Automatic for the People

Automatic for the People is the eighth studio album by American alternative rock band R.E.M., released by Warner Bros. Records on October 5, 1992, in the United Kingdom and Europe, and on the following day in the United States. R.E.M. began production on the album while their previous album, Out of Time (1991), was still ascending top albums charts and achieving global success. Aided by string arrangements from John Paul Jones and conducted by George Hanson, Automatic for the People features ruminations on mortality, loss, mourning, and nostalgia.

Automatic for the People
Studio album by
ReleasedOctober 5, 1992 (1992-10-05)[1]
RecordedJune 1991 – July 1992
LabelWarner Bros.
R.E.M. chronology
The Best of R.E.M.
Automatic for the People
The Automatic Box
Singles from Automatic for the People
  1. "Drive"
    Released: September 21, 1992[5]
  2. "Man on the Moon"
    Released: November 9, 1992[6]
  3. "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite"
    Released: February 1, 1993[7]
  4. "Everybody Hurts"
    Released: April 5, 1993[8]
  5. "Nightswimming"
    Released: July 12, 1993[9]
  6. "Find the River"
    Released: November 29, 1993[10]

Upon release, it received widespread acclaim from critics, reached number two on the US Billboard 200, and yielded six singles. Rolling Stone reviewer Paul Evans concluded of the album, "This is the members of R.E.M. delving deeper than ever; grown sadder and wiser, the Athens subversives reveal a darker vision that shimmers with new, complex beauty."[11] Automatic for the People has sold more than 18 million copies worldwide.[12]

Background and recording edit

What would become Automatic for the People had its origins in the mixing sessions for R.E.M.'s previous album Out of Time, held at Paisley Park Studios in December 1990. There, demos for "Drive", "Try Not to Breathe", and "Nightswimming" were recorded.[13] After finishing promotional duties for Out of Time, the members of R.E.M. began formal work on their next album. Starting the first week of June 1991,[14] guitarist Peter Buck, bassist Mike Mills, and drummer Bill Berry met several times a week in a rehearsal studio to work on new material. Once a month they would take a week-long break. The musicians would often trade instruments: Buck would play mandolin, Mills would play piano or organ, and Berry would play bass. Buck explained that writing without drums was productive for the band members.[15] The band, intent on delivering an album of harder-rocking material after Out of Time, made an effort to write some faster rock songs during rehearsals, but came up with less than a half-dozen prospective songs in that vein.[16]

The musicians recorded the demos in their standard band configuration.[15] According to Buck, the musicians recorded about 30 songs. Lead singer Michael Stipe was not present at these sessions; instead, the band gave him the finished demos at the start of 1992.[17] Stipe described the music to Rolling Stone early that year as "[v]ery mid-tempo, pretty fucking weird [...] More acoustic, more organ-based, less drums".[18] In February, R.E.M. recorded another set of demos at Daniel Lanois' Kingsway Studios in New Orleans.[19]

The group decided to create finished recordings with co-producer Scott Litt at Bearsville Studios in Woodstock, New York, starting on March 30.[20] The band recorded overdubs in Miami and New York City. String arrangements were recorded in Atlanta.[21] After recording sessions were completed in July, the album was mixed at Bad Animals Studio in Seattle.[14] "The countermelody I sing on 'Try Not to Breathe' is one of my favorites because everybody else left," Mills explained in 2023. "I'm in the studio and looking in the control room — I know there's something that's going to be good in this spot of the song. I try all these different things and I'm not finding it. And then I hit the right thing and I locked eyes with Scott McCaughey from 40 feet away. We just both knew that was the direction. It was very thrilling to have that moment."[22] Seattle-based McCaughey spent time with the band while they were at Bad Animals Studio.[23]

