Claud Hamilton, 1st Lord Paisley
The Lord Paisley
|Preceded by||Inaugural holder|
|Succeeded by||James Hamilton|
|Born||9 June 1546|
|Died||3 May 1621(aged 74)|
|Relations||Marquess of Hamilton (brother)|
|Children||James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn|
|Parents||James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran|
Lady Margaret Douglas
Birth and originsEdit
Claud was born in 1546 (baptised 9 June), probably at Paisley, Scotland. He was the fifth and youngest son of James Hamilton and his wife Margaret Douglas. His father was from the House of Hamilton, being the 2nd Earl of Arran in Scotland and 1st Duke of Châtellerault in France. Claud's mother was a daughter of James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Morton. Both parents were Scottish. They had married in September 1532.
He appears below at the bottom of the list of his brothers as the youngest son:
- James (1537–1609), became insane in 1562 but nevertheless succeeded nominally his father as the 3rd Earl of Arran in 1575;
- John (1535–1604), became the 1st Marquess of Hamilton;
- Gavin, died young;
- David (died 1611); and
- Claud (1546–1621).
His sisters were:
- Barbara, married in 1553 James Fleming, 4th Lord Fleming;
- Jean, married Hugh Montgomerie, 3rd Earl of Eglinton in 1555;
- Anne (c. 1535 – before April 1574), married George Gordon, 5th Earl of Huntly; and
- Margaret, married Sir Alexander, eldest son of George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly.
Commendator of PaisleyEdit
His uncle John Hamilton, an illegitimate son of his grandfather, the 1st Earl of Arran, was commendatory abbot of Paisley Abbey around the time of his birth. In 1553 this uncle succeeded David Beaton as Archbishop of St Andrews and agreed to pass the position as commendator to his nephew Claud, who was then about seven years old.
On 2 May 1568, he helped Mary, Queen of Scots, to escape from Loch Leven Castle, and afterwards on 13 May 1568 fought for her at the defeat of Langside. His estates having been forfeited because of condemnation, Hamilton was concerned in the murder of the Regent James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray in 1570, and also in that of the Regent Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox in the following year; but in 1573 he recovered his estates.
Marriage and childrenEdit
On 1 August 1574 at Niddry Castle, Lord Paisley married Margaret Seton, the daughter of George Seton, 7th Lord Seton and his wife, Isabel Hamilton. Among her siblings were Robert Seton, 1st Earl of Winton; Sir John Seton of Barnes, attendant to the Earl of Leicester in 1575, Master Carver to Philip II of Spain and Master of Horse to James VI; Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Dunfermline, Lord Urquhart, Lord Fyvie, and Prior of Pluscarden; and Sir William Seton, who married Janet Dunbar.
Together, Lord Paisley and Margaret were the parents of many children, including:
- James (1575–1618), was created the 1st Earl of Abercorn in 1603;
- John, married Johanna Everard, daughter of Levimus Everard;
- Claud (died 1614), of Shawfield, was appointed to the Privy Council of Ireland, and whose daughter Margaret married Sir John Stewart of Methven;
- George (died before 1657) of Greenlaw and Roscrea, went to live at Derrywoon;
- Frederick (1590–1647), built Manorhamilton and served Sweden in the Thirty Years' War;
- Margaret (died 1623), married William Douglas, 1st Marquess of Douglas.
In 1562 his eldest brother, James, was declared insane. His father died at Hamilton on 22 January 1575. His brother James as the eldest inherited the title and estate but because of his insanity, John the second brother had to stand in for him.
Then in 1579 the privy council decided to arrest both him and his brother, Lord John Hamilton (c. 1535–1604) (afterwards 1st Marquess of Hamilton), to punish them for their past misdeeds; but the brothers escaped to the Kingdom of England, where Elizabeth I of England used them as pawns in the diplomatic game, and later Claud lived for a short time in France.
