde)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  100. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  101. ^ Marden, Duane. "Patriot  (Worlds of Fun)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  102. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tatsu  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  103. ^ Marden, Duane. "Griffon  (Busch Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  104. ^ Marden, Duane. "Hollywood Dream: The Ride  (Universal Studios Japan)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  105. ^ Marden, Duane. "Phaethon  (Gyeongju World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  106. ^ Marden, Duane. "Behemoth  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  107. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dive Coaster  (Chimelong Paradise)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  108. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dominator  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  109. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dominator  (Geauga Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  110. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Fiesta Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  111. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman: The Ride  (Six Flags New Orleans)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  112. ^ Marden, Duane. "Gambit  (Thrill Valley)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  113. ^ Marden, Duane. "Diamondback  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  114. ^ Marden, Duane. "Diving Coaster  (Happy Valley Shanghai)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  115. ^ Marden, Duane. "Manta  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  116. ^ Marden, Duane. "Monster  (Walygator Parc)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  117. ^ Marden, Duane. "Orochi  (Expoland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  118. ^ Marden, Duane. "Intimidator  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  119. ^ Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  120. ^ Marden, Duane. "Chang  (Kentucky Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  121. ^ Marden, Duane. "Hair Raiser  (Ocean Park Hong Kong)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  122. ^ Marden, Duane. "Krake  (Heide Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  123. ^ Marden, Duane. "Raptor  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  124. ^ Marden, Duane. "Starry Sky Ripper  (Joyland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  125. ^ Marden, Duane. "Leviathan  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  126. ^ Marden, Duane. "OzIris  (Parc Astérix)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  127. ^ Marden, Duane. "Shambhala  (PortAdventura)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  128. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Swarm  (Thorpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  129. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Eagle  (Dollywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  130. ^ Marden, Duane. "X-Flight  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  131. ^ Marden, Duane. "GateKeeper  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  132. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nitro  (Adlabs Imagica)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved April 9, 2013.
  133. ^ Marden, Duane. "Banshee  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
  134. ^ Marden, Duane. "Parrot Coaster  (Ocean Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  135. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flug der Dämonen  (Heide Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  136. ^ Marden, Duane. "Family Inverted Coaster  (Happy Valley)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  137. ^ Marden, Duane. "Harpy  (Xishuangbanna Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
  138. ^ Marden, Duane. "Rougarou  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  139. ^ Marden, Duane. "Acrobat  (Nagashima Spa Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  140. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunderbird  (Holiday World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  141. ^ Marden, Duane. "Oblivion The Black Hole  (Gardaland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
  142. ^ Marden, Duane. "Baron 1898  (Efteling)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 28, 2014.
  143. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fury 325  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
  144. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mako  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  145. ^ Marden, Duane. "The Flying Dinosaur  (Universal Studios Japan)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  146. ^ Marden, Duane. "Valravn  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  147. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dragon's Run  (Dragon Park Ha Long)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  148. ^ Marden, Duane. "Time Machine  (Freestyle Music Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  149. ^ Marden, Duane. "Patriot  (California's Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  150. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Wing Coaster  (Happy Valley Chongqing)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  151. ^ Marden, Duane. "Draken  (Gyeongju World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  152. ^ Marden, Duane. "Western Regions Heaven  (Happy Valley Chengdu)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  153. ^ Marden, Duane. "Valkyria  (Liseberg)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  154. ^ Marden, Duane. "Family Inverted Coaster  (Happy Valley Beijing)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  155. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wing Coaster  (Colourful Yunnan Happy World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  156. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fēnix  (Toverland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  157. ^ Marden, Duane. "Heaven's Wing  (Huayi Brothers Movie World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  158. ^ Marden, Duane. "Yukon Striker  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  159. ^ Marden, Duane. "Firebird  (Six Flags America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  160. ^ Marden, Duane. "Iron Wolf  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2012.
  161. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Hot Go Dreamworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  162. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Hot Go Dreamworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  163. ^ Marden, Duane. "Music Roller Coaster  (Happy Valley Beijing)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  164. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Wanda City Wuxi)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  165. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Happy Valley Nanjing)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.
  166. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Hersheypark)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  167. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mako  (SeaWorld San Diego)". Roller Coaster DataBase.
  168. ^ Marden, Duane. "Unknown  (Gröna Lund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved November 27, 2015.

External linksEdit