Music and lyrics edit

Despite R.E.M.'s initial desire to make an album of rocking, guitar-dominated songs after Out of Time, music critic David Fricke noted that instead Automatic for the People "seems to move at an even more agonized crawl" than the band's previous release.[16] Peter Buck took the lead in suggesting the new direction for the album.[21] The album dealt with themes of loss and mourning inspired by "that sense of [...] turning 30", according to Buck. "The world that we'd been involved in had disappeared, the world of Hüsker Dü and The Replacements, all that had gone [...] We were just in a different place and that worked its way out musically and lyrically."[24] "Sweetness Follows", "Drive", and "Monty Got a Raw Deal" in particular expressed much darker themes than any of the band's previous material and "Try Not to Breathe" is about Stipe's grandmother dying.[25]

The songs "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming" feature string arrangements by former Led Zeppelin bassist John Paul Jones. Fricke stated that "ballads, in fact, define the record", and noted that the album featured only three "rockers": "Ignoreland", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite", and "Man on the Moon".[16]

"It pretty much went according to plan," Litt reported. "Compared to Monster, it was a walk in the park. Out of Time had an orchestral arrangement—so, when we did Automatic, judging where Michael was going with the words, we wanted to scale it down and make it more intimate."[26]

"Song by song [...] the whole album is referencing the 1970s," recalls Stipe. 'Everybody Hurts' was inspired by Nazareth's cover of 'Love Hurts'. 'Drive' was an homage to David Essex and 'Rock On', especially that song's early glam rock production style.[27]

Packaging edit

The album name refers to the motto of Athens, Georgia-based eatery Weaver D's Delicious Fine Foods.[28] The photograph on the front cover is not related to the restaurant: it shows a star ornament that was part of the sign for the Sinbad Motel on Biscayne Boulevard in Miami,[29] near Criteria Studios, where the bulk of the album was recorded. The motel is still there, but the star is not since it was damaged in a hurricane. The slanted support where it was once attached is still present.[30] "The album was going to be called Star at one point, hence the object on the cover that Michael had photographed and really dug," Scott Litt told Mojo. "It helps to have some kind of focus in the studio, so the photo was stuck up."[26] The star photograph is placed over an embossed image, which is also included inside the album's booklet distorted on a white background.

The interior jacket shows a two–three story circular platform that was the sign for the old Bon Aire Motel on the former Motel Row on Miami Beach. The Bon Aire and other motel row establishments have mostly been demolished for new high-rise condominiums.

The back cover features a photograph of an old building with the track listing written over at the same angle from which the building is viewed. Other photographs, taken by Anton Corbijn, feature the band members on a beach.

The compact disc release was originally issued in a jewel case with a translucent yellow CD tray, traded out with a then-standard opaque black tray on later pressings; the cassette shell was also issued with the same color. The yellow was made to match the color of the CD. The band would later use a similar method for Monster, which was released with a metallic orange CD tray on early copies (though this matched the album cover).

Release edit

A live version of "Drive" recorded at this 11/19/1992 show appears on Alternative NRG.

Automatic for the People was released in October 1992. In the United States, the album reached No. 2 on the Billboard 200 album charts.[31] The album reached No. 1 in the United Kingdom, where it topped the UK Albums Chart on four separate occasions.[32] Despite not having toured after the release of Out of Time, R.E.M. again declined to tour in support of this album. Automatic for the People has been certified four times platinum in the US (four million copies shipped), six times platinum in the United Kingdom (1.8 million shipped), and three times platinum in Australia (210,000 shipped).[33] The album has sold 3.52 million copies in the US, according to Nielsen SoundScan sales figures as of 2017.[34] In 1993, the album has sold 1.7 million copies in the US, according to Billboard's lists of 1993's best-selling albums domestically. [35]

Automatic for the People yielded six singles over the course of 1992 and 1993: "Drive", "Man on the Moon", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite", "Everybody Hurts", "Nightswimming" and "Find the River". Lead single "Drive" was the album's highest-charting domestic hit, reaching No. 28 on the Billboard Hot 100. Other singles charted higher overseas: "Everybody Hurts" charted in the top ten in the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia.[33]

A live, harder, version of "Drive" appears on the Alternative NRG, recorded at Athens' 40 Watt Club on November 19, 1992, during an invitation-only concert supporting Greenpeace Action. A re-recorded, slower version of "Star Me Kitten", featuring William S. Burroughs, was released on Songs in the Key of X: Music from and Inspired by the X-Files.

