Architecture & Morality

Architecture & Morality is the third studio album by English electronic band Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (OMD), released on 6 November 1981 by Dindisc.[7] Inspired by religious music, the group sought to broaden their musical palette by utilising elaborate choral samples, the Mellotron, and other new instruments to create a more naturalistic, emotive sound. The artwork was designed by longtime OMD collaborator Peter Saville, along with associate Brett Wickens, while its title was derived from the book Morality and Architecture by David Watkin.

Architecture & Morality
OMD - Architecture & Morality.png
Studio album by
Released6 November 1981 (1981-11-06)
Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark chronology
Architecture & Morality
Dazzle Ships
Singles from Architecture & Morality
  1. "Souvenir"
    Released: 4 August 1981[4]
  2. "Joan of Arc"
    Released: 9 October 1981[4]
  3. "Maid of Orleans (The Waltz Joan of Arc)"
    Released: 15 January 1982[4]
  4. "She's Leaving"
    Released: 17 June 1982 (Benelux only)[5][6]

Architecture & Morality reached number three on the UK Albums Chart, and was a top-10 entry across Europe. The record met with lukewarm reviews, but garnered acclaim from critics and other artists in the following years. It has since been recognised as a seminal album of its era and the synth-pop genre, appearing in lists of the best records of 1981 and the wider decade. Architecture & Morality also features in the book, 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.

The record became a commercial success, selling over four million copies and spawning three international hit singles – "Souvenir", "Joan of Arc" and "Maid of Orleans" – which together sold eight million copies. OMD have staged multiple tours based around the album.


During recording, the band introduced a number of new instruments to their sound palette, including the Mellotron.

During the initial sessions for Architecture & Morality, OMD were looking for a new musical direction. Frontman Andy McCluskey, a longtime atheist, told how the band "found a lot of influence in the emotional power of religious music".[8][9] McCluskey informed Melody Maker at the time, "I haven't gone and 'got God'... It's just trying to understand why people need religion and believe in it."[2] The group spent two months recording at The Manor, Shipton-on-Cherwell, with additional recording completed at the band's own Gramophone Suite in Liverpool. Mixing took place at Mayfair, London.[2] Instrumentalist Martin Cooper left and re-joined the group during the making of the album, missing the bulk of the sessions. During his absence he formed Godot with former OMD session musician David Hughes.[2]

A catalyst in the development of OMD's new sound was Hughes using the band's studio to manipulate choral samples he had recorded. Musically, the album is noted for making liberal use of those samples,[9] as well as the Mellotron, a mechanical tape-replay keyboard.[10] The group introduced other new instruments including prominent guitars on opening track "The New Stone Age", whose sound was intended to startle the OMD audience.[9] All of these measures combined to produce a more naturalistic, emotive sound than on previous OMD releases.[11]

According to the album's credits, its title was suggested to the band by Martha Ladly (formerly of Martha and the Muffins), who had read the 1977 book Morality and Architecture by David Watkin.[1] Ladly, who was also a designer, was the girlfriend of Peter Saville, the album's sleeve designer, at the time.[9] McCluskey felt the title Architecture & Morality represented the interplay between the human and mechanical aspects of OMD: "We had the 'architecture', which was the technology, the drum machines, the rigid playing, the attempt to break out of the box by playing specifically crafted sounds, and the 'morality', the organic, the human, the emotional touch, which we brought naturally."[9]

"Souvenir" was the first track to be written for the album. "Sealand" was named after the Royal Air Force Sealand base on the Wirral, although the song is actually about an oil refinery;[9] it is also a nod to the Neu! song, "Seeland".[12] The sample-heavy title track was compiled in the studio over a three-day period. "The Beginning and the End" was an older composition that the band had attempted to record previously, but had shelved due to being unsatisfied with the results.[9] The songs avoided the verse-chorus-verse format, utilising lengthy instrumental passages and substituting choruses with synthesizer lines. Lyrics were largely inspired by historical figures and events, including Joan of Arc, after whom two songs were named.[9] The tenth through sixteenth tracks of the remastered edition are bonus tracks and were B-sides from the album's three singles, except "Gravity Never Failed", which was an out-take from the Architecture & Morality sessions (its original title, "Georgia", was transferred to another song on the record).[1][9] This track was envisaged as a single, but was not released until it featured as the B-side of "Dreaming" (1988).[9] "Of All the Things We've Made", and a completed version of "The Romance of the Telescope (Unfinished)", would appear on OMD's next album, Dazzle Ships (1983).[13]

