Antoine Hamilton

Antoine (or Anthony) Hamilton, comte (c. 1645 – 1719) was a soldier and a writer of literature. As a Catholic of Irish and Scottish ancestry, he fled with his family to France during the Interregnum and later sided with James II against the Prince of Orange, which led him into another French exile.

Anthony Hamilton
Comte d'Hamilton
Portrait of Hamilton as a young man with long curly greyish hair or such a wig
Tenure1667–1719
PredecessorGeorge Hamilton
Born1644 or 1645
Ireland, probably Roscrea
Died21 April 1719
Saint-Germain-en-Laye
FamilyHouse Hamilton
Spouse(s)unmarried
FatherSir George Hamilton, 1st Baronet, of Donalong
MotherMary Butler

As a soldier he fought in French service in the Franco-Dutch War (1672–1678) and then in the Irish Army in the Williamite War (1688–1690) where he fought on the losing side in the battles of Newtownbutler and the Boyne.

As a writer he chose French as his language and adopted a light and elegant style, seeking to amuse and entertain his reader. He is mainly known for the Mémoires du comte de Grammont, which focusses on the time his brother-in-law Philibert, comte de Gramont, spent at the court of Charles II at Whitehall.

Birth and originsEdit

Anthony was born in 1644 or 1645[1][a] in Ireland, probably in Roscrea, County Tipperary,[1][b] He was one of the nine children[9] and the third of the six sons of George Hamilton and his wife Mary Butler. His father was Scottish, the fourth son of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, and would in 1660 be created baronet of Donalong and Nenagh.[10] Anthony's mother was Irish, the third daughter of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles and a sister of the future 1st Duke of Ormond.[11] Her family, the Butler dynasty, was Old English and descended from Theobald Walter, who had been appointed Chief Butler of Ireland by King Henry II in 1177.[12] His parents married in 1629.[13]

Family tree
Anthony Hamilton with parents and other selected relatives. He never married.[c]
James
1st Earl

1575–1618
Marion
Boyd

d. 1632
Recusant
Thomas
Butler
Viscount
Thurles

d. 1619
Claud
2nd Baron
H. of
Strabane

d. 1638
George
1st Bt. Donalong

c. 1608 –
1679
Mary
Butler

d. 1680
James
Butler
1st Duke
Ormond

1610–1688
George
d. 1676
Soldier
Anthony
c. 1645 –
1719
Richard
c. 1655 –
1717
Jacobite
James
c. 1630 –
1673
d.v.p.*
Elizabeth
1641–1708
Beauty
Thomas
d. 1687
Captain
R. N.
John
d. 1691
Jacobite
James
6th Earl

c. 1661 –
1734
Legend
XXXSubject of
the article
XXXDuke of
Ormond
XXXEarls of
Abercorn
d.v.p. = decessit vita patris (predeceased his father).

Both his parents were Catholic, but some relatives, on his father's as on his mother's side, were Protestants. His grandfather, James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, had been a Protestant,[25] but his father and all his paternal uncles were raised as Catholics due to the influence of his paternal grandmother, Marion Boyd, a recusant.[26] Some branches of the Hamilton family were Protestant, such as that of his father's second cousin Gustavus (1642–1723), who would fight on the other side in the Williamite War. His mother's family, the Butlers, were Catholic with a few exceptions such as the future 1st Duke of Ormond, his maternal uncle. Anthony's eldest brother, James, would turn Protestant when marrying Elizabeth Colepeper in 1661.[27] His brother Thomas seems to have made the same choice as he became a captain in the Royal Navy.[28]

Irish wars (1641–1651)Edit

Anthony's father was a loyal cavalier. He fought in the Irish Confederate Wars (1641–1648) and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649–1653) in the Irish army under his uncle James Butler, the Marquess of Ormond, until 1651 when he followed Ormond into exile.[29]

In 1646 little Anthony, his mother and his elder siblings lived in his father's house in Roscrea, County Tipperary, Munster. The town belonged to the Butlers of Ormond as part of the County Palatine of Tipperary but was in the territory of the Irish Catholic Confederation since 1642. The area was peaceful as the Confederates had signed a cease-fire with the King in 1643 and the war with Inchiquin's Parliamentarians, based in Cork, did not reach so far north in Munster. However, Rinuccini, the papal nuncio, decided to overthrow the Confederate Supreme Council in a coup d'état with help of Owen Roe O'Neill's Confederate Ulster Army. O'Neill led his army south to Kilkenny, the capital of the Confederates, where he arrived on 16 September. Rinuccini then took power appointing new Supreme Council on the 26th.[30]

