Bela Palanka

Bela Palanka (Serbian Cyrillic: Бела Паланка, pronounced [bɛ̂ːlaː pǎlaːŋka]) is a town and municipality located in the Pirot District of southeastern Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the population of the town is 8,143, and the population of the municipality is 12,126. In ancient times, the town was known as Remesiana in Dacia Mediterranea. The name Bela Palanka means 'white town'.

Bela Palanka
Бела Паланка (Serbian)
View from heights
View from heights
Coat of arms of Bela Palanka
Location of the municipality of Bela Palanka within Serbia
Location of the municipality of Bela Palanka within Serbia
Coordinates: 43°13′N 22°19′E / 43.217°N 22.317°E / 43.217; 22.317Coordinates: 43°13′N 22°19′E / 43.217°N 22.317°E / 43.217; 22.317
Country Serbia
RegionSouthern and Eastern Serbia
DistrictPirot
Settlements46
Government
 • MayorGoran Miljković (SNS)
Area
 • Urban8.28 km2 (3.20 sq mi)
 • Municipality551 km2 (213 sq mi)
Elevation
394 m (1,293 ft)
Population
 (2011 census)[2]
 • Town
8,143
 • Town density980/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 • Municipality
12,126
 • Municipality density22/km2 (57/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
18310
Area code+381(0)18
Car platesPI
Websitewww.belapalanka.org.rs


HistoryEdit

Ancient Bela PalankaEdit

The town was originally settled by the Dacians and was known under the ancient name of Aiadava or Aeadaba. Thracians inhabited the area until their assimilation into contemporary ethnic groups in the area.

After the Romans conquered Moesia in 75 BC, the new castrum (imperial domain with estates) and municipium was known initially as Ulpianorum and then Remesiana[3] (Moesi) and stood along the Via Militaris between Naissus and Serdica.

Emperor Justinian had following strongholds in the district of Remesiana:

Brittura Subaras Lamponiana Stronges Dalmatas Primiana Phrerraria Topera Tomes Cuas Tzertzenutzas Stens Aeadaba Destreba Pretzouries Cumudeba Deurias Lutzolo Rhepordenes Spelonca Scumbro Briparo Tulcoburgo Longiana Lupophantana Dardapara Burdomina Grinciapana Graecus Drasimarca

The patron saint of Romania, Nicetas of Remesiana, was a 4th-century bishop at Remesiana. Peter the Hermit was defeated by the Byzantines in the north and regrouped at an evacuated Bela Palanka, gathering the harvest before heading to Constantinople.[4]

Excavations include well-preserved castrum dating to 4th century and a hoard of 260 coins minted during the rule of Constantine I, Theodosius I, Tiberius Claudius Nero.[5] During the 1096 People's Crusade the town, left abandoned by its inhabitants, was briefly occupied by the pilgrims led by Peter the Hermit, Walter of Breteuil and Rainald of Breis.

Ottoman EmpireEdit

During the centuries of Ottoman control, Bela Palanka was the site of a major caravanserai (or han) along the Tsarigrad Road. Ottoman authorities ordered the first such caravanserai be built in the settlement (then named Izvor) from wood in 1598-99, during the Long Turkish War, largely due to persistent attacks on travelers by hajduks. This structure deteriorated after a few decades and was replaced by a larger and more durable caravanserai made of stone, commissioned by the local governor, Musa Pasha. This han differed from others in the region because of its large size and because it had separate large rooms for harems of dignitaries. The interior of the han was painted by an artist brought from Buda. To honor its patron, the name of the settlement was then changed to Musa-paša Palanka, from which the town's current name was derived.[6]

Modern SerbiaEdit

From 1929 to 1941, Bela Palanka was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

GeographyEdit

Bela Palanka is a small town in the southeast of the country and is surrounded by countryside and mountains. The town is accessible from the nearby city of Niš by the Niš Express buses that run from Niš to Pirot, Babušnica, Dimitrovgrad, and Sofia.

ClimateEdit

Bela Palanka has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb), that's very close to a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb).

Climate data for Bela Palanka
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3.6
(38.5)
6.4
(43.5)
12.1
(53.8)
16.8
(62.2)
21.6
(70.9)
25.3
(77.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.9
(82.2)
24.2
(75.6)
18.1
(64.6)
9.7
(49.5)
4.9
(40.8)
16.5
(61.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
2.5
(36.5)
6.9
(44.4)
11.1
(52.0)
15.7
(60.3)
19.1
(66.4)
20.8
(69.4)
20.9
(69.6)
17.3
(63.1)
12.4
(54.3)
5.8
(42.4)
1.8
(35.2)
11.2
(52.2)
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
1.7
(35.1)
5.4
(41.7)
9.8
(49.6)
12.9
(55.2)
14.1
(57.4)
13.9
(57.0)
10.5
(50.9)
6.7
(44.1)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
5.9
(42.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.6)
39
(1.5)
41
(1.6)
49
(1.9)
67
(2.6)
65
(2.6)
49
(1.9)
41
(1.6)
42
(1.7)
42
(1.7)
55
(2.2)
52
(2.0)
582
(22.9)
Source: Climate-Data.org [7]


SettlementsEdit

Aside from the town of Bela Palanka, the municipality consists of the following villages:

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194829,641—    
195328,756−0.60%
196124,982−1.74%
197121,325−1.57%
198118,744−1.28%
199116,447−1.30%
200214,381−1.21%
201112,126−1.88%
Source: [8]

According to the 2011 census results, the municipality has 12,126 inhabitants.

Ethnic groupsEdit

The ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic group Population %
Serbs 10,395 85.94%
Romani 1,418 11.72%
Muslims 10 0.08%
Macedonians 8 0.07%
Bulgarians 8 0.07%
Others 257 2.12%
Total 12,126

EconomyEdit

The following table gives a preview of total number of registered people employed in legal entities per their core activity (as of 2018):[9]

Activity Total
Agriculture, forestry and fishing 14
Mining and quarrying 41
Manufacturing 371
Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply 15
Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities 70
Construction 173
Wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles 232
Transportation and storage 69
Accommodation and food services 92
Information and communication 20
Financial and insurance activities 13
Real estate activities -
Professional, scientific and technical activities 55
Administrative and support service activities 45
Public administration and defense; compulsory social security 141
Education 159
Human health and social work activities 120
Arts, entertainment and recreation 66
Other service activities 78
Individual agricultural workers 23
Total 1,798

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  2. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2011-01-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ God's war: a new history of the Crusades-Christopher Tyerman 2006
  5. ^ Ancient diseases: the elements of palaeopathology-Srboljub Živanović 1982
  6. ^ Florian Riedler; Nenad Stefanov (6 April 2021). The Balkan Route: Historical Transformations from Via Militaris to Autoput. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-061706-1.
  7. ^ "Climate: Bela Palanka, Serbia". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  8. ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
  9. ^ "MUNICIPALITIES AND REGIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, 2019" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. 25 December 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019.

External linksEdit