The cover artwork was produced by Peter Saville and associate Brett Wickens. Inspirations included "art movements like The Circle, and... mid-century iconic furniture like [Le] Corbusier and [Alvar] Aalto".[9][14]


Architecture & Morality yielded three singles, all of which reached the top five of the UK Singles Chart: "Souvenir" (number three), "Joan of Arc" (number five), and "Maid of Orleans (The Waltz Joan of Arc)" (number four), a retitled "Joan of Arc (Maid of Orleans)". Two singles were also successful in a variety of territories, with "Souvenir" and "Maid of Orleans" each charting at number one in various European countries; the latter became Germany's biggest-selling single of 1982.[15] "Joan of Arc" was only released in the UK.[10] The three singles sold eight million copies combined.[16][17]

Dindisc proposed "She's Leaving" as a fourth single but the group refused, believing this would over-exploit the album; the label did proceed with a small-scale release in the Benelux region. OMD later regretted their decision, attributing it to being young and pretentious.[5][9]

Critical receptionEdit

Professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic     [18]
Daily Record     [19]
LA WeeklyA[20]
The Philadelphia Inquirer     [21]
Q     [23]
Record Collector     [24]
Record Mirror     [25]
Smash Hits9/10[26]
Sounds     [27]

Architecture & Morality met with a lukewarm critical response.[28] Lynden Barber of Melody Maker wrote, "I don't believe the Orchs even care about this record... the style is the same, the content profoundly different, the onslaught of emptiness, frivolity disguised by furrowed brows, a new brand of meaninglessness."[29] Boston Phoenix journalist M. Howell said the record "gives off the dry stench of self-importance" and would have been more aptly titled "Mortician & Morality".[30] Brad Scharff of The Cavalier Daily observed a "flawed album" that occasionally lapses into "tedium", but had praise for much of the arranging and vocal work, concluding that "the positive aspects certainly outweigh its faults".[31] Record Mirror's Daniela Soave cautioned that the album "requires more effort on the listener's part", adding, "Although I had misgivings initially, Architecture & Morality is no disappointment."[25]

Other critics were unapologetically favourable. Dave McCullough of Sounds gave a five-star review in which he referred to Architecture & Morality as OMD's "best album yet" and a "classic in the making",[27] while the Belfast Telegraph's Jim Cusack called it an "excellent album" by a band with "higher interests and concepts in music than most others of their genre."[32] The Evening Express stated, "'Souvenir' and the beautiful 'Joan of Arc' are obvious standouts but really any seven of the nine tracks are potential hits."[33] Architecture & Morality was included in Billboard's "Recommended LPs".[34]

"We didn't think it got the respect it deserved", said McCluskey in 1983. "We put a lot into it and we really loved it... anything which undermines our own unstable balance creates a problem for us."[35] Sean O'Neal of The A.V. Club told how OMD responded to lacklustre reviews of the album by "pursu[ing] a darker, more defiantly experimental direction on its 1983 follow-up, Dazzle Ships—only to have the critics belatedly declare [Architecture & Morality] a masterpiece."[28] In particular, a 1984 article in Melody Maker offset the magazine's unflattering contemporary review, with Helen Fitzgerald labelling the record "the first true masterpiece of the Eighties."[36]

AllMusic's Ned Raggett wrote, "Combining everything from design and presentation to even the title into an overall artistic effort, this album showed that OMD was arguably the first Liverpool band since the later Beatles to make such a sweeping, all-bases-covered achievement."[18] Mark Lindores of Classic Pop asserted, "Merging the machinations of German electronica with warm Merseyside melodies and otherworldly choral samples... OMD struck the perfect balance between experimentalism and commercial appeal."[9] In Record Collector, John Doran observed an "astonishing record" whose content ranges from atmospheric love songs to the "propulsive and [Gary] Numanesque 'The New Stone Age'" and the sample-heavy "Georgia"; Doran also had praise for Saville's "austere and iconic" cover art.[24] Author Lori Majewski said, "Architecture and Morality is so original, so special, so sublime, that if there were no other new wave bands to speak of, the entire genre could still hang its hat solely on that record."[37]


Multiple artists, including Moby, have cited the album as a personal favourite.