On 17 September 1646 O'Neill, or more likely some of his troops without him, took Rosscrea. They massacred many of the town's inhabitants but spared Lady Hamilton and her children.[31][32]

His father was governor of Nenagh in November 1650 when the Parliamentarian army under Henry Ireton attacked and captured Nenagh Castle on the way back from their unsuccessful siege of Limerick to their winter quarters at Kilkenny.[33]

First French exile (1651–1661)Edit

In spring 1651, when Anthony was about seven years old, his father followed his maternal uncle, the Marquess of Ormond, from Ireland into French exile.[34][35] They first went to Caen,[34] in Normandy, where they were all accommodated for some time by his aunt Elizabeth Preston, the Marchioness of Ormond. His father and his elder brothers, James and George, were soon employed by Charles II in various functions.[36][37] His mother then left for Paris where she would shelter in the convent of the Feuillantines together with her sister Eleanor Butler, Lady Muskerry.[38] Anthony's sister Elizabeth was sent to the boarding school of the convent of Port-Royal-des-Champs, near Versailles together with Lady Muskerry's daughter Helen. It may be that he stayed in Caen to be taught together with his Ormond cousins Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory and Richard Butler, 1st Earl of Arran.[39][40][d]

 
Portrait attributed to François de Troy (c. 1700)[e]

Restoration court (1660–1667)Edit

He and his family returned to London in 1660 with the advent of the English Restoration. His father was created Baronet Donalong in 1660 by Charles II, but Charles refused to go further than that because the family was Catholic.[41]

He, his eldest brother James, his sister Elizabeth, and his younger brother George became courtiers in the inner circle at Whitehall. The King arranged a Protestant marriage for James in 1691.[42][27][43]

In January 1663 Anthony met at Whitehall Philibert, chevalier de Gramont, a French exile.[44][45] De Gramont was already in his forties and a younger half-brother of the duc de Gramont, Marshal of France. The chevalier de Gramont had got into trouble at the French court by courting Mademoiselle Anne-Lucie de la Mothe-Houdancourt, on whom Louis XIV had set his eyes.[46][47][48][49][f]

He befriended de Gramont, who quickly became part of the court's inner circles. Gramont courted his sister Elizabeth, "La belle Hamilton", who was seduced by Gramont's verbiage and gallantry. Philibert married her in London in December 1663 or early in 1664.[50][51][52] The couple had a son on 7 September, but he died as an infant.[53] In March 1664, having heard of de Gramont's marriage, Louis XIV allowed him to return.[54]

Second French exile (1667–1685)Edit

In 1667, his brother George refused to take the oath of supremacy and went to France. George recruited a regiment in Ireland for French service and fought in the Franco-Dutch War (1672–1678). Anthony followed George to France in 1667 and took service in that regiment.[55]

 
Portrait engraved by Edward Scriven, found in the 1811 London edition of the Mémoires du comte de Grammont[56]

He probably fought with George under Turenne in the Battle of Sinsheim in June 1674, and did quite surely so at Entzheim in October against Imperial troops under the Duke von Bournonville[57] as he and George were both wounded at that battle.[58] George's and Anthony's wounds and the voyage to England, described below, undertaken by the three brothers, caused them to miss Turenne's winter campaign 1674/1675, during which the French marched south and surprised the Imperialists by launching a surprise attack on Upper Alsace, which culminated in Turennes's victory at the Battle of Turckheim on 5 January 1675.[59]

In March 1675 he visited England with George and his younger brother Richard, who had also taken French service. George returned to France from England, but Anthony and Richard continued to Ireland to recruit for the regiment.[60] The recruits were picked up by French ships at Kinsale in April[61] after a missed appointment at Dingle in March.[62]

