Front Line Assembly
Front Line Assembly (FLA) is a Canadian electro-industrial band formed by Bill Leeb in 1986 after leaving Skinny Puppy. Influenced by early electronic and (post-)industrial acts such as Cabaret Voltaire, Portion Control, D.A.F., Test Dept, SPK, and Severed Heads, FLA has developed its own sound while combining elements of electronic body music (EBM). The band's membership has rotated through several members over the years, including Rhys Fulber and Michael Balch who are both associated with several other acts.
|Front Line Assembly|
|Origin||Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada|
|Past members||Michael Balch
Between 1985 and 1986, Bill Leeb performed with Skinny Puppy under the name Wilhelm Schroeder, a combination of his first name and the name of the Peanuts character and was meant as a joke. Leeb had no musical training, and learned to play synthesizer while contributing bass synth and backing vocals for the band, He also supported their 1985 tour. Not prepared for another tour, Leeb left Skinny Puppy in early 1986.
Having developed some instrumental skills and music industry experience, and wanting to do more vocal work, Leeb decided to take the risk of starting his own project. Leeb decided to call the project Front Line Assembly to reflect his belief that strength lies in working together.
Leeb started by producing a demo tape, Nerve War, which was distributed on a limited basis. Contacts in the music scene he had gathered while with Skinny Puppy led to contract offers from the first two labels that Leeb later approached with cassettes.
Around this time, Leeb and Rhys Fulber became friends when they discovered they both had a similar interest in underground music. As an unofficial member at this time, Fulber partnered with Leeb during the production of Total Terror and was credited for the song "Black Fluid" on the demo. Both demo releases were limited to 100 and mostly distributed amongst friends.
Early releases and working with Balch (1987–1989)Edit
The first appearance of Front Line Assembly was the track "Aggression", which was included on the compilation For Your Ears Only, released in 1987 by British independent record label Third Mind showcasing the label's repertoire at the time. The track would be re-released the following year on the Disorder EP. Although the contact to Third Mind would later develop into a long-standing collaboration, the band debuted its first album The Initial Command with credited assistance by Fulber and Michael Balch on Belgian independent record label KK at the end of 1987. The album had been produced on a tight budget which would determine whether or not cuts would be done with an eight track system or split into two four track cuts. With the next album State of Mind, released in January 1988, the band switched to German independent label Dossier. They changed labels as Leeb did not want to be bound to one label, so the releases were issued only on European labels.
In 1988, Balch became as official band member and began writing songs alongside Leeb for the next few albums. Balch mostly contributed by providing keyboards and programming. This partnership produced the releases Corrosion and Disorder. A planned release on the Canadian label Nettwerk fell through, and the two finished masters were issued instead by Third Mind in 1988. Through Levermore Corrosion was licensed to Wax Trax!. Both records were re-released together with three more unreleased tracks on the compilations Convergence later that year and Corroded Disorder in 1995.
Adhering to Third Mind for Europe and Wax Trax! for North America resulted in better availability of the albums in both places, and the signing with Third Mind attracted the attention of established music magazines, including Melody Maker or NME as well as the underground magazine Music From the Empty Quarter.
Front Line Assembly produced their next album Gashed Senses & Crossfire in 1989. This album introduced their first single Digital Tension Dementia which became their first chart success and peaked at position 45 of the Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs chart. In support of their latest release, the band, together with Fulber as live metal percussionist, headed out to Europe and North America for their first tour. However, during the show in London in July 1989 their first live album Live was recorded under unfavourable circumstances. Presumably not well attended, the audience's reactions at the show had to be reworked. For Balch it was also the last Front Line Assembly tour since he parted ways to join Ministry and Revolting Cocks.
The Fulber era: instant classics and growing popularity (1990–1996)Edit
Filling the void left by Balch's departure, Fulber officially joined. The two musicians had similar tastes, both being enthusiastic about electronic music. The duo recorded their next album, Caustic Grip, in the first half of 1990. Accompanied by the release of two singles in 1990, Iceolate and Provision, the album raised Front Line Assembly's profile in the industrial music scene and in the media considerably. Melody Maker elected both album singles Single of the week while the promotional video for Iceolate received some airplay on MTV.