Architecture & Morality has appeared in lists of 1981's greatest albums,[a] being ranked no. 1 by The Morning News. The magazine added that "it's stood as the blueprint for synth-pop; few have approached an improvement upon its design".[3] The record placed fourth in Tylko Rock writer Tomasz Beksiński's top 10 albums of the New Romantic era,[45] was voted 13th in Classic Pop's reader poll of the "Top 100 Albums of the 1980s",[46] and was included in Mojo's 80 favourite albums of the decade.[47] It also featured in critic Mark Fisher's "Top 100 British Albums",[48] Phantom FM's "Top 500 Albums of All Time",[49] and the book, 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.[50] In genre-specific lists, Architecture & Morality was ranked the eighth-greatest electropop record by Classic Pop,[51] and the 35th-best new wave album by Ultimate Classic Rock, who called it "crucial" to synth-pop's MTV-era transformation from "industrial-town dirges to sleek, love-struck modern pop music".[52]

Musicians Moby,[53] Frost,[54] Tor Lundvall,[55] and The Divine Comedy's Neil Hannon[56] have named Architecture & Morality one of their favourite albums, while Anohni,[57] Spacemen 3's Peter Kember,[58] and X Marks the Pedwalk's Sevren Ni-Arb[59] have cited it as a pivotal record from their youth. Moby said, "I mean it's not hard to overdo the hyperbole, but it's a perfect album, so cohesive, and every song perfectly speaks to the other song, the unapologetic emotional quality of it is really inspiring. Even the artwork by Peter Saville, everything about it is perfectly crafted."[53] Jamie Stewart of Xiu Xiu labelled the record a "masterpiece",[60] while Charlatans vocalist Tim Burgess staged a Twitter listening party of the album, describing it as "genius" and "absolutely beautiful".[61] Architecture & Morality has received further endorsements from Kevin Hearn of Barenaked Ladies,[62] Alex Naidus of The Pains of Being Pure at Heart,[63] and Jonn Penney of Ned's Atomic Dustbin, who selected it as the record he would place on a Christmas wish list.[64] The Alan Partridge universe has incorporated songs from the album, with the title character noting that it features "some classic electro-rock".[65][66]

The subject of multiple "classic album" analyses,[9][67][68] Architecture & Morality is recognised as a seminal record of the synth-pop genre and the 1980s decade.[9][69][70] It has been the focus of three tours: as well as touring in support of the record upon its release,[71] OMD included all of its songs in the main set of their 2007 comeback tour[72] (which spawned the 2008 live album and DVD, OMD Live: Architecture & Morality & More), and also staged a 40th anniversary tour in 2021.[73] The record has sold more than four million copies worldwide.[b]

Track listingEdit

All songs by Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys, except where noted

Side one
1."The New Stone Age" (McCluskey)3:22
2."She's Leaving"3:28
3."Souvenir" (Humphreys, Martin Cooper)3:39
Side two
5."Joan of Arc" (McCluskey)3:48
6."Joan of Arc (Maid of Orleans)" (McCluskey)4:12
7."Architecture and Morality"3:43
9."The Beginning and the End"3:48
2003 remastered CD bonus tracks
10."Extended Souvenir" (Humphreys, Cooper)4:16
11."Motion and Heart" (Amazon version)3:07
12."Sacred Heart"3:30
13."The Romance of the Telescope" (unfinished)3:22
15."Of All the Things We've Made"3:25
16."Gravity Never Failed"3:24
2007 collector's edition bonus DVD
1."Souvenir" (promo video)3:25
2."Joan of Arc" (live on Top of the Pops, 29 October 1981)2:58
3."Maid of Orleans (The Waltz Joan of Arc)" (promo video)4:02
4."Almost" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)3:54
5."Mystereality" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)2:41
6."Joan of Arc" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)3:25
7."Motion and Heart" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)2:58
8."Maid of Orleans" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)3:14
9."Statues" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)3:49
10."Souvenir" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)3:25
11."The New Stone Age" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)3:02
12."Enola Gay" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)3:29
13."Bunker Soldiers" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)2:47
14."Electricity" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)4:17
15."She's Leaving" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)4:26
16."Julia's Song" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)4:25
17."Stanlow" (live at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 4 December 1981)6:28


  • "Navigation" is edited some 30 seconds shorter at the end; the full original length version (3:26) is available on Navigation: The OMD B-Sides.
  • Disc one of the 2007 collector's edition is the same as the 2003 remastered CD.