The music videos from the album were included in Parallel.

In 2005, Warner Bros. Records issued a two-disc edition of Automatic for the People which includes a CD, a DVD-Audio disc containing a 5.1-channel surround sound mix of the album done by Elliot Scheiner, and the original CD booklet with expanded liner notes.[citation needed]

A 25th anniversary edition was released on November 10, 2017, by Craft Recordings, featuring four discs of live recordings, demos, and the album remixed in Dolby Atmos, making Automatic for the People the first music release on this format.[36]

Critical reception and legacy edit

Professional ratings
Aggregate scores
Review scores
AllMusic     [38]
Chicago Tribune    [39]
The Encyclopedia of Popular Music     [40]
Entertainment WeeklyA[41]
The Independent     [42]
Los Angeles Times    [43]
Orlando Sentinel   [45]
Q     [47]
Rolling Stone     [48]

R.E.M. biographer David Buckley wrote, "Automatic for the People is regarded by Peter Buck and Mike Mills, and by most critics, as being the finest R.E.M. album ever recorded."[50] Rolling Stone gave the album five stars. Reviewer Paul Evans wrote, "Despite its difficult concerns, most of Automatic is musically irresistible."[48] Melody Maker reviewer Allan Jones commented, "It's almost impossible to write about the record without mentioning the recent grim rumors concerning Stipe's health," in reference to the rumors at the time that the singer was dying of AIDS or cancer. Jones concluded his review by noting, "Amazingly, initial reactions to Automatic for the People in this particular vicinity have been mixed [...] Psshaw to them. Automatic for the People is R.E.M. at the very top of their form."[51] Ann Powers, reviewing the album for The New York Times, noted that only three of the songs on the album went beyond mid-tempo and said, "Only 'Man on the Moon' shines with a wit that balances R.E.M.'s somber tendencies." Powers finished her review by saying, "Even in the midst of such disenchantment, R.E.M. can't resist its own talent for creating beautiful and moving sounds. [...] Buck, Mills and Berry can still conjure melodies that fall like summer sunlight. And Stipe still possesses a gorgeous voice that cannot shake its own gift for meaning."[52] Guy Garcia, for Time, also noted the album's themes of "hopelessness, anger and loss".[53] Garcia added that the album proves "that a so-called alternative band can keep its edge after conquering the musical mainstream" and that it "manages to dodge predictability without ever sounding aimless or unfocussed."[53]

Automatic for the People placed third in the Village Voice Pazz & Jop year-end critics' poll.[54] The Village Voice's Robert Christgau later gave the album a three-star honorable mention rating, indicating "an enjoyable effort consumers attuned to its overriding aesthetic or individual vision may well treasure."[55] The album was nominated for Album of the Year at the Grammy Awards of 1994, but lost to Whitney Houston's The Bodyguard.[56] It was later ranked number 247 in Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time,[57] 249 in a 2012 revised list,[58] and 96 in a 2020 reboot of the list.[59] Rolling Stone also ranked it at number 18 on its "100 Greatest Albums of the 90s" list. It was also voted number 6 in Colin Larkin's All Time Top 1000 Albums 3rd Edition (2000). In 2006, British Hit Singles & Albums and NME organised a poll of which, 40,000 people worldwide voted for the 100 best albums ever and Automatic for the People was placed at number 37 on the list.[60] The album was also included in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.[61]

