Khulo (Georgian: ხულო [xulɔ]) is a townlet (daba) in Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia, 88 km east of the regional capital Batumi, in the upper valley of the Adjaristsqali River. The town and adjoining 78 villages form the mountainous Khulo District (Rayon), which has an area of 710 km2 and a population of 23,327.[1]

Khulo
ხულო
Townlet
Khulo, Adjara, Georgia.jpg
Khulo is located in Georgia
Khulo
Khulo
Location of Khulo in Georgia
Khulo is located in Adjara
Khulo
Khulo
Khulo (Adjara)
Coordinates: 41°38′40″N 42°18′50″E / 41.64444°N 42.31389°E / 41.64444; 42.31389
Country Georgia
Autonomous RepublicAdjara
DistrictKhulo
Daba from1964
Population
 (2014)
 • Total1,007[1]
Time zoneUTC+4 (Georgian Time)

The town, formerly known as Khula and Hulo, was a merchant place located on a medieval road that linked the neighboring region of Samtskhe-Javakheti to the Black Sea coast. The Khulo area has been inhabited since ancient times, almost from the Bronze Age. Cult monuments include the Thilvani Menhir, a simple megalith building/vertical column about 20 meters tall that archaeologists think was connected to a funeral ritual. Another monument, the Kaloto Altar was found in Khulo, confirming the existence of civilization in the Khulo region in pre-Christian times. The site was built up in the Middle Ages, as evidenced by the many surviving churches, castles, and medieval arched bridges.[2]

In the 16th century, the Ottoman Empire pursued an active policy of conquest in several regions of the world, including in what is now Georgia. Georgian lands became one of the directions of Ottoman expansion on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. However, the scattered parts of the former Georgian kingdom found themselves in the orbit of the Ottoman Empire's influence at different times, and the forms of their relations with the Ottoman state were also different. Along with the entire region of Adjara, Khulo was part of the Ottoman Empire. During this period, most residents of the region converted to Islam.[3]

During Ottoman times, Khulo was a chief settlement of Upper Adjara governed by the Khimshiashvili family. In 1829, it was briefly occupied by the Russian force of General Osten-Sacken who sacked the Khimshiashvili residence before withdrawal.[4] Khulo's population, largely Islamized under the Ottomans, diminished dramatically under the Russian oppression of Islam in the 1870s. A series of floods and avalanches in the 1990s-2000s induced another wave of migration from the mountainous villages of the municipality.

In April 1929, during Soviet rule, the Muslim villagers of mountainous Adjara rose in arms against compulsory collectivization and religious persecution. The Soviet troops were invoked and the revolt was quickly put down. Thousands of Adjarians were deported from the republic. [5]

The Khulo district was established in 1965 by its current borders, and, according to the current administrative-territorial arrangement, it is called Khulo municipality. [6]

In the district are medieval historical monuments such as Khikhani Fortress (10th century) where rebel against Ottoman Empire Selim Beg Khimshiashvili defended himself until he was captured and beheaded in 1785.[7] The exact date of building Khikhani Fortress is unknown, but most scientists think it was built in some time in the 10th-13th centuries. Khikhani Fortress was one of the most important fortresses in Adjara. The castle is strategically located in a very convenient location, as it has one pedestrian access from the south-eastern side. It used to be a shelter for the local lords. [8] On the way to Khikhani Fortress there is an active monastery at Skhalta cathedral, built in the 13th century.

Besides historical monuments, Khulo is also known for the Khulo Cable Car, the fastest mode of transportation from the Khulo town center to the village named Tago. This cable car is the second-longest free span cable car in Europe. [9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Population Census 2014". www.geostat.ge. National Statistics Office of Georgia. November 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  2. ^ "History of Khulo". Glamping Tago Blog. 2021-03-19. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  3. ^ "History of Khulo". Glamping Tago Blog. 2021-03-19. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  4. ^ Allen, William Edward David & Muratov, Pavel Pavlovich (1953), Caucasian battlefields: a history of the wars on the Turco-Caucasian border, 1828-1921, p. 42. Cambridge University Press
  5. ^ "History of Khulo". Glamping Tago Blog. 2021-03-19. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  6. ^ "History of Khulo". Glamping Tago Blog. 2021-03-19. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  7. ^ "Khikhani Fortress". Glamping Tago Blog. 2021-03-19. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  8. ^ "History of Khulo". Glamping Tago Blog. 2021-03-19. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  9. ^ "Khulo Cable Car". Glamping Tago Blog. 2021-03-19. Retrieved 2021-03-19.

Coordinates: 41°39′N 42°19′E / 41.650°N 42.317°E / 41.650; 42.317