On Caustic Grip the band started working with Greg Reely which would evolve into a long-term partnership. The tour in support of the album started in January 1991 in the United States to be followed by a European leg in February which was accompanied by the release of stand-alone single Virus the same month. Chris Peterson, who would later become a full-time member of Front Line Assembly, gave his debut for the band on this tour, completing the live line-up as percussionist.
In 1992, Front Line Assembly reached a turning point in the band's musical style with the album Tactical Neural Implant. The media, including Melody Maker, Siren Magazine and fanzine Industrial Strength all commented particularly on the more melodious approach featured on the album and noted the use of multi-layered sounds which would become a trademark of the band. Asked about this composing style by Industrial Nation, Leeb explained that the band continually experimented with new ways to use technology to make each recording different, and had focused on clarity and sustain in their instrumentation and structure in their songs.
The video for the first single off the album, Mindphaser, was awarded "Best Alternative Video" at Much Music's 1992 Canadian Music Video Awards. In August 1992, Front Line Assembly embarked on a tour that covered Northern America and Europe. The album continues to be played in industrial and electronic music dance clubs and is considered a classic among listeners and musicians of industrial music.
The next album Millennium (1994) featured a combination of metal guitars, electronic music, and media sampling (much of which was taken from the Michael Douglas film Falling Down) which had become one of the characteristics of industrial rock and industrial metal during the 1990s.
The Peterson era: return to electronic sounds (1997–2002)Edit
In 1997, Fulber left the band to concentrate on producing Fear Factory with other bands. Chris Peterson, who had already supported the band's live shows, replaced Fulber. Soon after Fulber's departure, the album [FLA]vour of the Weak was released. Yet again, the album was stylistically divergent from previous releases. The metal influences found in Millennium gave way to a more electronica sound within the new release.
Front Line Assembly returned somewhat to their former sound with the album Implode (1999), followed by Epitaph (2001), as well as half of the soundtrack for the video game Quake III Arena in 1999. Peterson left FLA in 2002.
In October 1999 it was made public that the band had left their label Metropolis.
From classic line-up towards a full-fledged band (2003–2008)Edit
Fulber rejoined the band in 2003. The reunited duo released the single Maniacal in October of that year. The next year, they released the studio album Civilization. Peterson later rejoined the band to release Artificial Soldier in 2006. After a problem with the tour bus company, the US tour that year was cut short, and the band returned home to Vancouver after playing roughly half of their scheduled dates; performances in New York and Canada were cancelled. The band toured in Europe in August 2006 playing in 18 cities.
In April 2007, Front Line Assembly released a remix album titled Fallout. The album was released in a 4-panel digipak and featured three previously unreleased tracks ("Electric Dreams," "Unconscious," and "Armageddon") and nine remixes by several other Industrial acts and names. After the release of the remix album, the band went out to tour North America and Europe.
A new style of writing and new success (2009–2011)Edit
In 2010, Front Line Assembly, with new members Jeremy Inkel and Jared Slingerland, released two new singles, "Shifting Through the Lens" and "Angriff", and an album, of more danceable music, Improvised Electronic Device.
Back to electronic roots and new influences (2012–)Edit
Having integrated guitars into their sound since the late 1980s, either sampled or as live guitars, FLA returned in 2012 to making exclusively electronic music. This change was heard on the soundtrack album AirMech for the video game of the same name at the end of 2012. Comprising only instrumental tracks, AirMech laid some grounds for 2013 full-length album Echogenetic Echogenetic was widely praised by critics, who also noted the dubstep influences on the record, and hit the charts in the United States and in Germany. Entering the official German charts was a first in the band's history. On the occasion of the release of Echogenetic Front Line Assembly announced a remix album which was released in May 2014 under the moniker of Echoes.
Shortly after the release of Echogenetic the band started promoting the album with an extensive tour schedule in Europe and North America. In August 2013, Front Line Assembly covered dates in Russia, Germany, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and the UK. They continued their tour in Europe in June 2014, playing shows in Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden, Finland and France, this time also in support of Echoes. Former member Fulber joined the band for their last European leg in October and November 2014 in Poland and Germany, where they performed with a philharmonic orchestra in Leipzig, a first for the band.