"I'm not so crazy about 'The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite'," Buck reflected in 2001, "but overall I think it sounds great."[62] Buck added in 2003, in regard to the song, "We included this song on Automatic in order to break the prevailing mood of the album. Given that lyrically the record dealt with mortality, the passage of time, suicide and family, we felt that a light spot was needed. In retrospect, the consensus among the band is that this might be a little too lightweight."[63]

The 25th anniversary re-release of According to the review aggregator Metacritic, Automatic for the People received "universal acclaim" based on a weighted average score of 96 out of 100 from 17 critic scores.[64] In 2017, Pitchfork called Automatic for the People a "nakedly emotional album consumed by the anxiety of aging, the inevitability of death, the loss of innocence, and the impossibility of holding on to the past";[65] in 2022, they ranked this album the 63rd best of the 1990s.[66]

Track listing edit

Original release edit

All songs written by Michael Stipe, Peter Buck, Mike Mills, and Bill Berry, except where noted.

Side one – "Drive side"

  1. "Drive" – 4:31
  2. "Try Not to Breathe" – 3:50
  3. "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" – 4:06
  4. "Everybody Hurts" – 5:17
  5. "New Orleans Instrumental No. 1" – 2:13
  6. "Sweetness Follows" – 4:19

Side two – "Ride side"

  1. "Monty Got a Raw Deal" – 3:17
  2. "Ignoreland" – 4:24
  3. "Star Me Kitten" – 3:15
  4. "Man on the Moon" – 5:13
  5. "Nightswimming" – 4:16
  6. "Find the River" – 3:50

25th Anniversary Edition edit

In 2017, Craft Recordings and Concord Music Group released a 25th anniversary edition with exclusive demos, live songs and a blu-ray disc with music videos and a promotional video.

Live at the 40 Watt Club 11/19/92

  1. "Drive" – 4:51
  2. "Monty Got a Raw Deal" – 3:21
  3. "Everybody Hurts" – 7:18
  4. "Man on the Moon" – 6:27
  5. "Losing My Religion" – 4:31
  6. "Country Feedback" – 4:52
  7. "Begin the Begin" – 3:27
  8. "Fall on Me" – 3:34
  9. "Me in Honey" – 4:06
  10. "Finest Worksong" – 5:28
  11. "Love Is All Around" (Reg Presley) – 3:23
  12. "Funtime" (David Bowie, Iggy Pop) – 2:16
  13. "Radio Free Europe" – 4:39


  1. "Drive" – 4:43
  2. "Wake Her Up" ("The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" demo) – 4:37
  3. "Mike's Pop Song" – 4:33
  4. "C to D Slide 13" ("Man on the Moon" demo) – 5:35
  5. "Cello Scud" ("Sweetness Follows" demo) – 4:20
  6. "10K Minimal" ("Find the River" demo) – 3:33
  7. "Peter's New Song" – 3:15
  8. "Eastern 983111" – 4:02
  9. "Bill's Acoustic" – 2:53
  10. "Arabic Feedback" – 4:55
  11. "Howler Monkey" ("Ignoreland" demo) – 4:38
  12. "Pakiderm" ("New Orleans Instrumental No.1" demo) – 3:33
  13. "Afterthought" ("New Orleans Instrumental No.2" demo) – 3:56
  14. "Bazouki Song" ("Monty Got a Raw Deal" demo) – 3:04
  15. "Photograph" (Berry, Buck, Natalie Merchant, Mills, and Stipe) – 3:31
  16. "Michael's Organ" ("Everybody Hurts" demo) – 4:32
  17. "Pete's Acoustic Idea" – 1:05
  18. "6–8 Passion & Voc" ("Try Not to Breathe" demo) – 3:45
  19. "Hey Love" (Mike Voc / Demo) ("Star Me Kitten" demo) – 3:02
  20. "Devil Rides Backwards" – 5:16