In April 1583 Claud was in exile in England at Widdrington Castle in Northumberland. He wrote to Queen Elizabeth and Frances Walsingham for aid for his expenses living in this "sober house" especially as his wife was soon to visit.
Returning to Scotland in 1586 and mixing again in politics, he sought to reconcile James VI of Scotland with his mother; he was in communication with Philip II of Spain in the interests of Mary and the Roman Catholic religion, and neither the failure of Anthony Babington's plot nor even the defeat of the Spanish Armada put an end to these intrigues.
In 1587 he was created a Scottish Lord of Parliament as Lord Paisley, when the abbey was erected as a barony. With this the Hamilton family gained a second seat in Parliament, the first being held by his elder brother John for his eldest brother James, during his insanity. This seat in the Scottish Parliament was occupied after his death by his grandson James, the 2nd earl of Abercorn and Lord Paysley became a subsidiary title of the earls, later marquesses and dukes of Abercorn, which was held by the heir apparent.
Illness and deathEdit
In 1589 some of his letters were seized and Lord Paisley, as he was now, suffered a short imprisonment, after which he practically disappeared from public life. He suffered from mental illness in his later years. In November 1590 he broke down in tears after reading the Bible and it was thought he would not recover 'in regard of the infirmity haunting and falling on many descended of that house'. His eldest brother James Hamilton, 3rd Earl of Arran had been suffering from a mental illness since 1562. In 1598 he allowed James, his eldest son, styled the Master of Paisley, to act on his behalf with regard to all the affairs concerning the town. His wife died in March 1616. His son predeceased him in 1618. He died in 1621 and was buried in Paisley Abbey. He was succeeded by his grandson, James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Abercorn.
|0||1546||Born, probably in Paisley.|
|7||1553||Made Commendator of Paisley Abbey.|
|14||1560, Mar||Sent to England as hostage for the Treaty of Berwick.|
|16||1562, Apr||His eldest brother, James, was declared insane.|
|22||1568, 2 May||Helped Queen Mary to escape from Lochleven Castle.|
|22||1568, 13 May||Fought for Queen Mary in the defeat of the Langside.|
|24||1570||Killed Regent Murray.|
|27||1573||Regained his estates.|
|28||1574, 1 Aug||Married Margaret Seton at Niddry Castle.|
|29||1575, 22 Jan||His father died and James succeeded but as he was insane, John, the 2nd, became Earl de facto.|
|33||1579||The privy council decided to arrest John and Claud Hamilton.|
|40||1586||Back in Scotland.|
|70||1616||His wife died.|
- Holmes 2004, p. 776, line 3 of the entry: "... was born probably in 1546, the fifth and youngest son of James Hamilton, second Earl of Arran and first Duke of Châtelherault ..."
- Cokayne 1910, p. 221, line 31: "He m., shortly before 23 Sep. 1532, Margaret 1st da. of James (DOUGLAS), EARL OF MORTON [S.], by Catherine illeg. da. of James IV."
- Paul 1907, p. 368, line 34: "... who was born in 1537 or in 1538 as he was under twenty-three on 15 April 1560 when Randolph wrote to Cecil recommending his good qualities."
- Paul 1907, p. 369, line 4: "... Unhappily, in April 1562, he showed signs of disordered intellect, and was soon after pronounced insane."
- Henderson 1890, p. 176, left column: "On the death of his father in 1575, he came into nominal possession of his estates, which were, however, administrated by his second brother, John ..."
- Debrett 1828, p. 443, line 10: "John, 2d son of the Duke of Chatelherault, succeeded on his father's death to the family estates ..."
- Paul 1907, p. 369, line 11: "Gavin, styled second son ... appears to have died before August 1547 in his youth."
- Chatellherault's will, NAS ECC8/8/4
- Burke 1869, p. 2, right column, line 37: "d. unm. 1611."
- Dunlop 1890, p. 170, line 32: "Barbara, who married James, fourth lord Fleming, high chamberlain of Scotland."