The same month Front Line Assembly returned from Europe, they were asked on short notice to join Leeb's former band Skinny Puppy on their Eye vs Spy North American tour as supporting band after VNV Nation, previously booked for the slot, had opted out. On some dates, Fulber joined them. At the Vancouver show Leeb performed with Skinny Puppy on their encore song Assimilate.
Resuming tour activities, the band gave a number of concerts in September and November 2015. They started off with a show in Vancouver and went on to headline the second day of the Cold Waves industrial festival in Chicago. In November they followed up with their first show in Mexico City, supported by Mexican electro-industrial band Hocico, and a gig in Guadalajara both of which were also supported by Canadian electro-industrial group Decoded Feedback.
The Band's name has sometimes been published as "Front Line Assembly" and sometimes as "Frontline Assembly". The former spelling is the most common, and the band's members have stated that the version with three separate words is preferred.
The current official line-up of Front Line Assembly consists of:
- The Initial Command (1987)
- State of Mind (1988)
- Corrosion (1988)
- Disorder (EP) (1988)
- Gashed Senses & Crossfire (1989)
- Caustic Grip (1990)
- Tactical Neural Implant (1992)
- Millennium (1994)
- Hard Wired (1995)
- [FLA]vour of the Weak (1997)
- Implode (1999)
- Epitaph (2001)
- Civilization (2004)
- Artificial Soldier (2006)
- Improvised Electronic Device (2010)
- AirMech (soundtrack) (2012)
- Echogenetic (2013)
Side projects and associated actsEdit
In the course of Front Line Assembly's history, current and former band members have engaged in a multitude of musical activities besides Front Line Assembly.
- Conjure One is Rhys Fulber's project he started after leaving Front Line Assembly in 1997, venturing deeper into ambient and worldbeat. Fulber released the first album under this moniker in 2002 and has since hit the charts several times.
- Decree is a noise dark ambient industrial metal band Chris Peterson co-founded in 1991.
- Delerium started off as a side project in 1987. While Bill Leeb is the only constant member and band leader, collaborators include current and former Front Line Assembly personnel. The project is stylistically diverse ranging from trance, world music and ambient to electronic pop music, features a number of female guest singers and had several chart entries and number one hits.
- Fear Factory is an American industrial metal band with a long-standing working relationship with Fulber. He started off delivering remixes for Fear Factory at the beginning of the 1990s, eventually becoming their long-time producer, and was considered de facto member.
- Left Spine Down is a Canadian digital hardcore band co-founded by Jeremy Inkel. Jared Slingerland is a former member.
- Noise Unit is an industrial spin-off of Front Line Assembly launched in the late 1980s by Leeb and including Marc Verhaeghen from Belgian industrial band Klinik on their first two albums. Other Front Line Assembly members joined at different times, the project also saw a collaboration with German industrial band Haujobb.
- Skinny Puppy is Leeb's first band.
- Stiff Valentine is a Canadian metal band for which Jared Slingerland appeared as guest member.
- Unit 187 is a Canadian industrial metal band which Peterson wrote songs for in 2003 and later joined as full-time member.
Inactive or defunct bandsEdit
- Blackland was the main project of Michael Balch, launched in the first half of the 1990s after his departure from Front Line Assembly. Although having recorded a full-length album and an EP, Blackland never released officially through a label.
- Cyberaktif was a one-off collaboration between Bill Leeb and cEvin Key and Dwayne Goettel of Skinny Puppy in 1990 and 1991 which resulted in one album and two accompanying singles, released on Wax Trax!.
- Equinox was a drum and bass-oriented side project of Leeb and Peterson that spawned an album and a single in 1998.
- Fauxliage is the name of the project and the album that Leeb and Fulber started and released in 2007 together with Sixpence None the Richer singer Leigh Nash whom they had worked with on past Delerium albums.
- Intermix was a side project of Leeb and Fulber in the 1990s that focused on techno and later on ambient.
