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Beli Manastir is a town in eastern Croatia. It is the principal town of the Croatian part of Baranja, located in the Osijek-Baranja County.

Beli Manastir
Grad Beli Manastir
Town of Beli Manastir
Beli Manastir Sports Hall
Beli Manastir Sports Hall
Beli Manastir is located in Croatia
Beli Manastir
Beli Manastir
Location of Beli Manastir in Croatia
Coordinates: 45°46′N 18°36′E / 45.767°N 18.600°E / 45.767; 18.600Coordinates: 45°46′N 18°36′E / 45.767°N 18.600°E / 45.767; 18.600
Country Croatia
RegionBaranya (Podunavlje)
CountyZastava Osječko-baranjske županije.png Osijek-Baranja
Government
 • MayorTomislav Rob (HDZ)
 • City Council
Area
 • Town55 km2 (21 sq mi)
Elevation
100 m (300 ft)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Town10,068
 • Urban
8,049
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
31300 Beli Manastir
Area code(s)(+385) 31

NameEdit

The name means "white monastery" in Serbo-Croatian. Originally called Monoštor, the current name was adopted in 1923. It is also known as Pélmonostor in Hungarian, Manoster in German.

Other names formerly used for the town were: Pél, Bell, and Monostor. All names are connected with monasteries that existed in history at this location. The first monastery was built in the 9th century during the rule of Slavic duke Kocelj but was later razed, and all that remained of it was pil (obelisk in English), hence the later Hungarian name Pél, which was a version of the Slavic word.

HistoryEdit

In the 9th century, this area was part of the Slavic Principality of Lower Pannonia and Slavic monastery was situated here. Monastery was founded during the visit of Cyril and Methodius, who spread Christianity among Slavs. After Methodius died, his students were expelled and the monastery was razed.

After the arrival of the Hungarians in the 10th century, this area was included into the newly founded Hungarian state and the settlement was built at this locality. The town was first mentioned in 1212 under name Pél. During Hungarian administration, another monastery was built here (in the 13th century), but it was destroyed by the Mongols in 1241. It was later rebuilt, but was again destroyed during the Ottoman conquest in the 16th century. Between 11th and 16th century, the area administratively belonged to the Baranya county.

In the 16th–17th century, area was part of the Ottoman Empire and administratively belonged to the Sanjak of Mohaç. Since the end of the 17th century, area was part of the Habsburg Monarchy and administratively belonged to the Baranya county, which was part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary.

Since 1918, the town was part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed to Yugoslavia). From 1918 to 1922, it was part of the Novi Sad county, from 1922 to 1929 part of the Bačka Oblast, and from 1929 to 1941 part of the Danube Banovina. From 1941 to 1944, it was occupied by Hungary and was administratively included into Baranya county. It was returned to Yugoslav control in 1944 and was administratively part of Vojvodina until 1945, when it was transferred to the People's Republic of Croatia.

During the Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995), Beli Manastir was occupied by Serbian paramilitaries and incorporated along with some other towns into the Republic of Serbian Krajina. It was returned to Croatian control after the war, following the short period of UN administration (1996–1998). Beli Manastir is an underdeveloped municipality which is statistically classified as the First Category Area of Special State Concern by the Government of Croatia.[2]

Town of Beli ManastirEdit

GeographyEdit

The Town of Beli Manastir is composed of 4 settlements:[1]

DemographicsEdit

1910Edit

According to the 1910 census, the town had 2,447 inhabitants, of which:[3]

1929Edit

In 1929 the population was made of:

1981Edit

53,409 total

2001Edit

The town had a population of 8,671, while total municipality population was 10,986. Ethnic composition of Beli Manastir municipality by 2001 census was:[4]

Buildings and structuresEdit

In 1966, a broadcasting mast standing 202 metres high was erected.[5]

EconomyEdit

Beli Manastir is home to the STARCO Beli steel wheel factory.

Beli Manastir (settlement)Edit

Parts of settlement (hamlets)Edit

Beli Manastir, Beli Manastir-Planina, Haljevo and Palača. Till 1991. part of settlement was also Sudaraž which is now independent settlement.

PopulationEdit

Population data graph 1857.-2011.[6]

 


Ethnic composition, 1991. censusEdit

Beli Manastir
1991

total: 10,146

  Serbs 3,770 (37.15%)
  Croats 3,262 (32.15%)
  Yugoslavs 1,303 (12.84%)
  Hungarians 865 (8.52%)
  Montenegrins 146 (1.43%)
  Germans 86 (0.84%)
  Slovenes 78 (0.76%)
  Muslims by nat. 58 (0.57%)
  Albanians 55 (0.54%)
  Slovaks 18 (0.17%)
  Roma 11 (0.10%)
  Macedonians 10 (0.09%)
  Ukrainians 9 (0.08%)
  Romanians 8 (0.07%)
  Czechs 5 (0.04%)
  Russians 5 (0.04%)
  Poles 4 (0.03%)
  Bulgarians 2 (0.01%)
  Ruthenians 2 (0.01%)
  Greeks 1 (0.00%)
  Italians 1 (0.00%)
  others 11 (0.10%)
  ethnically undecl. 369 (3.63%)
  regionaly declared 11 (0.10%)
  unknown 56 (0.55%)

Austria-Hungary 1910. censusEdit

Beli Manastir
Population by ethnicity Population by religion

total: 2,447

  Germans 1,496 (61.1%)
  Serbs 478 (19.53%)
  Hungarians 443 (18.10%)
  Croats 6 (0.24%)
  others 24 (0.98%)

total: 2,447

  Roman Catholics 1,871 (76.46%)
  Eastern Orthodox 478 (19.53%)
  Lutherans 40 (1.63%)
  Jewish 34 (1.38%)
  Calvinists 21 (0.85%)
  Eastern Catholics 2 (0.08%)
  Unitarians 1 (0.04%)
  • In 1910. census together with settlement Sudaraž.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Population by Age and Sex, by Settlements, 2011 Census: Beli Manastir". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012.
  2. ^ Lovrinčević, Željko; Davor, Mikulić; Budak, Jelena (June 2004). "AREAS OF SPECIAL STATE CONCERN IN CROATIA- REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT DIFFERENCES AND THE DEMOGRAPHIC AND EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS". Ekonomski pregled, Vol.55 No.5-6. Archived from the original on 18 August 2018. Retrieved 25 August 2018.
  3. ^ "Talma Kiadó". Talmakiado.hu. Archived from the original on 14 January 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  4. ^ "SAS Output". Dzs.hr. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  5. ^ Nicolas Janberg (22 July 2014). "Beli Manastir TV Tower (Beli Manastir, 1966) | Structurae". En.structurae.de. Retrieved 22 December 2016.
  6. ^ Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857.-2001., www.dzs.hr Archived 5 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine

LiteratureEdit

  • Book: "Narodnosni i vjerski sastav stanovništva Hrvatske, 1880–1991: po naseljima, autor: Jakov Gelo, izdavač: Državni zavod za statistiku Republike Hrvatske, 1998., ISBN 953-6667-07-X, ISBN 978-953-6667-07-9;

External linksEdit