On 27 July 1675 Anthony probably fought with George at Sasbach, where Turenne was killed. Two of Turenne's general officers considered themselves second in command: Count Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges and the marquis de Vaubrun. At the retreat from Sasbach and the Battle of Altenheim in August the French army was therefore commanded by both until Vaubrun was killed in that battle on 1 August 1676. Finally arrived the new commander, Condé, whom the King had appointed. However, Condé was old and was soon replaced by Luxembourg. George was killed in June 1676 while commanding Luxembourg's rear-guard at the Zaberner Steige where imperial troops under Charles V, Duke of Lorraine pursued the French who were retreating eastward to Saverne in lower Alsace.[16][63][16] Anthony succeeded to his brother's French title of comte d'Hamilton.[64] Voltaire calls him "comte" in his note of 1739.[40] The Peace of Nijmegen of 1678 ended the Franco-Dutch War[65] and Anthony seems to have returned to Ireland.

According to the majority view, the comte d'Hamilton, as he now was, visited France in 1681 and played one of six zephyrs needed in the performance of Quinault's ballet the Triomphe de l'Amour, to music by Lully, on 21 January 1681 N.S. at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye before the king.[66][67][68][69] However, some believe it was Richard.[70]

Ireland (1685–1690)Edit

In 1685 James II acceded to the English throne and appointed Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell commander of the Irish army. Tyrconnell, a Catholic, recruited Anthony Hamilton and his younger brothers Richard and John. Anthony was appointed lieutenant-colonel of Sir Thomas Newcomen's regiment.[71] Later in that same year he was appointed governor of Limerick where his regiment was garrisoned, replacing Sir William King, a Protestant.[72] Shortly he demonstrated his Catholicism when he went publicly to mass.[citation needed]

In 1688, at the eve of the Glorious Revolution, he was sent with his battalion to England in an effort to provide James with reliable Catholic troops.[73] After James's flight Hamilton made his way back to Ireland where he was promoted to major-general and given the command of the dragoons, under Justin McCarthy, Viscount Mountcashel, in actions around Enniskillen. At some stage his unit was garrisoned in Belturbet, County Cavan. In the battle of Newtownbutler on 31 July 1689, serving under McCarthy, he was wounded in the leg at the beginning of the action, and his dragoons were routed. He succeeded in making good his escape.[74] Hamilton was considered to have led his dragoons into an ambush by over-confidence; and to have made minimal efforts to extricate them. With Captain Lavallin from Cork he served as scapegoat for the defeat, being subjected to a court martial under General de Rosen. Given his family's influence Hamilton was acquitted, while the hapless Lavallin was shot.[75] However, the reputations of the Hamilton brothers had suffered terminal damage with the French.[76]

Anthony Hamilton fought in the cavalry at the battle of the Boyne on 1 July 1690.[77] He also took part in the Siege of Limerick (1690) and when William had to raise the siege in autumn, Tyrconnell sent him to France to report the victory.[78] He does not seem to have returned to Ireland and was absent at the Battle of Aughrim on 12 July 1691 where his youngest brother, John, was mortally wounded.[22][79]

Final French exile (1690–1719) and timelineEdit

He spent the last thirty years of his life mainly at the court of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, with visits to the châteaux of his friends and to Les Moulineaux, the house of his sister Elizabeth at Versailles. From his years in Ireland he was a friend of the Duke of Berwick. He became an especial favourite with Ludovise, duchesse du Maine, and it was at her seat at Sceaux that he wrote the Mémoires that made him famous.

In 1701 he accompanied Berwick on a mission to Rome to obtain the support of the new pope, Clement XI for the Jacobite cause.[80]

In May 1703 his sister Elizabeth was given a house called Les Moulineaux, where he visited her often and which became a centre of his social world.[81][82]

In 1707 his friend the comte de Gramont died.[83][84] On 3 June 1708 his sister Elizabeth, the comtesse de Gramont died in Paris.[85][86]

He never married and died at the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 20 April 1719.[2][3][87][88][g]

WorksEdit

Antoine Hamilton is mainly known for a single book: the Mémoires du comte de Grammont. After this followed some shorter works among which the four short stories: Le Bélier, Fleur d'Epine, Zénéyde, and Les quatre Facardins.