Certifications for Architecture & Morality
Region Certification Certified units/sales
Netherlands (NVPI)[90] Gold 50,000^
Spain (PROMUSICAE)[91] Platinum 100,000^
United Kingdom (BPI)[7] Platinum 300,000^

^ Shipments figures based on certification alone.


  1. ^ a b c d "Architecture & Morality". Retrieved 22 October 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Waller, Johnny; Humphreys, Mike (1987). Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark: Messages. Sidgwick & Jackson. pp. 90–97. ISBN 0-283-99234-4.
  3. ^ a b c Womack, Andrew (4 April 2007). "The Top 10 Albums of 1981". The Morning News. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
  4. ^ a b c "OMD Discography | Singles 1979 – 84". Archived from the original on 9 April 2003. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  5. ^ a b "Q & A". Archived from the original on 8 December 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  6. ^ "OMD singles".
  7. ^ a b "British album certifications – OMD – Architecture and Morality". British Phonographic Industry. 4 February 1982. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
  8. ^ Nunn, Jerry (21 September 2011). "Andy McCluskey". GoPride. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Lindores, Mark (4 September 2022). "Classic Album: Architecture & Morality". Classic Pop. Retrieved 20 January 2023.
  10. ^ a b Browne, Paul (12 March 2003). "Architecture & Morality Interview: Andy McCluskey". Messages. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  11. ^ Thompson, Dave. "The Beginning and the End – Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". AllMusic. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  12. ^ OMD [@OfficialOMD] (14 April 2020). "Track 4 – Sealand" (Tweet). Retrieved 4 January 2021 – via Twitter.
  13. ^ "OMD Official Website Discography entry: Dazzle Ships". Archived from the original on 18 April 2001. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  14. ^ Browne, Paul (15 February 2014). "Brett Wickens interview". Messages. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  15. ^ Stanley, Bob (7 March 2008). "How to lose 3 million fans in one easy step". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  16. ^ a b Male, Andrew (July 2019). "Days of Future Passed". Mojo. No. 308. pp. 38–43. With eight million singles and four million albums sold, Architecture & Morality...
  17. ^ a b Shand, Max (8 November 2019). "OMD at 40: Making Sense of a Synthpop Legacy". PopMatters. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  18. ^ a b Raggett, Ned. "Architecture & Morality – Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". AllMusic. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  19. ^ Fulton, Rick (4 May 2007). "Singles and albums". Daily Record. One of the UK's most influential electro groups and one of the genre's best albums. It may have been released originally in 1981 but still sounds as fresh today.
  20. ^ "Records". LA Weekly. Vol. 4, no. 4. 25–31 December 1981. p. 16.
  21. ^ "Pop/Rock – Albums". The Philadelphia Inquirer. 5 February 1982. p. 98.
  22. ^ Plagenhoef, Scott (18 July 2003). "Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark: Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark / Organisation / Architecture & Morality". Pitchfork. Retrieved 4 November 2009.
  23. ^ Eddy, Todd (May 2003). "The Synthesists (supplement)". Q. No. 202. OMD's 1981 masterwork [...] perfectly balanced the avant garde with top-flight songwriting, pooling those [Kraftwerk and Brian Eno] influences together for an unforgettable set that few in the genre have come close to matching.
  24. ^ a b Doran, John (June 2007). "Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark – Architecture & Morality". Record Collector. No. 337. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  25. ^ a b Soave, Daniela (7 November 1981). "OMD: Architects of the Future". Record Mirror. p. 19.
  26. ^ Cranna, Ian (29 October – 11 November 1981). "Albums". Smash Hits. No. 76. p. 25.
  27. ^ a b McCullough, Dave (21 November 1981). "Hopeless Heroes". Sounds.
  28. ^ a b O'Neal, Sean (5 February 2018). "Bauhaus, Run-DMC, Cocteau Twins, and other should've-been hits from 1983". The A.V. Club. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
  29. ^ West, Mike (1982). Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark. Omnibus Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-7119-0149X.
