Baranya County (former)

Baranya (Hungarian: Baranya, Croatian: Baranja, Serbian: Барања / Baranja, German: Branau) was an administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its territory is now divided between present-day Baranya County of Hungary and Osijek-Baranja County of Croatia. The capital of the county was Pécs.

Baranya County
Comitatus Baranyiensis (Latin)
Baranya vármegye (Hungarian)
Komitat Baranya (German)
Baranjska županija (Croatian)
Барањска жупанија (Serbian)
County of the Kingdom of Hungary
(1000-1541, 1699-1946)
Coat of arms of Baranya
Coat of arms
Baranya.png
CapitalPécs
Area
 • Coordinates46°5′N 18°14′E / 46.083°N 18.233°E / 46.083; 18.233Coordinates: 46°5′N 18°14′E / 46.083°N 18.233°E / 46.083; 18.233
 
• 1910
5,176 km2 (1,998 sq mi)
• 1930
4,033 km2 (1,557 sq mi)
Population 
• 1910
352478
• 1930
311660
History
History 
• Established
1000
• Ottoman conquest
1541
• County recreated
1699
4 June 1920
11 April 1941
• Monarchy abolished
1 February 1946
Today part ofHungary
(4,033 km2)
Croatia
(1,143 km2)
Baranya County in the 20th century
Ethnic map of the county with data of the 1910 census (see the key in the description)

GeographyEdit

Baranya county was located in Baranya region. It shared borders with the Hungarian counties Somogy, Tolna, Bács-Bodrog and Verőce (the latter county was part of Croatia-Slavonia). The county stretched along the rivers Drava (north bank) and Danube (west bank), up to their confluence. Its area was 5,176 km2 around 1910.

Historical backgroundEdit

Baranya county arose as one of the first counties of the Kingdom of Hungary, in the 11th century. Stephen I of Hungary founded an episcopal seat here. In the 15th century, Janus Pannonius was the Bishop of Pécs. In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire conquered Baranya, and included it into the sanjak of Mohács, an Ottoman administrative unit, with the seat Turks in Hungary in the city of Mohács.

HistoryEdit

At the end of the 17th century, Baranya was captured by the Habsburg monarchy, and was included in the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary after the Battle of Mohács (1687). Under the Habsburg Rule, German settlers were taken from different parts of Germany, the so-called Danube Swabians.

The Stifolder or Stiffoller Shvove are a Roman Catholic subgroup of the so-called Danube Swabians. Their ancestors once came ca. 1717–1804 from the Hochstift Fulda and surroundings, (Roman Catholic Diocese of Fulda), and settled in the Baranya.[1] They held their own German dialect and culture, until the end of WW2. After WW2, the majority of Danube Swabians were expelled to Allied-occupied Germany and Allied-occupied Austria subsequent to the Potsdam Agreement.[2] Only a few people can speak the old Stiffolerisch Schvovish dialect. Also a salami is named after these people.[3]

In 1918, the entire Baranya was captured by Serbian troops and was administered by the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, but as a Republic, see: Baranya-Baja Republic.

By the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, the territory of the county was divided between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Yugoslavia in 1929) and Hungary. The south-east of the county was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, while the remainder was assigned to Hungary.

The former Yugoslav part of the pre-1920 county was occupied and annexed by Hungary during World War II and the pre-1920 borders of Baranya county were restored in 1941. The post-1920 borders were restored again after World War II and the territory of the county reduced again.

Until the end of World War II, the Inhabitants was all Catholic Danube Swabians, also called locally as Stifolder, because the majority of there Ancestors once came at the 17th century and 18th century from Fulda (district).[4] Mostly of the former German Settlers was expelled to Allied-occupied Germany and Allied-occupied Austria in 1945–1948, about the Potsdam Agreement.[5] Anyway a big Germans of Hungary Minority live in Baranya today.

Since 1991, when Croatia became independent from Yugoslavia, the Yugoslav part of pre-1920 Baranya county is part of Croatia. Between 1991 and 1995 it was under occupation of rebel Croatian Serbs, while from 1995 through 1998 the United Nations administered that area (United Nations Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium) as a transitional body. In modern times there is a Magyar and Serb minority in Croatian Baranja and a Croatian minority in Hungarian Baranya. Roma minority is present in both parts, as well as Germans (mostly until 1945). Today, the present Hungarian county of Baranya also include some lands in the west that were not part of the historic Baranya county (after World War II most of the district of Szigetvár – previously part of Somogy county – and some other localities was transferred to Baranya county).

 
The formation of modern Baranya County. (1) Territory assigned from Somogy County to Baranya County in 1950.

DemographicsEdit

In 1900, the county had a population of 334,764 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:[6]

Total:

According to the census of 1900, the county was composed of the following religious communities:[7]

Total:

In 1910, the county had a population of 352,478 people and was composed of the following linguistic communities:[8]

According to the census of 1910, the county was composed of the following religious communities:[9]

SubdivisionsEdit

In the early 20th century, the subdivisions of Baranya county were:

Districts (járás) Population by 1910 census
District Capital Settlements Population by ethnicity Population by religion
Baranyavár District Dárda Albertfalu  • Baranyabán  • Baranyaszentistván  • Baranyavár  • Bellye  • Benge  • Bezedek  • Bolmány  • Csúza  • Dárda  • Hercegszentmárton  • Hercegszőlős  • Illocska  • Ivándárda  • Jenőfalva  • Kácsfalu  • Karancs  • Keskend  • Kisdárda  • Kiskőszeg  • Kislippó  • Kopács  •  • Lapáncsa  • Laskafalu  • Laskó  • Lippó  • Lőcs  • Magyarbóly  • Németmárok  • Pélmonostor  • Sárok  • Sepse  • Várdaróc  • Villány  • Virágos  • Vörösmart

total: 49,135

  Germans of Hungary 19,804 (40.30%)
  Hungarians 18,203 (37.04%)
  Serbs in Hungary 7,226 (14.70%)
  Šokci 2,753 (5.60%)
  Croats of Hungary 486 (0.98%)
  Romani people in Hungary 439 (0.89%)
  Slovaks in Hungary 63 (0.12%)
  Romanians in Hungary 6 (0.01%)
  Turks in Hungary 155 (0.31%)

total: 49,135

  Roman Catholics 31,892 (64.90%)
  Eastern orthodox 7,623 (15.51%)
  Calvinists 6,701 (13.63%)
  Lutherans 1,961 (3.99%)
  Jewish 719 (1.46%)
  Eastern catholics 31 (0.06%)
  Unitarians 3 (0.00%)
  Muslims 205 (0.41%)
Hegyhát District Sásd Abaliget  • Ág  • Alsómocsolád  • Bakóca  • Bános  • Baranyajenő  • Baranyaszentgyörgy  • Barátúr  • Bikal  • Császta  • Csikóstőttős  • Egyházbér  • Felsőegerszeg  • Felsőmindszent  • Gerényes  • Godisa  • Gödre  • Gödreszentmárton  • Gyümölcsény  • Hegyhátmaróc  • Hetvehely  • Hörnyék  • Husztót  • Jágónak  • Kán  • Kaposszekcső  • Karácodfa  • Kárász  • Kisbattyán  • Kisbeszterce  • Kisbodolya  • Kishajmás  • Kishertelend  • Kisvaszar  • Komló  • Kovácsszénája  • Köblény  • Liget  • Mágocs  • Magyaregregy  • Magyarhertelend  • Magyarszék  • Mánfa  • Mecsekjánosi  • Mecsekpölöske  • Mecsekrákos  • Mecsekszakál  • Mekényes  • Meződ  • Nagyhajmás  • Németszék  • Okorvölgy  • Orfű  • Oroszló  • Palé  • Pécsbudafa  • Ráckozár  • Sásd  • Szágy  • Szalatnak  • Szárász  • Szászvár  • Szatina  • Szentkatalin  • Szopok  • Tarrós  • Tekeres  • Tékes  • Tófű  • Tormás  • Varga  • Vásárosdombó  • Vázsnok  • Vékény

total: 46,882

  Hungarians 23,256 (49.60%)
  Germans of Hungary 22,972 (48.99%)
  Romani people in Hungary 386 (0.82%)
  Croats of Hungary 72 (0.15%)
  Slovaks in Hungary 25 (0.05%)
  Serbs in Hungary 9 (0.01%)
  Romanians in Hungary 3 (0.00%)
  Turks in Hungary 159 (0.33%)

total: 46,882

  Roman Catholics 38,949 (83.07%)
  Lutherans 7,187 (15.32%)
  Jewish 528 (1.12%)
  Calvinists 168 (0.35%)
  Eastern orthodox 15 (0.03%)
  Eastern catholics 9 (0.01%)
  Unitarians 5 (0.01%)
  Muslims 21 (0.04%)
Mohács District Mohács Babarc  • Bár  • Baranyakisfalud  • Borjád  • Cseledoboka  • Dályok  • Darázs  • Dunaszekcső  • Hercegmárok  • Hercegszabar  • Izsép  • Kisnyárád  • Kölked  • Lánycsók  • Liptód  • Majs  • Mohács  • Nagybodolya  • Nagynyárád  • Németbóly  • Pócsa  • Rácgörcsöny  • Ráctőttős  • Somberek  • Szajk  • Udvar  • Versend

total: 56,909

  Germans of Hungary 21,951 (38.57%)
  Hungarians 20,699 (36.37%)
  Šokci 9,219 (16.19%)
  Serbs in Hungary 4,312 (7.57%)
  Croats of Hungary 421 (0.73%)
  Romani people in Hungary 136 (0.23%)
  Slovaks in Hungary 24 (0.04%)
  Romanians 2 (0.00%)
  Turks in Hungary 145 (0.25%)

total: 56,909

  Roman Catholics 48,028 (84.39%)
  Eastern orthodox 4,535 (7.96%)
  Calvinists 2,338 (4.10%)
  Jewish 1,319 (2.31%)
  Lutherans 571 (1.00%)
  Eastern catholics 32 (0.05%)
  Unitarians 3 (0.00%)
  Muslims 83 (0.14%)
Pécs District Pécs
Pécsvárad District Pécsvárad
Siklós District Siklós
Szentlőrinc District Szentlőrinc
Urban counties (törvényhatósági jogú város)
Pécs

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.worldcat.org/title/ihr-herz-schlagt-im-suden-1-stifoller-kolonisten-in-der-tolnau-und-branauungarn-1717-1804-so-konnte-es-gewesen-sein/oclc/311888384[bare URL]
  2. ^ "Das Hochstift Fulda".
  3. ^ "The best salami in Hungary". 25 July 2018.
  4. ^ https://www.feked.hu/etc/Stifolder_tortenet.pdf.[bare URL PDF]
  5. ^ "Die Vertreibung – Landsmannschaft der Deutschen aus Ungarn".
  6. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  7. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved 6 December 2012.
  8. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved 16 June 2012.
  9. ^ "KlimoTheca :: Könyvtár". Kt.lib.pte.hu. Retrieved 16 June 2012.