MemoirsEdit

Anthony Hamilton wrote the Mémoires du comte de Gramont between 1704 and 1710 at the age of 59 to 65. This work made Hamilton one of the classical writers of France. The tone of the work, however, is now thought equivocal. By highlighting the brilliance of the London Restoration court, the book threw into relief the lacklustre nature of the exiled Stuart court. It has even been said to share something with the anti-jacobite polemic written against the court of James II at St Germain by John Macky.[95]

 
Frontispiece of the 1713 edition[96]

The book starts with the sentence (as translated by Horace Walpole):

As those who read only for amusement are, in my opinion, more worthy of attention than those who open a book merely to find a fault, to the former I address myself, and for their entertainment commit the following pages to press, without being in the least concerned about the severe criticism of the latter.[97]

The work was said to have been written at Gramont's dictation, but Hamilton's share is obvious and the book situates itself at the cross-roads between memoirs, biography, and fiction.[98]

The work was first published anonymously in 1713,[94] apparently without Hamilton's knowledge. The first English translation is the one by Abel Boyer, which appeared in 1714. Walpole's translation is the classical one and used in many editions. It seem it has been published for the first time in 1773 at Strawberry Hill Press. Peter Quennell retranslated the Memoirs in 1930. It was published accompanied with extensive commentary by Cyril Hughes Hartmann.

Other worksEdit

In imitation and satiric parody of the romantic tales that Antoine Galland's translation of Thousand and One Nights had brought into favour, Hamilton wrote, partly for the amusement of Henrietta Bulkley, sister of Anne, Duchess of Berwick, to whom he was much attached, four ironic and extravagant contes (fairy tales): Le Bélier, Fleur d'Epine, Zénéyde and Les quatre Facardins. The saying in Le Belier, "Belier, mon ami, tu me ferais plaisir si tu voulais commencer par le commencement," passed into a proverb. These tales were circulated privately during Hamilton's lifetime. The first three were published in Paris in 1730, ten years after the author's death; a collection of his Œuvres diverses in 1731 contained the unfinished Zénéyde.[99] An 1849 omnibus entitled Fairy Tales and Romances contained English translations of all his fiction.

Hamilton also wrote some songs, and exchanged amusing verses with the Duke of Berwick. In the name of his niece, the countess of Stafford, Hamilton maintained a witty correspondence with Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.[100]

Notes, citations, and sourcesEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b Anthony Hamilton died on 20 or 21 April 1719 aged 74.[2][3] He was therefore born between 21/22 April 1644 and 20/21 April 1645.[1] Some older sources give his year of death as 1720, which leads to a later birth date,[4][5] Walpole (1888) gives an even earlier but quite vague date.[6]
  2. ^ Most authors agree on Roscrea as his place of birth[7] but the Encyclopaedia Britannica (1911) mentions Drogheda as another possibility.[8]
  3. ^ This family tree is partly derived from the Abercorn pedigree pictured in Cokayne.[14] Also see the list of siblings in the text.
  4. ^ Voltaire by error believed Hamilton was born in Caen, certainly because he lived there when he was young.[40]
  5. ^ Portrait in the National Portrait Gallery painted about 1700 and attributed to François de Troy.
  6. ^ The girl courted by Louis and Philibert in 1662 was Anne-Lucie de La Motte-Houdancourt, who would marry René-François de La Vieuville [fr] in 1676. Walpole, when translating the Mémoires du comte de Gramont into English, confused her with Anne-Madeleine de Conty d'Argencourt, who had been a lesser mistress of Louis XIV four years earlier, in 1658.[48] Cyril Hughes Hartmann repeats this error.[49]
  7. ^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica[87] and Rigg[88] by error give his year of death as 1720, but Burke (1949)[2] and Corp (2004a)[3] give 1719, which is correct.