  30. ^ Howell, M (16 February 1982). "Synthesizing Pop". The Boston Phoenix. p. 6 (of section three).
  31. ^ Scharff, Brad (13 April 1982). "Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark". The Cavalier Daily. p. 5. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
  32. ^ Cusack, Jim (23 January 1982). "Rock". Belfast Telegraph.
  33. ^ "Reviews". Evening Express. 18 November 1981. p. 14.
  34. ^ "Top Album Picks". Billboard. 30 January 1982. p. 74. Archived from the original on 19 July 2022. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  35. ^ Ware, Gareth (4 March 2013). "OMD: Of All The Thing We've Made: 'Dazzle Ships' At 30". DIY. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  36. ^ Fitzgerald, Helen (28 April 1984). "New Junk for Old". Melody Maker.
  37. ^ Majewski, Lori; Bernstein, Jonathan (15 May 2014). "Mad World: An Oral History of New Wave Artists and Songs That Defined the 1980s". PopMatters. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  38. ^ Nicholls, Mike (26 December 1981). "Albums". Record Mirror. p. 20. 8. Architecture & Morality, Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark
  39. ^ "1981 Poll Results: Best Album (no. 6)". Record Mirror. 23 January 1982. p. 9.
  40. ^ "Smash Hits 1981 Poll Winners: Best Album (no. 10)". Smash Hits. Vol. 3, no. 26. 24 December 1981 – 6 January 1982. p. 23.
  41. ^ "Top 100 Albums of 1981: Slicing Up Eyeballs' Best of the '80s – Part 2". Slicing Up Eyeballs. 1 April 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
  42. ^ Reed, Ryan (12 April 2021). "The 50 Best Albums of 1981". Spin. Archived from the original on 12 April 2021. Retrieved 29 November 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  43. ^ a b Jackson, Josh (21 June 2021). "The Best Albums of 1981". Paste. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  44. ^ Palmer, Tamara (8 July 2021). "The Best 1981 Albums: 50 Classics from a Turning Point Year in Music". uDiscover Music. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  45. ^ Weiss, Wiesław (2016). Tomek Beksiński: Portret prawdziwy. Vesper. pp. 215–217. ISBN 978-8377312438.
  46. ^ Peel, Ian (December 2015 – January 2016). "Top 100 Albums of the 1980s". Classic Pop. No. 20. pp. 24–37.
  47. ^ "80 from the 80s (supplement)". Mojo. No. 165. August 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2023.
  48. ^ Fisher, Mark (23 June 2004). "Top 100 British Albums". Retrieved 21 January 2023.
  49. ^ "Top 500 Albums of All Time". Phantom FM. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
  50. ^ Dimery, Robert, ed. (2010). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die. Universe. p. 476. ISBN 978-0-78932-074-2.
  51. ^ Hurley, Oliver (25 August 2021). "Top 15 Electropop Albums". Classic Pop. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  52. ^ DeRiso, Nick (19 October 2021). "Top 40 New Wave Albums". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  53. ^ a b Turner, Luke (24 September 2013). "Corrupting Sonic DNA: Moby's Favourite Albums". The Quietus. p. 12. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  54. ^ Lay, Sarah (15 November 2012). "Frost – top ten albums". Louder Than War. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  55. ^ Sawdey, Evan (26 April 2019). "Fave Five: Tor Lundvall's Favorite Albums of All Time". PopMatters. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  56. ^ Tuffrey, Laurie (4 July 2013). "Batting Order: Neil Hannon's Favourite Albums". The Quietus. p. 9. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  57. ^ "Instagram video by Anohni". Instagram. 3 January 2023. 1 minutes in. Archived from the original on 4 January 2023. Retrieved 4 January 2023.
  58. ^ Kember, Peter (June 2020). "Sonic Boom". Uncut. No. 277.
  59. ^ Becu, Didier (28 August 2015). "Sevren Ni-Arb (X Marks the Pedwalk): Ten Albums That Changed My Life". Peek-A-Boo Magazine. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  60. ^ "Headphone Highlights: Xiu Xiu". Red Bull Music Academy. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2023.
  61. ^ Burgess, Tim (14 April 2020). "Architecture and Morality replay". Tim's Twitter Listening Party. Event occurs at 9:33 & 9:39 PM. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  62. ^ Houghton, Richard (2019). OMD: Pretending to See the Future (expanded paperback ed.). This Day in Music Books. pp. 414–415. ISBN 978-1916115620. Amazing music.
