Adjara (Georgian: აჭარა Ach’ara [at͡ʃʼara] ) or Achara, officially known as the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (Georgian: აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა Ach’aris Avt’onomiuri Resp’ublik’a [atʃʼaris avtʼonomiuri respʼublikʼa] ), is a political-administrative region of Georgia. Located in the country's southwestern corner, Adjara lies on the coast of the Black Sea near the foot of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, north of Turkey. It is an important tourist destination and includes Georgia's second most populous city of Batumi as its capital. About 350,000 people live on its 2,880 km2 (1,110 sq mi).

აჭარა (Georgian)
Autonomous Republic of Adjara
აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა (Georgian)
Sovereign stateGeorgia
Part of unified
Georgian Kingdom

9th century
Conquered by
Ottoman Empire

Ceded to Russian Empire1878
Adjar ASSR1921
Autonomous republic
within Georgia

41°39′N 42°0′E / 41.650°N 42.000°E / 41.650; 42.000
Official languagesGeorgian
Ethnic groups
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary autonomous republic

Tornike Rizhvadze
LegislatureSupreme Council
• Total
2,880 km2 (1,110 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
• 2014 census
• Density
124.6/km2 (322.7/sq mi)
HDI (2017)0.781[3]
CurrencyGeorgian lari (GEL)
Time zoneUTC+4 (UTC)
 • Summer (DST)
not observed

Adjara is home to the Adjarians, a regional subgroup of Georgians. The name can be spelled in a number of ways: Ajara, Ajaria, Adjaria, Adzharia, Atchara and Achara. Under the Soviet Union, Adjara was part of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic as the Adjarian ASSR.[4] The autonomous status of Adjara is guaranteed under article 6 of the Treaty of Kars.

History Edit

Adjara was a part of Colchis and Caucasian Iberia since ancient times. Colonized by Greeks in the 5th century BC, the region fell under Rome in the 2nd century BC. It became part of the Lazica before being incorporated into the Kingdom of Abkhazia in the 8th century AD, the latter led unification of Georgian monarchy in the 11th century.[citation needed]

The Ottomans conquered the area in 1614. The people of Adjara gradually converted to Islam in this period.[5] The Ottomans were forced to cede Adjara to the expanding Russian Empire in 1878.

After a temporary occupation by Ottoman and British (with the entrance of the British warship Liverpool) troops in 1918–1920, Adjara became part of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1920,[citation needed] and was granted autonomy under the Georgian constitution adopted in February 1921 when the Red Army invaded Georgia.[6] After a brief military conflict in March 1921, Ankara's government ceded the territory to Georgia under Article VI of Treaty of Kars on the condition that autonomy be provided for the Muslim population, while Turkish commodities were guaranteed free transit through the port of Batumi.[7] The Soviets established in 1921 the Adjarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic in accord with this clause, thus Adjara remained part of Georgia. Until 1937, it had the name Ajaristan. The autonomous republic was the only Soviet autonomy based on religion rather than ethnicity.[8]

Independent Georgia Edit

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Adjara became part of a newly independent but politically divided Republic of Georgia. It avoided being dragged into the chaos and civil war that afflicted the rest of the country between 1991 and 1993, largely due to the authoritarian rule of Adjara's leader Aslan Abashidze. Although he successfully maintained order in Adjara and made it one of the country's most prosperous regions, he was accused of involvement in organised crime—notably large-scale smuggling to fund his government and enrich himself. The central government in Tbilisi had very little say in what went on in Adjara during the presidency of Eduard Shevardnadze.[citation needed]

This changed following the Rose Revolution of 2003 when Shevardnadze was deposed in favour of the reformist opposition leader Mikheil Saakashvili, who pledged to restore the country's territorial integrity and reunite it.[9] Soon after his inauguration as president in January 2004, Saakashvili took aim at Abashidze.[10] In spring 2004, a major crisis in Adjara erupted as the central government sought to reimpose its authority on the region. It threatened to develop into an armed confrontation. However, Saakashvili's ultimata and mass protests against Abashidze's autocratic rule forced the Adjaran leader to resign in May 2004, following which he went into exile in Russia. After Abashidze's ousting, a new law was introduced to redefine the terms of Adjara's autonomy. Levan Varshalomidze succeeded Abashidze as the chairman of the government.[11]

In July 2007, the seat of the Georgian Constitutional Court was moved from Tbilisi to Batumi.[12]

In November 2007 Russia ended its two-century military presence in Georgia by withdrawing from the 12th Military Base (the former 145th Motor Rifle Division) in Batumi.[13]

Turkey is a guarantor of Adjaran autonomy based on Article 6 of the Treaty of Kars, and currently has noticeable influence in Adjara, which can be seen in the region's economy[14] and in the religious life—through the region's Muslim population.[15][16]

Law and government Edit

Logo of the Cabinet of Ministers.
Government building in Batumi.