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Corp 2004a, p. 766, left column, line 8 of the entry: "He was probably born at Roscrea, co. Tipperary, in 1644 or 1645."
  2. ^ a b c d Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 17: "3. Anthony, the celebrated Count Hamilton, author of the "Mémoires de Grammont", Lieut-Gen in the French service, died 20 April 1719, aged 74."
  3. ^ a b c Corp 2004a, p. 768, left column, line 39: "Anthony Hamilton died unmarried at the age of seventy-four at St Germain on 21 April 1719 (not 1720 as stated in many biographies) ..."
  4. ^ Auger 1805, p. 2, line 1: "Antoine Hamilton d'une ancienne et illustre maison d'Écosse, naquit en Irlande, vers l'année 1646."
  5. ^ Chisholm 1910b, p. 884, left column, bottom: "Hamilton, Anthony, or Antoine (1646–1720), French classical author, was born about 1646."
  6. ^ Walpole 1888, p. 2, line 15: "He [Anthony Hamilton] was, as well as his brothers and sisters, born in Ireland it is generally said, about the year 1646; but there is some reason to imagine that it was three or four years earlier."
  7. ^ Walpole 1888, p. 2, line 18: "The place of his birth, according to the best family accounts, was Roscrea, in the county of Tipperary, the usual residence of his father ..."
  8. ^ Chisholm 1910b, p. 884, right column, line 4: "According to some authorities he was born at Drogheda, but according to the London edition of his works in 1811, his birthplace was Roscrea, Tipperary."
  9. ^ Debrett 1828, p. 63, line 20: "He [George Hamilton] m. Mary, 3d daughter of Thomas, Viscount Thurles, son of Walter, 11th earl of Ormond and sister of James, duke of Ormond, and had issue 6 sons and 3 daughters ..."
  10. ^ Burke 1869, p. 2, right column, bottom: "George (Sir) of Donalong, co. Tyrone, and Nenagh, co. Tipperary, created a baronet of Ireland, in 1660, for his services to the royal cause."
  11. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 3: "... Mary 3rd dau. of Thomas Viscount Thurles and sister of the 1st Duke of Ormonde. He d. 1679. She d. Aug 1680 ..."
  12. ^ Debrett 1828, p. 640: "Theobald le Boteler on whom that office [Chief Butler of Ireland] was conferred by King Henry II., 1177 ..."
  13. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 2: "[Sir George] m. (art. dated 2 June 1629) Mary, 3rd dau. of Thomas, Viscount Thurles ..."
  14. ^ Cokayne 1910, p. 4: "Tabular pedigree of the Earls of Abercorn"
  15. ^ a b Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 8: "He [James Hamilton] d.v.p. of a wound received in a naval engagement with the Dutch, 6 June 1673 and was buried in Westminster Abbey."
  16. ^ a b c d Sergeant 1913, p. 217: "At the beginning of June he took part in the battle of Zebernstieg and was engaged in covering the French retreat on Saverne when he was killed by a musket-shot."
  17. ^ Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 29: "Elizabeth, the beautiful and accomplished wife of Philibert, comte de Grammont; she d. 1708."
  18. ^ Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 25: "Thomas, in the sea service; d. in New England."
  19. ^ Clark 1921, p. 74: "[Thomas Hamilton] rendered James no small service in capturing, off the west coast of Scotland, some of the ships which the Earl of Argyle had equipped to aid Monmouth in his rising."
  20. ^ Sewall 1878, p. 176: "May 9 [1687]. Hamilton, Capt. of the Kingsfisher dies."
  21. ^ Boulger 1911, p. 155: "Richard Hamilton had been wounded and taken prisoner by the time that William's cavalry came down from Donore on the right flank of the Irish infantery commanded by him in and behind Oldbridge."
  22. ^ a b Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 27: "John, Colonel in the army of James II., killed at the battle of Aughrim."
  23. ^ Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 31: "Lucia, who married Sir Donogh of Lamineagh, Bart"
  24. ^ Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 33: "Margaret, m. to Mathew Forde, Esq. of Seaforde."
  25. ^ Metcalfe 1909, p. 234, line 10: "Her husband [the 1st Earl] had been a staunch Protestant, an elder in the Kirk, and a member of the General Assembly."