- Paul 1907, p. 370, line 4: "Barbara, the eldest daughter, was first contracted to Alexander, Lord Gordon ... but it is not certain that the marriage took place ... She mas married (contract dated 22 December 1553) to James, Lord Fleming, chamberlain of Scotland."
- Dunlop 1890, p. 170, right column, line 37: "Jane, who married Hugh Montgomery, third earl of Eglintoun."
- Paul 1907, p. 370, line 15: "Jean or Jane ... was married (contract dated 13 February 1553-4) to the earl of Eglinton."
- Dunlop 1890, p. 170, right column, line 36: "Anne who married George, fifth Earl of Huntly."
- Dunlop 1890, p. 170, right column, line 34: "Margaret, who married Alexander, lord Gordon, eldest son of George, fourth earl of Huntly;"
- Holmes 2004, p. 776, line 6 of the entry: "He was made commendator of Paisley as a child when in 1553 his uncle James Hamilton resigned the position in order to become archbishop of St Andrews."
- Cokayne 1910, p. 4: "Tabular pedigree of the Earls of Abercorn"
- Bain 1898, p. 344: 1. The Duke of Chatelherault's 4th son, Lord Claude, aged 14 years: in Canterbury."
- Henderson 1890, p. 141: "He took a leading part in the plot for the deliverance of the Queen Mary from Lochleven and her re-establishment on the throne."
- Chisholm 1911.
- Paul 1911, p. 290, line 19: "Margaret, married at Niddry Castle, on 1 August 1574 (contract 15 and 16 June 1574), to Lord Claud Hamilton, fourth and youngest son of James, second Earl of Arran ..."
- Paul 1904, p. 39, line 24: "... having married, 1 August 1574 (contract dated 15 and 16 June 1574), Margaret daughter of George, fifth Lord Seton by Isabel daughter of Sir William Hamilton of Sanquhar ..."
- Boyd 1907, p. 120, linen 13: "Whereas of late a young gentlemen named John Seytoun, upon earnest desire to visit your highness' Court, repaired thither with my licence and recommendation to my Lord the Earl Leicester ..."
- Cokayne 1910, p. 2, line 8"On 5 Apr. 1603 he was cr. LORD ABERCORN, co. Linlithgow [S.], to him and his heirs whatsoever."
- Paul 1904, p. 40, line 4: "Sir John Hamilton, married Johanna, daughter of Levimus Everard, Councillor of State to the King of Spain, in the Province of Mechlin ..."
- Paul 1904, p. 40, line 17: "Claud Hamilton of Shawfield, co. Linlithgow, a Gentleman of the King's Privy Chamber, appointed 11 February 1613 a member of the Privy Council in Ireland, was granted as an undertaker the small proportions of Killeny and Teadane or Eden containing together 2000 acres of the barony of Strabane ..."
- Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 40: "Claud (Sir), commander of Fort of Toome, co. Antrim; m. the dau. and h. of sir Robert Hamilton, of manor Elieston, co. Tyrone, and d. 1629, leaving a son and heir."
- Paul 1904, p. 43, line 4: "Margaret, married first to Sir John Stewart of Metven, natural son of Ludovic, second Duke of Lennox; and secondly, to Sir John Seton of Gargunnock."
- Lodge 1789, p. 110: "Sir George Hamilton of Greenlaw, in the county of Tyrone, and of Roscrea, in the county of Tipperary, was granted the middle proportion of Largie alias Cloghogenal and the small proportion of Derrywoone but the grant was never enrolled. In 1611 he was resident at Derrywoone ..."
- Paul 1904, p. 43: "Sir Frederick Hamilton, a gentleman of the King's Privy Chamber, was in early life in the service of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden..."
- Paul 1904, p. 45, line 41: "Margaret, who was married (contract 11 July 1601), as his first wife, when she was only 12 years old, to William, first Marquess of Douglas, and died 11 September 1623, aged 38."