The status of the Adjaran Autonomous Republic is defined by Georgia's law on Adjara and the region's new constitution, adopted following the ousting of Aslan Abashidze. The local legislative body is the Supreme Council. The head of the region's government—the Council of Ministers of Adjara—is nominated by the President of Georgia who also has powers to dissolve the assembly and government and to overrule local authorities on issues where the constitution of Georgia is contravened. Tornike Rizhvadze is the current head of the Adjaran government.

Administrative divisions Edit

Adjara is subdivided into six administrative units:

Name Area (km2) Population
(17 Jan 2002)
City of Batumi 64.9 121,806 152,839
Keda Municipality 452 20,024 16,760
Kobuleti Municipality 720 88,063 74,794
Khelvachauri Municipality 410 90,843 51,189
Shuakhevi Municipality 588 21,850 15,044
Khulo Municipality 710 33,430 23,327

Geography and climate Edit

Adjara is located on the south-eastern coast of the Black Sea and extends into the wooded foothills and mountains of the Lesser Caucasus. It has borders with the region of Guria to the north, Samtskhe-Javakheti to the east and Turkey to the south. Most of Adjara's territory either consists of hills or mountains. The highest mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (9,800 feet) above sea level. Around 60% of Adjara is covered by forests. Many parts of the Meskheti Range (the west-facing slopes) are covered by temperate rain forests.

Adjara is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude.

Climate Edit

Adjara is well known for its humid climate (especially along the coastal regions) and prolonged rainy weather, although there is plentiful sunshine during the spring and summer months. Adjara receives the highest amounts of precipitation both in Georgia and in the Caucasus. It is also one of the wettest temperate regions in the northern hemisphere. No region along Adjara's coast receives less than 2,200 mm (86.6 in) of precipitation per year. The west-facing (windward) slopes of the Meskheti Range receive upwards of 4,500 mm (177.2 in) of precipitation per year. The coastal lowlands receive most of the precipitation in the form of rain (due to the area's subtropical climate). September and October are usually the wettest months. Batumi's average monthly rainfall for the month of September is 410 mm (16.14 in). The interior parts of Adjara are considerably drier than the coastal mountains and lowlands. Winter usually brings significant snowfall to the higher regions of Adjara, where snowfall often reaches several meters. Average summer temperatures are between 22–24 degrees Celsius in the lowland areas and 17–21 degrees Celsius in the highlands. The highest areas of Adjara have lower temperatures. Average winter temperatures are between 4–6 degrees Celsius along the coast while the interior areas and mountains average around -3–2 degrees Celsius. Some of the highest mountains of Adjara have average winter temperatures of -8–(-7) degrees Celsius.

Economy Edit

Adjara has good land for growing tea, citrus fruits and tobacco. Mountainous and forested, the region has a subtropical climate, and there are many health resorts. Tobacco, tea, citrus fruits, and avocados are leading crops; livestock raising is also important. Industries include tea packing, tobacco processing, fruit and fish canning, oil refining, and shipbuilding.

The regional capital, Batumi, is an important gateway for the shipment of goods heading into Georgia, Azerbaijan and landlocked Armenia. The port of Batumi is used for the shipment of oil from Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Its oil refinery handles Caspian oil from Azerbaijan which arrives by pipeline to Supsa port and is transported from there to Batumi by rail. The Adjaran capital is a centre for shipbuilding and manufacturing.

Adjara is the main center of Georgia's coastal tourism industry, having displaced the northwestern province of Abkhazia since that region's de facto secession from Georgia in 1993.

Demographics Edit

Black Sea coast near the resort of Kvariati.

Population Edit

  Georgians (96%)
  Armenians (1.6%)
  Russians (1.1%)
  other (1.3%)

According to the 2014 census, the population of Adjara is 333,953.[17] The Adjarians (Ajars) are an ethnographic group of the Georgian people who speak a group of local dialects known collectively as Adjarian. The written language is Georgian.

The Georgian population of Adjara had been generally known as "Muslim Georgians" until the 1926 Soviet census which listed them as "Ajars" and counted 71,000 of them. Later, they were simply classified under a broader category of Georgians as no official Soviet census asked about religion. Today, calling them "Muslim Georgians" would be a misnomer in any case as Adjarans are nearly 55% Christian and nearly 40% Muslim (see below).