  26. ^ Metcalfe 1909, p. 234, line 12: "During his [the 1st Earl's] lifetime she had evidently conformed; but after his death she had evidently relapsed."
  27. ^ a b Clark 1921, p. 16: "James Hamilton's marriage to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Colepeper ... took place as early as 1660 or 1661. As the lady was a Protestant, James Hamilton left the Church of Rome shortly before his marriage, to the great sorrow and anger of his devout mother ..."
  28. ^ Clark 1921, p. 13: "... Thomas, Anthony's junior had entered the Navy in 1666 or earlier."
  29. ^ Millar 1890, p. 177, left column, line 46: "... the Marquis of Ormonde, whom he [Sir George Hamilton] followed to Caen in the spring of 1651 with his wife and family."
  30. ^ Carte 1851, p. 266: "... on the 26th [September 1646] by a solemn decree [Rinuccini] appointed a new council consisting of four bishops and eight laymen ..."
  31. ^ Sergeant 1913, p. 145, line 21: "For some reason, when the rebel leader Owen O'Neill took Roscrea, Tipperary, the home of the Hamiltons, in September 1646, and put the inhabitants to the sword, he spared Lady Hamilton and her young children—to which act of clemency we owe, incidentally, the Memoirs of Gramont, Anthony then but newly born."
  32. ^ a b Carte 1851, p. 265: "... after taking Roscrea on Sept. 17, and putting man, woman, and child to the sword, except sir G. Hamilton's lady, sister to the marquis of Ormond ..."
  33. ^ a b Warner 1768, p. 228: "... taking Nenagh and two other castles, on the tenth of November, he came to his winter quarters at Kilkenny."
  34. ^ a b Millar 1890, p. 177, left column: "Marquis of Ormonde, whom he followed to Caen in the spring of 1651 with his wife and family."
  35. ^ a b Clark 1921, p. 5: "In the spring of 1651 took place, at last, the event which had such a determining influence on the fate of the young Hamiltons. Sir George Hamilton left his country for France with his family ..."
  36. ^ Clark 1921, p. 8, line 14: "... James the eldest also joined the wandering court, though the precise nature of his connexion is not known."
  37. ^ Clark 1921, p. 8, line 13: "... George, the second son, was made a page to Charles II ..."
  38. ^ Clark 1921, p. 8: "... his [Anthony Hamilton's] mother and his aunt, Lady Muskerry, had apartments at the couvent des Feuillantines in Paris ..."
  39. ^ Clark 1921, p. 8, line 24: "One wonders whether he was placed under the tuition of the French minister at Caen ..."
  40. ^ a b c Voltaire 1877, p. 573: "Le comte Antoine Hamilton, né à Caen en Normandie, a fait des vers pleins de feu et de légèreté. Il était fort satirique. (Note de Voltaire 1739)"
  41. ^ Chisholm 1910b, p. 884 right column, line 9: "The fact that, like his father, he [Anthony Hamilton] was a Roman Catholic prevented his receiving the political promotion ..."
  42. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 6: "1. James, col. in the service of CHARLES II and Groom of the Bedchamber, m. 1661, Elizabeth, dau. of John, Lord Colepeper."
  43. ^ Clark 1921, p. 14, line 17"... Charles ... obtained the hand of one of the Princess Royal's maids of honour for him."
  44. ^ a b Saint-Simon 1899, p. 560, line 8: "Il arriva à Londres le 15 janvier 1663, et retrouva entre autres camarades, les Hamilton, de grande maison écossaise et catholique, dont il avait fréquenté plusieurs jeunes gens au Louvre dans l'entourage de la veuve et du fils de Charles 1er."
  45. ^ Auger 1805, p. 2, line 28: "Près de deux ans après le rétablissement de Charles II, arriva à Londres le fameux chevalier de Grammont, exilé de France ..."
  46. ^ Hamilton 1713, p. 104: "La Motte Houdancourt étoit une des filles de la Reine-Mère."
  47. ^ Auger 1805, pp. 2–3: "Près de deux ans après le rétablissement de Charles II, arriva à Londres le fameux chevalier de Grammont, exilé de France pour avoir voulu disputer à son maître le cœur de mademoiselle La Mothe-Houdancourt."
  48. ^ a b Hamilton 1888, p. 107: "La Motte-Agencourt was one of maids of honour of the queen dowager ..."
  49. ^ a b Hartmann 1924, p. 58: "Gramont was thoroughly competent to speak on such a matter, seen that his own presence in England was due to the fact that he had been misguided enough to make advances to Mademoiselle La Motte Argencourt, with whom his own master, Louis XIV, was also enamoured."