- Mutual Mortuary was a collaboration between Leeb and Skinny Puppy's Nivek Ogre which resulted in two tracks released on compilations in 1986. Ogre was opposed to releasing any track of the project, claiming the tracks were unfinished.
- Pro>Tech was a solo effort of Leeb in 1997 which spawned only one album that bore similarities with Front Line Assembly's [FLA]vour of the Weak.
- Revelstoker was a drum 'n' bass side project of Chris Peterson that released only one track on a compilation of Vancouver-based label Xynthetic in 2007.
- Synæsthesia was an ambient side project of Leeb and Fulber in the 1990s.
- Will was an industrial venture of Peterson and Fulber together with vocalist John McRae.
- Armstrong, Emily (1987). "Front Line Assembly". Lively Arts.
- Porter, Alicia (November 8, 1998). "Front Line Assembly". Eklectique Magazine. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- "cEvin Key interview". Barcode. 2003. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- Raven, Daniel (June 2, 2011). "Front Line Assembly Leads Cyborg Armies Through Post-Apocalyptic Soundscapes". Phoenix New Times. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- Radio, Joe (April 24, 1988). "Interview: Front Line Assembly". Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "History". Mindphaser.com. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "Front Line Assembly". Chaos Control Magazine. 1993. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- Klein, Ed. "Compilations F". Ed Klein. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- Levermore, Gary (1997). Front Line Assembly - Reclamation (booklet). Front Line Assembly. New York: Roadrunner. pp. 2–3.
- Leeb, Bill (1988). "Interview with Bill Leeb". Alternative Press (Interview). Interview with Mike Shea. Cleveland.
- Front Line Assembly: State of Mind > Overview at AllMusic. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Bains, Jon. "Third Mind Records". Convulse. Archived from the original on May 5, 1999. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- Stubbs, David (February 20, 1988). "Front Line Assembly - Corrosion". Melody Maker. London: IPC Media.
- Stubbs, David (May 28, 1988). "Front Line Assembly - Disorder". Melody Maker. IPC Media.
- The Stud Brothers. "Front Line Assembly - Convergence CD". Melody Maker. London: IPC Media.
- Smith, Mat. "Front Line Assembly - Gashed Senses & Crossfire". Melody Maker. London: IPC Media.
- Lamacq, Steve (May 7, 1988). "Front Line Assembly - Corrosion". NME. London: IPC Media.
- Deadhead. "Front Line Assembly - Convergence". Music From the Empty Quarter.
- "Front Line Assembly Album & Song Chart History". Billboard. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- Reed, S. Alexander (2013). Assimilate: a critical history of industrial music. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-19-983260-6.
- Leeb, Bill; Fulber, Rhys (1991). "Front Line Assembly". Post! (Interview). Palo Alto.
- Radio, Joe (November 23, 1990). "Interview: Front Line Assembly". Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- Schock, David (March 9, 2012). "101 Greatest Industrial Songs of All Time'". COMA. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- Barr, Stuart (May 1991). "Front Line Assembly". Convulse. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2014.
- The Stud Brothers (1992). "Front Line Assembly - Tactical Neural Implant". Melody Maker. London.
- Leeb, Bill (April 1992). "Interview". Siren (Interview) (9). Interview with Ian Cheek.
- "Front Line Assembly: Tactical Neural Implant". Industrial Strength. DeKalb, Illinois (2): 27. 1992.
- Leeb, Bill (1992). "Interview". Industrial Nation (Interview) (5). Interview with Kim Traub. Oakland, California: Paul Valerio.
- Leeb, Bill (March 19, 1992). "Interview with Bill Leeb of Front Line Assembly Live on WCRD" (Interview). Interview with Michael Tressler. Muncie, Indiana: CRD.
- Reed, S. Alexander (2013). Assimilate: a critical history of industrial music. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-19-983260-6.
- Leeb, Bill (September 1992). "Interview with Bill Leeb". Flipside (Interview) (80). Interview with Dan.
- Kavadias, Theo. Front Line Assembly: Tactical Neural Implant > Overview at AllMusic. Retrieved March 31, 2010.
