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Former countries in Europe after 1815

A map of Europe after the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, including puppet states, that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day. Each country has information separated into columns: name of the distinct country, its lifespan, the country or countries that hold all or some of the territory it once did, and further information about it.[1][2]

Contents

Article scopeEdit

The scope of this article begins in 1815, after a round of negotiations about European borders and spheres of influence were agreed upon at the Congress of Vienna.[3] The Congress of Vienna was a nine-month, pan-European meeting of statesmen who met to settle the many issues arising from the destabilising impact of the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.[4]

The immediate background was Napoleonic France's defeat and surrender in May 1814, which brought an end to twenty-five years of nearly continuous war during which France had caused the annexation or geopolitical reorganisation of myriad European microstates as well as some larger ones. The Congress of Vienna was the first of a series of international meetings that came to be known as the Concert of Europe, which was an attempt to forge a peaceful balance of power in Europe,[5] including restoring or reorganising many of the states which had previously been removed from Europe's political map.

Sovereign countriesEdit

This is a list of all the independent countries or puppet states that existed between 1815 and the present day that no longer exist. (Lifespan of each is based on that country's sovereignty. This means that those countries may have existed outside of those dates as well but not under full independence.)

Former countries Lifespan of sovereignty Today part of Notes
Anhalt (Duchy) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State.
Armenia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1920 Armenia The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Democratic Republic of Armenia was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922.
Austrian Empire 1804–1867 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia This entity founded on the domains of the Habsburg Monarchy can be regarded in constitutional law as a unitary monarchy on a differentiated federalistic basis, whereby the special position of Hungary within the framework of this federal entity was a separate realm ruled in a personal union that was not annexed or incorporated into the Empire.
Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867–1918 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina By the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary formed a joint monarchy with a Habsburg Monarch having some common institutions though leaving the status and internal affairs of the two countries separate.
Avar Khanate 13th century–1864 Russia Comprised Circassia and Dagestan; it was the last country in the Caucasus to be annexed by the Russian Empire: Dagestan in 1859 and Circassia in 1864.
Azerbaijan (Democratic Republic) 1918–1920 Azerbaijan The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922.
Baden (Grand Duchy) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members.
Bavaria (Kingdom) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members.
Belarus (People's Republic) 1918–1919 Belarus Gained independence from the Russian SFSR and quickly was swallowed by the Russian Soviets. Currently, its Rada (Council) is the oldest government in exile still functioning.
Bremen (Free City) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Brunswick (Duchy) 1815–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Carpatho-Ukraine 1938–1939 Ukraine It was an autonomous region within Czechoslovakia from late 1938 to March 15, 1939. It declared itself an independent republic on March 15, 1939, but was annexed by Hungary between March 15 and March 16, 1939, remaining under Hungarian control until the end of World War II, when it was ceded to the Soviet Union.
Cospaia 1440–1826 Italy By error, a small strip of land went unmentioned in a sale treaty, and its inhabitants promptly declared independence; nearly 400 years later it was absorbed into the Papal States and Tuscany equally.
Couto Misto 10th century–1864 Spain and Portugal Neutral territory between Portugal and Spain which was divided between Portugal and Spain in 1864.
Cretan State 1898–1913 Greece Gained independence after several rebellions against the Ottoman Empire and after only 15 years of independence joined the Kingdom of Greece.
Crimea (Republic) 2014 Ukraine (disputed with Russia) Unrecognized state which gained independence after a referendum and then joined Russia a day later.
Croatia (puppet state of Nazi Germany) 1941–1945 Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Czechoslovakia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1938
1938–1939
1945–1948
Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine Democratic unified government of the Czechs and Slovaks after World War I .
Czechoslovakia (People's Republic) 1948–1992 Czech Republic, Slovakia Communist government of the Czechs and Slovaks after World War II behind the Iron Curtain.
Danzig (League of Nations) 1920–1939 Poland Protectorate of the League of Nations; annexed by Nazi Germany during the invasion of Poland in World War II.
Gurian Republic 1905-06 Georgia Part of the Russian Empire.
German Democratic Republic 1949–1990 Germany Also known as East Germany; was the Soviet-controlled government of Germany after World War II.
Finnish Democratic Republic 1939–1940 Russia A puppet state of the Soviet Union during World War II created from southern Finland which was quickly annexed into the Soviet Union
Fiume (Free State) 1920–1924 Croatia Formed from Austro-Hungarian territory at the end of World War I, it was later divided between the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and the Kingdom of Italy.