  50. ^ Hartmann 1930, p. 378: "The chevalier de Gramont's rare constancy had met with its reward long before, towards the end of December 1663."
  51. ^ a b Paul 1904, p. 55: "she [Elizabeth] married in 1664 the dissipated Philibert, Count de Gramont ..."
  52. ^ Saint-Simon 1899, p. 563, line 8: "Le contrat de mariage fut passé sans autre retard, le 9 décembre 1663 (style anglais) ..."
  53. ^ Saint-Simon 1899, p. 563, line 11: "... ayant déjà un fils né le 7 septembre, mais qui ne vécut point."
  54. ^ Louis XIV 1806, p. 170: "Au comte de Grammont. Paris le 6 mars 1664. Monsieur Le Comte de Grammont. Il ne faut point que l'impatience de vous rendre auprès de moi, trouble vos nouvelles douceurs. Vous serez toujours le bien-venu ..."
  55. ^ Corp 2004a, p. 766, right column, last paragraph: "They [Anthony and Richard] served in the Franco-Dutch war 1672-8."
  56. ^ Hamilton 1811, [1] Frontispiece.
  57. ^ Sergeant 1913, p. 213: "In 1674 he [George Hamilton] was engaged in two desperate struggles between Turenne and the Duke of Bournonville, at Sintzheim on June 16th and at Entzheim on October 6th, on both occasions playing a distinguished part in Turenne's victory."
  58. ^ a b Clark 1921, p. 54: "George and Anthony were both wounded."
  59. ^ Clark 1921, p. 55, line 31: "Turenne defeated them at Mulhouse on the 29th of December and at Turckheim on January 5th. George and Anthony did not, however, take part in these operations ..."
  60. ^ a b Clark 1921, p. 56, line 10: "He [George Hamilton] left in the very beginning of March [1675], but Anthony was put in charge of the difficult expedition, and with him was his younger brother Richard, who must have entered the French service some time before."
  61. ^ Clark 1921, p. 56, bottom: "All in a sudden, in the first week of April, the French ships arrived unexpectedly in Kinsale."
  62. ^ Clark 1921, p. 56, line 31: "Hamilton expected the French ships on the 8th of March but they did not appear."
  63. ^ Clark 1921, p. 63: "Near Saverne Lorraine [i.e. the duc de L.] attacked his rear-guard, commanded by George Hamilton, but was driven back in a fierce combat, in which Hamilton and his regiment fought with all possible bravery, though the Imperialists spread a report that all the English and Irish in the French service had surrendered. In the moment of victory George Hamilton fell."
  64. ^ a b Corp 2004b, p. 217, line 1: "Anthony Hamilton had inherited his brother's title in 1678."
  65. ^ a b Lynn 1999, p. 156: "... and peace followed with the emperor on 26 January 1679."
  66. ^ Parfaict 1756, p. 538: "Zéphyrs. M. le Prince de la Roche-sur-Yon, M. de Vermandois, Messieurs les marquis d'Alincourt, de Moy et de Richelieu, M. le Comte d'Hamilton."
  67. ^ Auger 1805, p. 5, line 13: "Quelques années auparavant, en 1681, dans un de ces voyages qu'il faisoit en France, il avoit vu ce même St-Germain l'asile des plaisirs et de la volupté, et il avoit été choisi par le roi pour figurer dans le Triomphe de l'amour, ballet de Quinault."
  68. ^ Rigg 1890, p. 135 right column, middle: "He [Anthony Hamilton] appeared as a zephyr in the performance of Quinault's ballet, the 'Triomphe d'amour,' at St. Germain-en-Laye in 1681.
  69. ^ a b Corp 2004a, p. 766, right column, bottom: "During this period he appeared alongside the dauphin as a zephyr in Lully's ballet Le triomphe de l'amour, which was given twenty-nine performances in the Château de St Germain-en-Laye in January and February 1681."
  70. ^ Wauchope 2004, p. 888, right column, line 20: "... he [Richard Hamilton] danced before Louis XIV as a zephyr in Quinault's ballet Le triomphe de l'amour at St Germain-en-Laye"
  71. ^ Clark 1921, p. 74, line 10: "Anthony also took service in Ireland as Sir Thomas Newcomen's Lieutenant-Colonel in his regiment of foot."
  72. ^ Clark 1921, p. 75, line 8: "...  he [Antoine Hamilton] was, however, appointed Governor of Limerick in 1685, in place of the Protestant Governor, Sir William King, who was deposed, and his company quartered in Limerick."