Blu-Ray bonus disc

  • "Drive" music video, directed by Peter Care – 4:26
  • "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonite" music video, directed by Kevin Kerslake – 4:06
  • "Everybody Hurts" music video, directed by Jake Scott – 5:35
  • "Man on the Moon" music video, directed by Peter Care – 4:45
  • "Nightswimming" music video, UK version, directed by Jem Cohen – 4:21
  • "Find the River" music video, directed by Jodi Wille – 3:38
  • "Nightswimming" music video, R version, directed by Jem Cohen – 8:25
  • Automatic Press Kit, 1992 promotional video – 16:31

Personnel edit


Additional musicians

  • Scott Litt – harmonica and clavinet on "Ignoreland"
  • John Paul Jones – orchestral arrangements on "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonight", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming"
  • George Hanson – conductor on "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonight", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming"
  • Denise Berginson-Smith, Lonnie Ottzen, Patti Gouvas, Sandy Salzinger, Sou-Chun Su, Jody Taylor – violin on "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonight", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming"
  • Kathleen Kee, Daniel Laufer, Elizabeth Proctor Murphy – cello on "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonight", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming"
  • Knox Chandler – cello on "Sweetness Follows" and "Monty Got A Raw Deal"
  • Reid Harris, Paul Murphy, Heidi Nitchie – viola on "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonight", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming"
  • Deborah Workman – oboe on "Drive", "The Sidewinder Sleeps Tonight", "Everybody Hurts", and "Nightswimming"


  • Scott Litt – producer, mixing engineer
  • Ed Brooks – second engineer (Seattle)
  • George Cowan – second engineer (Bearsville)
  • Adrian Hernandez -Second assistant engineer (Hollywood)
  • John Keane – recording engineer (Athens)
  • Mark Howard – second engineer (New Orleans)
  • Tod Lemkuhl – second engineer (Seattle)
  • Ted Malia – second engineer (Atlanta)
  • Stephen Marcussen – mastering engineer (Precision Mastering)
  • Clif Norrell – recording engineer, mixing engineer
  • Andrew Roshberg – second engineer (Miami)

Charts edit

Certifications and sales edit

Region Certification Certified units/sales
Argentina (CAPIF)[106] Gold 30,000^
Australia (ARIA)[107] 4× Platinum 280,000^
Austria (IFPI Austria)[108] 2× Platinum 100,000*
Canada (Music Canada)[109] 7× Platinum 700,000^
France (SNEP)[110] Platinum 300,000*
Germany (BVMI)[111] 5× Gold 1,250,000^
Italy (FIMI)[112]
sales since 2009
Gold 25,000
Netherlands (NVPI)[113] 3× Platinum 300,000^
New Zealand (RMNZ)[114] Platinum 15,000^
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[115] 2× Platinum 200,000^
Sweden (GLF)[116] 2× Platinum 200,000^
Switzerland (IFPI Switzerland)[117] 2× Platinum 100,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[119] 7× Platinum 2,270,332[118]
United States (RIAA)[120] 4× Platinum 3,520,000[34]
Worldwide 18,000,000[12]

* Sales figures based on certification alone.
^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.
Sales+streaming figures based on certification alone.

See also edit

References edit

  • Black, Johnny. Reveal: The Story of R.E.M. Backbeat, 2004. ISBN 0-87930-776-5
  • Buckley, David. R.E.M.: Fiction: An Alternative Biography. Virgin, 2002. ISBN 1-85227-927-3
  • Fletcher, Tony. Remarks Remade: The Story of R.E.M. Omnibus, 2002. ISBN 0-7119-9113-8.
  • Platt, John (editor). The R.E.M. Companion: Two Decades of Commentary. Schirmer, 1998. ISBN 0-02-864935-4