  63. ^ The Pains of Being Pure at Heart (26 February 2009). "The Pains of Being Pure at Heart". Pitchfork. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  64. ^ "Track Record: Jonn Penney of Ned's Atomic Dustbin". Music Republic Magazine. 29 June 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  65. ^ "To Kill a Mocking Alan". I'm Alan Partridge. Series 1. Episode 5. 1 December 1997. Event occurs at 0 minutes in ("Joan of Arc"). BBC Two.
  66. ^ "Theme music (all episodes)". Mid Morning Matters with Alan Partridge. Series 2. Episode 1–6. 16 February – 22 March 2016. Event occurs at 0 minutes in ("Georgia"). Sky Atlantic.
  67. ^ "OMD's Andy McCluskey joins Steve". BBC Radio 6 Music. 21 November 2012. Retrieved 16 December 2020. Architecture and Morality, the Classic Album of the Day.
  68. ^ "Classic Album Sundays: Architecture & Morality by OMD". Worldwide FM. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  69. ^ "OMD to Release New Album English Electric in April". Fact. 14 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2023.
  70. ^ "New Manoeuvres Are on the Cards". Liverpool Daily Post. 26 January 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2023 – via The Free Library.
  71. ^ Waller, Johnny; Humphreys, Mike (1987). Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark: Messages. Sidgwick & Jackson. p. 98. ISBN 0-283-99234-4.
  72. ^ Huggett, Stuart (17 May 2016). "OMD's Cold War Album Comes in from the Cold: Dazzle Ships Live". The Quietus. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  73. ^ "OMD Announce Architecture And More UK Arena Tour For 2021". Stereoboard. 27 October 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  74. ^ "Orchestral leap in the dark". The Scotsman. 3 February 2007. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
  75. ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 224. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
  76. ^ " – OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) – Architecture & Morality" (in German). Hung Medien. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  77. ^ "Top RPM Albums: Issue 4305". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  78. ^ " – OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) – Architecture & Morality" (in Dutch). Hung Medien. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  79. ^ " – OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) – Architecture & Morality" (in German). GfK Entertainment Charts. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  80. ^ " – OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) – Architecture & Morality". Hung Medien. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  81. ^ Salaverri, Fernando (2015). Sólo éxitos 1959–2012 (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 978-84-8048-866-2.
  82. ^ " – OMD (Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark) – Architecture & Morality". Hung Medien. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
  83. ^ "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  84. ^ "Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  85. ^ Scaping, Peter, ed. (1982). "The Top 200 LPs: January–December 1981". BPI Year Book 1982 (5th ed.). London: British Phonographic Industry. pp. 50–53. ISBN 0-906154-03-0.
  86. ^ "Top 100 Albums 82". RPM. Vol. 37, no. 19. 25 December 1982. p. 19. ISSN 0315-5994 – via Library and Archives Canada.
  87. ^ "Jaaroverzichten – Album 1982" (in Dutch). Dutch Charts. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  88. ^ "Top 100 Album-Jahrescharts – 1982". Offizielle Deutsche Charts (in German). Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  89. ^ Rees, Dafydd; Lazell, Barry; Jones, Alan (1983). "The Top 100 UK Albums". Chart File Volume 2. London: Virgin Books. pp. 82–83. ISBN 0-907080-73-1.
  90. ^ "Dutch album certifications – OMD – Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers. Retrieved 3 October 2021. Enter Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark in the "Artiest of titel" box. Select 1982 in the drop-down menu saying "Alle statussen"
  91. ^ Salaverrie, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (PDF) (in Spanish) (1st ed.). Madrid: Fundación Autor/SGAE. p. 916. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.


External linksEdit