- Paul 1907, p. 368, line 28: "... died at Hamilton on 22 January 1574-75."
- William Boyd, Calendar State Papers Scotland: 1581-1583, vol. 6 (Edinburgh, 1914), pp. 401-402.
- Paul 1904, p. 39: "The Abbey of Paisley was erected into a temporal barony, and he was made a peer of Parliament under the title of LORD PAISLEY 24 July 1587."
- Boyd 1936, p. 422: "The Lord Claude Hamilton the other daie at the reading of a chapter of the Bible at his table entred sodainelie into abundance of teares, with remorse and confession of his sinnes. And soone after his senses ..."
- Metcalfe 1909, p. 194: "On October 2, 1598, a Letter of Factory and Commission signed by him ... was read to the town council ... It empowers the Master of Paisley to act as his father's factor ..."
- Paul 1904, p. 39, line 28: "... and by her [Margaret] who died in March 1616, had issue ..."
- Holmes 2004, p. 778, right column: "Lord Claud lived in retirement for over twenty years, dying in 1621, and was buried in Paisley Abbey"
- Henderson 1890, p. 144: "Paisley died in 1622, and was buried in the abbey of Paisley."
- Bain, Joseph, ed. (1898), Calendar of the State Papers Relating to Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots: 1547–1562, 1, Edinburgh: H M General Register House
- Boyd, William K., ed. (1907), Calendar of the State Papers Relating to Scotland: 1574–1581, 5, Edinburgh: H. M. General Register House
- Boyd, William K., ed. (1936), Calendar of the State Papers Relating to Scotland: 1589–1593, 10, Edinburgh: H. M. General Register House
- Burke, Bernard (1869), A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire (31st ed.), London: Harrison (for details on his siblings and children)
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911), "Paisley, Claud Hamilton, Lord", Encyclopædia Britannica, 20 (11 ed.), New York: Encyclopædia Britannica Company, p. 519
- Cokayne, George Edward (1910), Gibbs, Vicary (ed.), The complete peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, extant, extinct, or dormant, 1 (2nd ed.), London: St Catherine Press - AB-ADAM to BASING
- Debrett, John (1828), Peerage of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 2 (17th ed.), London: F. C. and J. Rivington - Scotland and Ireland
- Dunlop, Robert (1890), "HAMILTON, JAMES, second EARL OF ARRAN and DUKE OF CHÂTELHERAULT (d. 1575)", in Lee, Sidney (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography, 24, New York: MacMillan and Co., pp. 167–170
- Henderson, Thomas Finlayson (1890), "HAMILTON, CLAUD, LORD PAISLEY (1543(?)–1622)", in Lee, Sidney (ed.), Dictionary of National Biography, 24, New York: MacMillan and Co., pp. 141–144
- Holmes, Peter (2004), "Hamilton, Claud, first Lord Paisley (1546?–1621)", in Matthew, Colin; Harrison, Brian (eds.), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 24, New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 776–778, ISBN 0-19-861374-1
- Lodge, John (1789), The Peerage of Ireland, 5, Dublin: James Moore - Viscounts
- Metcalfe, William Musham (1909), A History of Paisley, Paisley: Alexander Gardner
- Paul, Sir James Balfour (1904), The Scots Peerage, Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, I, Edinburgh: David Douglas – Abercorn to Balmerino (for Lord Paisley)
- Paul, Sir James Balfour (1907), The Scots Peerage, Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, IV, Edinburgh: David Douglas – Fife to Hyndford (for Hamilton)
- Paul, Sir James Balfour (1911), The Scots Peerage, Founded on Wood's Edition of Sir Robert Douglas's Peerage of Scotland, VIII, Edinburgh: David Douglas – Sumerville to Winton (for Seton under Winton)
|Peerage of Scotland|
|New title|| Lord Paisley