Frankfurt (Free City) 1816–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866
Georgia (Democratic Republic) 1918–1921 Georgia The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic temporarily broke up and the Democratic Republic of Georgia was created as one of its successor states but was reunified with the other two to create the Transcaucasian SSR in 1922
Greece (Kingdom) 1832–1924
1935–1941
1944–1974
Greece, Turkey Wavering between monarchy and dictatorship the Kingdom of Greece existed three times in history always on rocky foundations
Hamburg (Free City) 1813–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Hanover (Kingdom) 1814–1866 Germany In personal union with the United Kingdom until accession of Queen Victoria in 1837; annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866.
Hesse (Grand Duchy) 1806–1867/1871 Germany Northern part became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State and then the German Empire, with the southern part joining the German Empire as well.
Hesse-Homburg 1622–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866
Hesse-Kassel 1813–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866
Hohenzollern-Hechingen 1576–1850 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1850
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 1576–1850 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1850
Italian Social Republic 1943–1945 Italy A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II
Irish Republic 1919–1922 United Kingdom, Ireland Partly recognized, revolutionary state. Declared independence from the United Kingdom after the 1918 election during the Irish War of Independence. Partitioned into the Irish Free State and United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty.
Kraków (Free City) 1815–1846 Poland Protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the Empire of Austria, later annexed into the Austrian Empire
Kuban People's Republic 1917–1920 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until it was annexed by the Russian SFSR it existed as a small short-lived country in the Northern Caucasus and has never regained its independence
Kingdom of Hungary 1000–1918
1920–1946
Hungary, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Austria, Poland The historical kingdom's territorial continuity has been altered more times during its lifespan, however was permanently restored after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. After WWI, in 1920 by the Treaty of Trianon the classic Kingdom of Hungary with its borders ended and 2/3 of her territory was repartitioned and assigned to other countries. Afterwards, a kingdom without a king, a Regency was established and since 1938 until its lifespan part of her former territories were restored.
Lichtenberg (Principality) 1815–1834 Germany Owned by a branch of the Saxe-Coburgs; sold to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1834
Lippe (Principality) 1123–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Lübeck (Free City) 1815–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Lucca (Duchy) 1815–1847 Italy Annexed by Tuscany in 1847
Massa and Carrara (Duchy) 1473–1829 Italy Annexed by Modena and Reggio in 1829
Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1352–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Free Cities of Menton and Roquebrune 1848-1849 France The Free Cities of Menton and Roquebrune seceded from Monaco in 1848. In November 1849 they were annexed by Sardinia, and in 1861 were annexed by France.
Modena and Reggio (Duchy) 1814–1859 Italy Joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy)
Moldavian Democratic Republic 1918 Moldova From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1918 and the Versailles Treaty which added this territory to the Kingdom of Romania the Moldavian Democratic Republic existed as one of the Imperial Russian successor countries in Europe
Montenegro (Kingdom) 1910–1918 Montenegro A kingdom which was annexed by Serbia during the Serbian Expansion after World War I to create Yugoslavia
Montenegro (Principality) 1878–1910 Montenegro Predecessor of the Kingdom of Montenegro
Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus 1917–1920 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1920 this country existed for a short time before annexation by the Russian SFSR and never has regained independence
Nassau (Duchy) 1806–1866 Germany Annexed by Prussia in 1866
North German Confederation Federal State 1867–1871 Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia First federal German state and predecessor of the German Empire
Oldenburg (Grand Duchy) 1180–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Ottoman Empire 1299–1923 Turkey, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Romania, Montenegro, Albania, North Macedonia, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Moldova, Ukraine, Iraq, Syria, Kuwait, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria One of the longest lasting empires of all time this empire rose out of the Near East and fluctuated drastically in territory and economic status throughout its history; it was dissolved after its defeat in World War 1.
Papal States 752–1870 Italy The entire eastern region joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy); however, the remaining strip of land along the west coast did not join Italy until it was annexed in 1870
Parma (Duchy) 1814–1859 Italy joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy)
Prussia (Kingdom) 1701–1867 Germany, Poland, Denmark, Russia Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Reuss Junior Line 1806–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a region of Anhalt)
Reuss Elder Line 1778–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a region of Anhalt)