Notes edit

  1. ^ "Stereogum Presents... Drive XV: A Tribute to Automatic For The People – Stereogum". Stereogum. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  2. ^ "R.E.M.'s legacy: 6 ways the band changed American music". The Week. September 22, 2011. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  3. ^ Mendelsohn, Jason and Eric Klinger (October 7, 2011). "R.E.M.'s 'Automatic for the People'". PopMatters. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
  4. ^ "R.E.M. - Automatic for the People Album Reviews, Songs & More | AllMusic". AllMusic.
  5. ^ "New Releases: Singles" (PDF). Music Week. September 19, 1992. p. 19. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  6. ^ "New Releases: Singles" (PDF). Music Week. November 7, 1992. p. 19. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  7. ^ "New Releases: Singles" (PDF). Music Week. January 30, 1993. p. 23. Retrieved July 17, 2021.
  8. ^ "New Releases: Singles" (PDF). Music Week. April 3, 1993. p. 17. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  9. ^ "New Releases: Singles". Music Week. July 10, 1993. p. 21.
  10. ^ "Single Releases" (PDF). Music Week. November 27, 1993. p. 27. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
  11. ^ Peacock, Tim (October 5, 2018). "'Automatic For The People': How R.E.M. Created A Soul-Searching Classic". Retrieved June 17, 2019.
  12. ^ a b Goodman, William (October 6, 2017). "The Enduring Empathy & Beauty of R.E.M.'s 'Automatic for the People'". Billboard. Retrieved November 11, 2019.
  13. ^ "R.E.M. Timeline - 1990/91 Concert Chronology". The R.E.M. Timeline. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  14. ^ a b Robbins, Ira. "R.E.M." Pulse!. October 1992
  15. ^ a b Fletcher, p. 208
  16. ^ a b c Fricke, David. "Living Up to Out of Time/Remote Control: Parts I and II". Melody Maker. October 3, 1992.
  17. ^ Fletcher, p. 209
  18. ^ Fricke, David. "The Rolling Stone Interview: Michael Stipe". Rolling Stone. March 5, 1992. Retrieved on March 12, 2009
  19. ^ Black, p. 190
  20. ^ Black, p. 191
  21. ^ a b Buckley, p. 216
  22. ^ Ivie, Devon (2023-09-13). "The Most Heartfelt and Goofy of R.E.M., According to Mike Mills". Vulture. Retrieved 2024-01-27.
  23. ^ "R.E.M.'S Prolific Scott McCaughey On THE NO ONES Band - AMFM". 2021-11-22. Retrieved 2024-01-27.
  24. ^ Buckley, p. 218
  25. ^ "Episode 125: R.E.M." Song Exploder. December 20, 2017.
  26. ^ a b Mojo #21, August 1995
  27. ^ Rick Rubin (April 26, 2022). "Broken Record Podcast: Michael Stipe". (Podcast). Retrieved May 15, 2022.
  28. ^ Thompson, Jim. "Weaver D's deemed 'American Classic' by James Beard Foundation". OnlineAthens. April 18, 2007. Retrieved on March 17, 2009.
  29. ^ Runtagh, Jordan (October 5, 2017). "R.E.M.'s Automatic for the People: 10 Things You Didn't Know". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  30. ^ "R.E.M. Automatic For The People "Star" Album Cover Location". feelnumb.comcom. 2009-09-04. Archived from the original on 2020-11-24. Retrieved 2016-09-21.
  31. ^ "Automatic for the People > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums". Allmusic. Retrieved on March 12, 2009.
  32. ^ Buckley, p. 230
  33. ^ a b Buckley, p. 358
  34. ^ a b Rosen, Craig (2017-09-14). "R.E.M.'s Peter Buck Talks 'Automatic for the People' Before 25th Anniversary Reissue: 'I Didn't Expect It to Be a Huge Hit'". Billboard. Retrieved 2017-10-04.
  35. ^ Inc, Nielsen Business Media (1994-01-15). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. {{cite book}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  36. ^ "R.E.M.'s Peter Buck Talks 'Automatic for the People' Before 25th Anniversary Reissue: 'I Didn't Expect It to Be a Huge Hit'". Retrieved 5 November 2021.
  37. ^ "Automatic for the People [25th Anniversary] by R.E.M. Reviews". Metacritic. November 10, 2017. Retrieved November 9, 2019.
  38. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Automatic for the People – R.E.M." AllMusic. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
  39. ^ Kot, Greg (October 4, 1992). "The New 'Automatic' Rings Low-key But Deep". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  40. ^ Larkin, Colin (2007). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195313734.
  41. ^ Sandow, Greg (October 16, 1992). "Automatic for the People". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 22, 2011.