  73. ^ a b Childs 2007, p. 3: "To strengthen his forces in the face of the Dutch threat, James ordered the better elements of the Irish army into England. One regiment of dragoons, a battalion of the Irish Foot Guards, and Anthony Hamilton's and Lord Forbes's battalions of line infantry ..."
  74. ^ a b Rigg 1890, p. 135, right column, bottom: "With the rank of major-general he commanded the dragoons, under Lord Mountcashell, at the siege of Enniskillen, and the battle of Newtown Butler on 31 July 1689 was wounded in the leg at the beginning of the action, and his raw levies were routed with great slaughter."
  75. ^ Clark 1921, p. 96: "Anthony was acquitted and Lavallin, who to the end protested that he had repeated the order as it had been given to him, was put to death."
  76. ^ Callow 2004, p. 126.
  77. ^ a b Boulger 1911, p. 158: "With regard to Anthony Hamilton, whose name has just been mentioned, it may be stated that he did participate in the cavalry charges."
  78. ^ a b Boulger 1911, p. 199: "... he [Tyrconnell] sent Anthony Hamilton to France with news of the raising of the siege ..."
  79. ^ Boulger 1911, p. 244: "Major-General John Hamilton, who died at Dublin soon after his wounds."
  80. ^ Corp 2004b, p. 217, line 7: "In 1701 He accompanied Berwick on his misson to Rome to obtain the support of the new Pope Clement XI for the Jacobite cause."
  81. ^ Corp 2004b, p. 217, line 12: "In May 1703 Louis XIV gave Hamilton's sister the use during her lifetime of a house near Meudon called 'Les Moulineaux'. In the five years until her death in June 1708 it was much frequented and became the centre of [Anthony] Hamilton's social world."
  82. ^ Clark 1921, p. 122: "When Félix, the chief-surgeon, died in 1703, a small property of his, les Moulineaux, which lay within the grounds of Versailles, fell vacant and the king at once gave to Madame de Gramont, a present which caused no little talk ..."
  83. ^ a b Corp 2004a, p. 767, right column, line 34: "... Gramont's death in January 1707."
  84. ^ a b Chisholm 1910a, p. 333, left column: "He [Gramont] died on the 10th of January 1707 ..."
  85. ^ Dangeau 1857, p. 150: "June 1708. Dimanche 3 ... La comtesse de Gramont mourut à Paris."
  86. ^ a b Paul 1904, p. 56, line 7: "... she [Elizabeth Hamilton] died, 3 June 1708, aged sixty-seven."
  87. ^ a b Chisholm 1910b, p. 884, right column, line 28: "He died at St. Germain-en-Laye on the 21st of April 1720."
  88. ^ a b Rigg 1890, p. 136, left column, line 27: "He [Anthony Hamilton] died at St. Germain-en-Laye on 21 April 1720."
  89. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 44, line 17: "Charles I. ... exec. 30 Jan. 1649 ..."
  90. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 44, line 39: "Charles II. ... acc. 29 May 1660 ..."
  91. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, top: "George (Sir), 1st Bt of Donalong, co. Tyrone and Nenagh, co. Tipperary created baronet of Scotland about 1660; ... He d. 1679."
  92. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 44, line 46: "James II. ... acc. 6 Feb. 1685 ..."
  93. ^ Fryde et al. 1986, p. 45, line 11: "William III. ... acc. 13 Feb. 1689 ..."
  94. ^ a b Chisholm 1910b, p. 884, right column, line 32: "The work was first published anonymously in 1713 under the rubric of Cologne, but it was really printed in Holland at that time the greatest patroness of all questionable authors."
  95. ^ Callow 2004, p. 232 & 239.
  96. ^ Hamilton 1713, frontispiece.
  97. ^ Hamilton 1888, p. 31.
  98. ^ Drabble 1985, p. 409: "The first part of the memoirs, dealing with Gramont's life on the Continent down to the time of his banishment from the French court, was probably dictated by Gramont to Hamilton. The second part of the memoirs relating to the English court appears to be Hamilton's own work."
  99. ^ Chisholm 1910b, p. 884 right column, line 52: "These tales were circulated privately during Hamilton's lifetime, and the first three appeared in Paris in 1730, 10 years after the death of the author; a collection of his Oeuvres diverses in 1731 contained the unfinished Zénéyde"
  100. ^ Chisholm 1910b, p. 884, right column, line 60: "In the name of his niece, the countess of Stafford, Hamilton maintained a witty correspondence with Lady Mary Wortley Montagu."

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