- Reed, S. Alexander (2013). Assimilate: a critical history of industrial music. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-19-983260-6.
- "Front Line Assembley have left Metropolis". Side-Line. October 28, 1999. Archived from the original on July 9, 2001. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
- Van Isacker, B. (April 19, 2007). "Forthcoming Front Line Assembly remix album countdown starts". Side-Line. Archived from the original on September 6, 2013. Retrieved March 31, 2014.
- "AirMech Soundtrack on Steam". Steamworks. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- Hill, Matt (September 2013). "Interview with Bill Leeb (Front Line Assembly)". Rock Sins. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Front Line Assembly". Billboard. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- Carlsson, Johan (July 10, 2013). "Remix album from Front Line Assembly is on its way". Release Magazine. Gothenburg: Release Musik & Media. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Barkan, Jonathan (April 29, 2014). "Front Line Assembly To Release 'Echogenetic' Remix Album 'Echoes'". Bloody Disgusting. Beverly Hills, California: The Collective. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Kahrle, Mikael (March 7, 2014). "Front Line Assembly and Architect on European tour in June". Release Magazine. Gothenburg: Release Musik & Media. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Vaudo, Zak (October 16, 2014). "Front Line Assembly to tour with Rhys Fulber, joins Gothic Meets Klassik". ReGen Magazine. College Park, Maryland. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Vaudo, Zak (November 7, 2014). "Front Line Assembly replaces VNV Nation on upcoming U.S. tour". ReGen Magazine. College Park, Maryland. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
- "Tour news: 10 days 'til we do this!". Official Front Line Assembly Facebook Page. November 18, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
- Boos, Jordan (December 26, 2014). "Skinny Puppy at Commodore Ballroom". Hello Vancity. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
- "What's on this Week: Sept. 17". Westender. Vancouver: Glacier Media. September 14, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Shrum, Tony (April 15, 2015). "Cold Waves IV Announces Full 2015 Lineup". New Noise. Berkeley, California. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- "Front Line Assembly to play Mexico City for the first time ever". Side-Line. October 29, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2015.
- Blink, Anastasia. "More "Stuff" Than "Dat" – an interview with Rhys Fulber of Front Line Assembly". Sonic Envelope Magazine. Archived from the original on September 26, 2003. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
- "Decree". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- shawnpt (November 4, 2012). "Music Box Opera by Delerium". Canadian Music Blog. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Yücel, Ilker (July 9, 2012). "Fear Factory Interview: Life in the Industrial Age, Part 1". ReGen. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- "Noise Unit". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Nicholas0 (February 8, 2007). "Blackland". Mindphaser.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
- brandtgassman (February 11, 2011). "WAX 7118 – Cyberaktif – Tenebrae Vision". Wax Trax! Family Site. Retrieved August 11, 2014.
- Huey, Steve. Equinox: Holon at AllMusic. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Brown, Marisa. Fauxliage: Artist Biography by Marisa Brown at AllMusic. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Smootz, Derek. "Intermix". Orphicmusic.com. Derek Smootz. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- epidemic27 (January 24, 2007). "Mutual Mortuary". Mindphaser.com. Archived from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Lim, Stacy. "Brap...The Skinny Puppy Discography – Other Projects". Brap...The Skinny Puppy Discography website. Retrieved August 19, 2014.
- Bahn™ (September 7, 2005). "Pro>Tech > History". Mindphaser.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Van Isacker, Bernard (January 25, 2007). "Front Line Assembly member delivers exclusive track for compilation netlabel". Side-Line. Archived from the original on July 13, 2009. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
- "Synaesthesia (CA)". Sputnikmusic. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Nicholas0 (October 28, 2006). "Will > History". Mindphaser.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- Mindphaser.com Official Site
- Front Line Assembly discography at MusicBrainz
- "Unit187.com". Unit 187 website. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- "Who is SV?". Stiff Valentine website. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- "Sonic Architects". Delerium website. Archived from the original on August 28, 2014. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
- "About". Conjure One website. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014. Retrieved August 11, 2014.