  42. ^ Gill, Andy (November 8, 2017). "Album reviews: The Corrs – Jupiter Calling, Sharon Jones & The Dap-Kings – Soul of a Woman, REM – Automatic for the People". The Independent. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
  43. ^ Cromelin, Richard (October 4, 1992). "Record Rack: Playfulness, Profundity From a Rusticated R.E.M." Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 1, 2011.
  44. ^ "R.E.M.: Automatic for the People". NME: 36. October 3, 1992.
  45. ^ Gettelman, Parry (October 9, 1992). "R.E.M.". Orlando Sentinel.
  46. ^ Berman, Stuart (November 14, 2017). "R.E.M.: Automatic for the People". Pitchfork. Retrieved November 14, 2017.
  47. ^ "R.E.M.: Automatic for the People". Q (74): 117. November 1992.
  48. ^ a b Evans, Paul (October 29, 1992). "Automatic For The People: R.E.M." Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved August 26, 2012.
  49. ^ Cavanagh, David (November 1992). "Everybody Hurts". Select (29): 83.
  50. ^ Buckley, p. 217
  51. ^ Jones, Allan. "From Hearse to Eternity: Automatic for the People". Melody Maker. October 3, 1992.
  52. ^ Powers, Ann (1992-10-11). "RECORDINGS VIEW; A Weary R.E.M. Seems Stuck in Midtempo". New York Times. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  53. ^ a b Garcia, Guy (1992-11-23). "That Sinking Feeling". TIME. Archived from the original on August 12, 2010. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
  54. ^ Christgau, Robert (March 2, 1993). "The 1992 Pazz & Jop Critics Poll". Village Voice. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
  55. ^ Christgau, Robert (2000). "R.E.M.: Automatic for the People". Christgau's Consumer Guide: Albums of the '90s. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-312-24560-2. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
  56. ^ "Sting Leads Grammy Nominations With Six". Reading Eagle. Reading Eagle Company. January 7, 1994. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  57. ^ Levy, Joe; Steven Van Zandt (2006) [2005]. "247 | Automatic for the People — R.E.M.". Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time (3rd ed.). London: Turnaround. ISBN 1-932958-61-4. OCLC 70672814.
  58. ^ "500 Greatest Albums of All Time Rolling Stone's definitive list of the 500 greatest albums of all time". Rolling Stone. 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2019.
  59. ^ "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time". Rolling Stone. 2020-09-22. Retrieved 2021-10-09.
  60. ^ "Oasis album voted greatest of all time". The Times. June 1, 2006. Retrieved May 12, 2013.
  61. ^ Dimery, Robert; Lydon, Michael (7 February 2006). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe. ISBN 0-7893-1371-5.
  62. ^ Q October 2001
  63. ^ Buck, Peter (2003). In Time: The Best of R.E.M. 1988–2003 (booklet). Warner Bros. Records.
  64. ^ "Automatic for the People by R.E.M." Metacritic. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  65. ^ Berman, Stuart (November 14, 2017). "Automatic for the People". Pitchfork. Retrieved May 15, 2022.
  66. ^ "The 150 Best Albums of the 1990s". Pitchfork Media. 2022-09-28. Retrieved 2022-09-30.
  67. ^ " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  68. ^ a b " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  69. ^ "Top RPM Albums: Issue 1891". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  70. ^ a b c " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  71. ^ a b " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  72. ^ "Album Top 40 slágerlista – 1992. 46. hét" (in Hungarian). MAHASZ. Retrieved November 25, 2021.
  73. ^ Oricon Album Chart Book: Complete Edition 1970-2005. Roppongi, Tokyo: Oricon Entertainment. 2006. ISBN 4-87131-077-9.
  74. ^ " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  75. ^ a b " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  76. ^ Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