Russian SFSR 1917–1922 Russia From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1922 the Russian SFSR was an independent communist state comprising almost all of the territory the Russian Empire had possessed in its final years; in 1922 it became the leading and dominating state in the Soviet Union until the union’s end in 1991
Saar (League of Nations) 1920–1935 Germany League of Nations mandate within Weimar Germany
Saar (French protectorate) 1947–1956 Germany French-administered region which was later given to West Germany
San Marco Republic 1848–1849 Italy Revolutionary state, existing for 17 months in 1848–49. Based on the Venetian Lagoon, it extended into most of Venetia, or the Terraferma territory of the Venetian Republic.
Sardinia (Kingdom) 1720–1861 Italy, France Comprised the Italian regions of Sardinia and Piedmont; the leading state that unified the Italian Peninsula.
Saxe-Altenburg 1826–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 1826–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld 1699–1826 Germany Merged to form Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1826
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg 1680–1826 Germany Merged to form Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1826
Saxe-Meiningen 1675–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach 1809–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Saxony (Kingdom) 1806–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Schaumburg-Lippe 1643–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Schleswig (Duchy) 1864–1866 Germany, Denmark Independence from Denmark in 1864; annexed by Prussia in 1866
Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt 1599–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Schwarzburg-Sondershausen 1599–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State (a province of Thuringia)
Serbia (Kingdom) 1882–1918 Serbia, North Macedonia Predecessor of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which was formed from the annexations of other states
Serbia (Principality) 1815–1882 Serbia Predecessor of the Kingdom of Serbia
Septinsular Republic 1800–1815 Greece An archipelagic republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under nominal Ottoman sovereignty in the Ionian Islands and then under the French Empire.
Slovak State 1939–1945 Slovakia A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs 1918 Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia A short-lived, independent country which was annexed by Serbia during the Serbian Expansion after World War I to create Yugoslavia
Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic 1918 Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan From the fall of the Russian Empire in 1917 until 1918 and the temporary breakup of the Transcaucasian DFR, it was an independent state comprising Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan all three of which gained independence and then rejoined together in 1922 to form the Transcaucasian SSR.
Trieste (Free Territory) 1947–1975 Italy, Slovenia, Croatia De facto split in 1954 between neighbouring countries Italy and Yugoslavia, it was formally removed in 1975 with an agreement between these two countries
Tuscany (Grand Duchy) 1815–1859 Italy Joined the United Provinces of Central Italy, (one of the predecessors of the Kingdom of Italy)
Two Sicilies (Kingdom) 1816–1860 Italy Comprised the Italian regions of Naples and Sicily; was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860
Ukraine (People’s Republic) 1917–1921 Ukraine Gained independence from the Russian SFSR and quickly was swallowed by the Russian Soviets
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 1922–1991 Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan One of the greatest superpowers in modern times comprising most of the territory that once was under the Russian Empire including some new territory after World War II in Europe annexed from Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia
United Kingdom of the Netherlands 1815–1839 Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg Unified sovereign state of the Dutch lands after the crush of Napoleon; only the area of Luxembourg was part of the German Confederation
United Provinces of Central Italy 1859–1860 Italy First step of Italian unification comprising Tuscany, Parma, Modena and Reggio, and the eastern region of the Papal States; was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860
United States of the Ionian Islands 1815–1864 Greece Was a state and amical protectorate of the United Kingdom. It was the successor state of the Septinsular Republic
Waldeck-Pyrmont 1180–1867 Germany Became a member of the North German Confederation Federal State
Weimar Germany 1919–1933 Germany, Poland, Russia First German democracy
West Ukrainian People's Republic 1918–1919 Ukraine Unrecognized successor state of Ukrainians after the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Württemberg (Kingdom) 1806–1871 Germany Joined the German Empire and became one of its members
Yugoslavia (Federal Republic) 1992–2006 Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia & Herzegovina Democratic Yugoslavia after the fall of communism; Bosnia & Herzegovina gained independence between 1991 and 1993; Renamed to Serbia and Montenegro in 2003.
Yugoslavia (Kingdom) 1918–1941 Serbia, Slovenia, Kosovo, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia Unified Slavic country after World War I
Yugoslavia (Socialist/Peoples's Federal Republic) 1944–1992 Serbia, Slovenia, Kosovo, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia Communist government of the south Slavic ethnicities after World War II outside of the Iron Curtain
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia 1938–1945 Czech Republic A puppet state of Nazi Germany during World War II.
First Austrian Republic 1918–1934 Austria
Federal State of Austria 1934–1938 Austria