Ethnic minorities include Laz, Russians, Armenians, Pontic Greeks, Abkhaz, etc.[18]

Religion Edit

Religion in Adjara[19]

  Orthodox Christian (54.5%)
  Sunni Islam (39.8%)
  Others (5.3%)

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the re-establishment of Georgia's independence accelerated the growth of Christianity in the region, especially among the young.[20] However, there still remain Sunni Muslim communities in Adjara, mainly in the Khulo district.[citation needed] According to the 2014 Georgian national census, 54.5% were Orthodox Christians, and 39.8% Muslim.[19] The remaining were Armenian Christians (0.3%), and others (5.3%).[19]

Traditional public festivals Edit

Selimoba Edit

Selimoba is held in the village of Bako, Khulo Municipality on July 3 and commemorates the life of Selim Khimshiashvili. A concert with the participation of local amateur groups of a folk handicraft products exhibition is held during the festival. It is supported by Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of Adjara.

Shuamtoba Edit

Shuamtoba ("inter-mountain festival") is a traditional festival, which is held on the summer mountain pastures of two municipalities (Khulo and Shuakhevi), during the first weekend of every August. Horse racing, a folk handicraft exhibition and a concert involving folk ensembles are held as well.

Machakhloba Edit

Machakhloba is a Machakhela gorge festivity, held in the second half of September. It is a traditional holiday celebrated in Machakhela gorge, Khelvachauri Municipality. The festival begins at the Machakhela rifle monument (at the point of convergence of the rivers Machakhela and Chorokhi), continues in the village Machakhispiri and ends in the village Zeda Chkhutuneti.

Kolkhoba Edit

Kolkhoba is an ancient Laz festival. It is held at the end of August or at the beginning of September in Sarpi village, Khelvachauri District. The story of the Argonauts is performed on stage during the festival.

Notable people Edit

Batumi in the 1900s.

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ "census - Demographic and social characteristics". Archived from the original on 2019-08-15. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  2. ^ Circle. "Population - National Statistics Office of Georgia". Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". Retrieved 3 December 2018.
  4. ^ "1936 Constitution of the USSR, Part I".
  5. ^ Bennigsen, Alexandre; Wimbush, S. Enders (1986). Muslims of the Soviet Empire: A Guide. Indiana University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-253-33958-4.
  6. ^ "Constitution Of Georgia (1921), Article 107". Matiane. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 2022-09-05.
  7. ^ "Treaty of Kars (Treaty of Friendship between Turkey, the Socialist Soviet Republic of Armenia, the Azerbaijan Socialist Soviet Republic, and the Socialist Soviet Republic of Georgia)" (PDF). 1921-10-23. Retrieved 2022-03-03.
  8. ^ Coene, Frederik (2010). The Caucasus, an introduction (1st ed.). London: Routledge. p. 162. ISBN 9780415666831. Retrieved 2022-09-05.
  9. ^ "Saakashvili's Vows Improvements with Drastic Measures". Civil Georgia. 2004-01-25. Retrieved 2022-09-05.
  10. ^ "Georgia Has a New President". Civil Georgia. 2004-01-25. Retrieved 2022-09-05.
  11. ^ Saakashvili's Ajara Success: Repeatable Elsewhere in Georgia? (Report). International Crisis Group. 2004-08-18. pp. 6–11. ICG Europe Briefing 34. Retrieved 2022-09-05.
  12. ^ "Constitutional Court of Georgia - Brief History". Archived from the original on 2011-07-21.
  13. ^ "Russia closes last military base in Georgia". Reuters. 13 November 2007. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  14. ^ "Georgians Wary of Turkey's Rising Influence in Batumi". Eurasianet. 2017-03-09. While the government does not release figures on the levels of Turkish investment in Ajara, it represents roughly 80-90 percent of the total foreign investment in the region, a former regional government official said, speaking on condition of anonymity.
  15. ^ Balci, Bayram (18 June 2014). "Strengths and Constraints of Turkish Policy in the South Caucasus". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Turkish religious influence is notable, not only in Azerbaijan but also in the Muslim regions of Georgia (in the region of Adjara and the border areas of Azerbaijan).
  16. ^ "Islam in Georgia" (Word document). Government of the United Kingdom. Turkey's influence in the region remains strong, in part through funding provided by Ankara for local mosques
  17. ^ "census - 2014 General Population Census Results". Archived from the original on 2020-02-14. Retrieved 2017-02-01.
  18. ^ (in Georgian)Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Department of Statistics[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ a b c "census - Demographic and social characteristics". Archived from the original on 2016-08-09. Retrieved 2021-08-16.
  20. ^ Köksal, Pınar; Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Gürsoy, Hazar Ege (2019). "Religious Revival and Deprivatization in Post-Soviet Georgia: Reculturation of Orthodox Christianity and Deculturation of Islam". Politics and Religion. 12 (2): 317–345. doi:10.1017/S1755048318000585. ISSN 1755-0483. S2CID 150339133.

External links Edit