  77. ^ " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  78. ^ a b " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  79. ^ "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  80. ^ a b "R.E.M. Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  81. ^ " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  82. ^ "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  83. ^ " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  84. ^ " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  85. ^ " – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Hung Medien. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  86. ^ "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  87. ^ "R.E.M. Chart History (Top Alternative Albums)". Billboard. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  88. ^ "R.E.M. Chart History (Top Rock Albums)". Billboard. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  89. ^ "R.E.M. Chart History (Vinyl Albums)". Billboard. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  90. ^ "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1992" (in Dutch). Dutch Charts. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  91. ^ "Top Selling Albums of 1992". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
  92. ^ "Complete UK Year-End Album Charts". Archived from the original on 2012-05-19. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
  93. ^ "Billboard 200 Albums - Year-End". Billboard. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  94. ^ "ARIA End Of Year Charts – Top 50 Albums 1993". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
  95. ^ " – Jahreshitparade 1993". Hung Medien. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
  96. ^ "THE RPM Top 100 Albums of 1993". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  97. ^ "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1993" (in Dutch). Dutch Charts. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
  98. ^ "Top Selling Albums of 1993 — The Official New Zealand Music Chart". Recorded Music New Zealand. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  99. ^ "LOS 50 TÍTULOS CON MAYORES VENTAS EN LAS LISTAS DE VENTAS DE AFYVE EN 1993" (PDF) (in Spanish). Anuarios SGAE. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 18, 2012. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  100. ^ " – Schweizer Jahreshitparade 1993". Swiss Music Charts. Hung Medien. Archived from the original on 2013-11-05. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
  101. ^ "Top 100 Albums 1993" (PDF). Music Week. January 15, 1994. p. 25. Retrieved May 21, 2022 – via World Radio History.
  102. ^ "Billboard 200 Albums - Year-End". Billboard. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  103. ^ "Dutch charts jaaroverzichten 1994" (in Dutch). Dutch Charts. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
  104. ^ "Jaaroverzichten 2021". Ultratop. Retrieved January 14, 2022.
  105. ^ " – Bestenlisten – 90-er album" (in German). Hung Medien. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2013.
  106. ^ "Discos de oro y platino" (in Spanish). Cámara Argentina de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2019.
  107. ^ "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2001 Albums" (PDF). Australian Recording Industry Association.
  108. ^ "Austrian album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in German). IFPI Austria.
  109. ^ "Canadian album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Music Canada.
  110. ^ "French album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in French). InfoDisc. Select R.E.M. and click OK. 
  111. ^ "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (R.E.M.; 'Automatic for the People')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie.
  112. ^ "Italian album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People" (in Italian). Federazione Industria Musicale Italiana.
  113. ^ "Dutch album certifications – REM – Automatic for the People" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers. Enter Automatic for the People in the "Artiest of titel" box.
  114. ^ "New Zealand album certifications – REM – Automatic for the People". Recorded Music NZ. Retrieved December 2, 2019.
  115. ^ Solo Exitos 1959–2002 Ano A Ano: Certificados 1991–1995. Iberautor Promociones Culturales. 2005. ISBN 8480486392.
  116. ^ "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 2000" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-17.
  117. ^ "The Official Swiss Charts and Music Community: Awards ('Automatic for the People')". IFPI Switzerland. Hung Medien.
  118. ^ Harris, Bill (November 17, 2006). "Queen rules – in album sales". Jam!. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  119. ^ "British album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". British Phonographic Industry.
  120. ^ "American album certifications – R.E.M. – Automatic for the People". Recording Industry Association of America.

External links edit