Raja Bharmal, also known as Bihari Mal, Bhagmal and Bihar Mal, (c. 1498 – 27 January 1574) was a Rajput ruler of Amer, which was later known as Jaipur, in the present-day Rajasthan state of India.

Reign1 June 1548 – 27 January 1574
SuccessorBhagwant Das
BornAmer, Amber
Died27 January 1574
Agra, Mughal Empire
  • Bhagwant Das (1537–1589)
  • Bhagwan Das Bankawat
  • Mariam-uz-Zamani (1542–1623)
  • Khanghar Singh (1539–1592)
  • Jaggnath Singh (1540–1612)
  • Raj Singh (1544–1582)
  • Sukanya of Dwangarh (1546–1611)
  • Rajkumari Shivani (1550–1605)
FatherRaja Prithviraj Singh I
MotherRani Apoorva Devi

Bharmal was the father of Mariam-uz-Zamani (also called Harkha Bai or Hira Kunwari), who was married to the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1562, and was the mother of emperor Jahangir. This was a significant event in Hindu-Muslim relations at the time. He died in Agra in 1574.[2]

Family and accessionEdit

Bharmal was the fourth son of Raja Prithviraj or Prithvi Singh I of Amer (r. 17 January 1503 – 4 November 1527) , and Rani Apoorva Devi or Bala Bai of the Rathore clan, the daughter of Rao Lunkaran of the Bikaner royal family.[3]

After the death of Prithviraj in 1527, Raja Puranmal (r. 5 November 1527 – 19 January 1534), his eldest son by Tanwar queen succeeded him. He died at the Battle of Mandrail on 19 January 1534, while helping the Mughal Emperor Humayun recapture the fort of Bayana. He had a son named Sujamal. But Sujamal could not succeed his father as he was a minor at that time.

Puranmal was succeeded by his younger brother Bhim Singh (r.1534 - 22 July 1537), the next eldest son of Rani Apoorva Devi. The dispossessed Sujamal took shelter with the Tanwar royal family. Bhim Singh was succeeded by his eldest son, Ratan Singh (r. 1537 - 15 May 1548). He was killed by his half-brother Askaran, who became the king next day. But the nobles of Amber joined to depose him and on 1 June 1548, aged around 50, Bharmal became the ruler of Amer.[3]

Situation at the beginning of the reignEdit

When Bharmal's eldest brother Puranmal succeeded the throne in 1527, the political scenario was very uncertain. The Rajput confederacy led by Rana Sanga suffered great loss in the battle of Khanua. The Mughal power was not firmly established in India. There were other Muslim rulers, who were gaining power to oust Humayun, the son of Babur out of India. Bahadur Shah of Gujarat and Sher Khan (later Sher Shah Suri) were prominent among them.[citation needed]

Puranmal was the first person to realize that Mughals were trustworthy. They were not like the old stock of Muslim rulers. It was Puranmal who first offered services of Rajputs to Mughals. Thus, Kachwahas became the first allies of Mughals in Rajputana. Bharmal's policy towards Mughals was an extension of his brother's policy.[citation needed]

Bahadur Shah was pursuing a policy of expansion. He helped and sent Tatar Khan Lodi to occupy the fort of Bayana. He occupied the fort of Bayana which was under Mughal occupation since the time of Babur. Humayun sent his brothers Askari Mirza and Hindal Mirza to recapture the fort. Puranmal, then Raja of Amer, fought in the battle called the Battle of Mandrail in favour of Mughals in 1534.[citation needed]


It appears from the recorded history that he did not inherit his father according to the principles laid down by Manu. Instead he was a collective choice from all the Kachwahas, dominated at that time by Bara Kotris. The wise emperor Akbar pursued a liberal policy towards his Hindu subjects and Raja Bharmal's descendants offered their services to Mughals which became a strong empire, due to Kachwaha support. The Dhundhar region of Rajputana never faced a war until Aurangzeb's reign.

Akbar and BharmalEdit

In 1556, Bharmal helped Majnun Khan Qaqshal, a Mughal commandant, which Majnun Khan later narrated to Akbar. Akbar subsequently invited Bharmal to the court of Delhi and rewarded him. In 1562, the situation became critical for the Kachwahas when Mirza Muhammad Sharaf-ud-din Hussain was appointed Mughal governor of Mewat. Sujamal reached his court and received his support for winning the throne of Amer. Mirza led a large army to Amber and Bharmal was in no position to resist. He forced the Kachwahas to leave Amber and live in forests and hills. Bharmal promised a fixed tribute to Mirza and handed over his own son, Jagannath, and his nephews, Raj Singh and Khangar Singh, as hostages for its due payment.[4]

When Sharaf-ud-din was preparing to invade Amber again, Bharmal met Akbar's courtier, Chaghtai Khan. Luckily for the Raja of Amer, Akbar was at Karavali (a village near Agra) on his way from Agra to Ajmer (on a pilgrimage to the dargah of Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti), Chaghtai Khan pleaded on behalf of Bharmal for his protection, which he agreed and summoned the Raja to his court. Accordingly, the latter's brother, Rupsi Bairagi and his son, Jaimal, met Akbar at Dausa and Bharmal himself met Akbar at his camp at Sanganer on 20 January 1562.

Chaghtai Khan introduced Bharmal and his relatives, who proposed to give his eldest daughter, Hira Kunwari, in marriage to Akbar. Akbar consented and ordered Chaghtai Khan to make the necessary arrangements. Upon Akbar's arrival in Sambhar on his return journey from Ajmer, Mirza surrendered his hostages Jagannath, Raj Singh and Khangar to Akbar. Bharmal also reached Sambhar and on 6 February 1562, his daughter was married to Akbar.

On 10 February 1562 Akbar's new Kachwaha relatives again came to his camp at Ratanpura to take formal leave from him. Here, Man Singh was presented to him. From there, Bhagwant Das, Man Singh and a number of their relatives accompanied Akbar to Agra.[4]


Raja Bharmal was succeeded by his eldest son, Raja Bhagwant Das, after his death.



  1. ^ Agrawal, C. M. (1986). Akbar and his Hindu officers: a critical study. ABS Publications. p. 27.
  2. ^ Afzal Husain, The Nobility Under Akbar and Jahāngīr: A Study of Family Groups (1999), p. 90
  3. ^ a b Sarkar, Jadunath (1994) [1984]. A History of Jaipur (Reprinted ed.). Orient Longman. pp. 31–34. ISBN 81-250-0333-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. ^ a b Sarker (1994, pp. 34–7)
  5. ^ a b Sarker (1994, p. 33, [1])
  6. ^ Sarker (1994, p. 31, [2])
  7. ^ Singh, Rajvi Amar (1992). Mediaeval History of Rajasthan: Western Rajasthan. p. 1518.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  8. ^ Prasad, Rajiva Nain (1966). Raja Man Singh of Amber. p. 3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  9. ^ Singh (1992, p. 209, [3])
  10. ^ Saran, Richard; Ziegler, Norman P. (2001). The Meṛtīyo Rāṭhoṛs of Meṛto, Rājasthān: Biographical notes with introduction, glossary of kinship terms and indexes. p. 194. ISBN 9780891480853.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)