Autonomous countries or incorporated protectoratesEdit

This is a list of all the dependencies of countries that existed between 1815 and the present day that no longer exist. (Lifespan of each is based on that country’s autonomy. This means that those countries may have existed outside of those dates as well but as independent countries.)

Former dependencies Lifespan of dependency Within present-day countries Further information
Abkhazia (Principality) 1810–1864 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 12th century and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 15th and 16th centuries; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1810 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1864
Bulgaria (Principality) 1878–1908 Bulgaria, Serbia during the Russian-Turkish Wars of 1878, and the independence of Montenegro, Serbia and Romania, Bulgaria gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire; the principality gained complete independence in 1908
Erivan (Khanate) 1604–1828 Armenia it was an autonomous region of the Persian Empire since 1604 and was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828
Finland (Grand Duchy) 1809–1918 Finland, Russia was an autonomous monarchy of the Russian Empire with the Russian Tsar as its grand duke
Guria (Principality) 1810–1829 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 15th century and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1810 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1829
Lombardy–Venetia (Kingdom) 1815–1866 Italy comprised the Italian regions of Lombardy and Venetia; an autonomous kingdom within the Austrian Empire
Montenegro (Principality) 1815–1878 Montenegro after being a puppet state of Napoleon’s Europe it regained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support
Moresnet 1816–1919 Belgium In 1816 Neutral Moresnet became a territory under common administration of the Netherlands and Prussia. The Netherlands were replaced by Belgium in 1830. After World War I in 1919 the territory was ceded to Belgium by Germany under Treaty of Versailles and formally annexed in 1920.
Nakhchevan (Khanate) 1747–1828 Azerbaijan, Armenia it was an autonomous region of the Persian Empire since 1747 and was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1828
Poland (protectorate) 1815–1830 Poland, Lithuania was an autonomous monarchy of the Russian Empire with the Russian Tsar as its king; at home it was called the ‘Kingdom of Poland’ but internationally known as Congress Poland and functioned more like a protectorate
Romania (Principality) 1859–1878 Romania in 1859 Moldovia and Wallachia unified into the United Principalities and gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support
Samegrelo (Principality) 1803–1857 Georgia the principality was actually in existence since the 4th century BC and even managed to keep its autonomous home rule after being conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century; the autonomous principality was transferred to the Russian Empire in 1803 and was completely dissolved and assimilated into Russia by 1857
Serbia (Principality) 1817–1878 Serbia a rebellion broke out in 1804 and 1817 Serbia gained autonomous status within the Ottoman Empire until its independence in 1878 with Russian support

Proposed statesEdit

This is a list of all the independent countries that could or would have existed between 1815 and the present day that for some reason or another never did.

Proposed states Proposed formation Current states Notes
United Baltic Duchy 1918 Estonia and Latvia idea first brought forth by the Germans but was rejected after the Versailles Treaty and the Baltic Region became the three present day countries
United States of Greater Austria 1905 Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia concept brought forth by the Habsburgs in reaction to tensions within the empire of autonomy; the autocratic empire would be changed into a united autonomous country where each nation governed itself with some support from a much weaker Habsburg monarchy

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ This information is based on the main articles on these former countries.
  2. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2010-02-25.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
  4. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
  5. ^ Bloy, Marjie (30 April 2002). "The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814 – 8 June 1815". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2009-01-09.

External linksEdit