Elizabeth, Countess de Gramont

Elizabeth, comtesse de Gramont (née Hamilton; 1641–1708), was an Irish-born beauty. She was a courtier, first after the Restoration at the court of Charles II of England in Whitehall and later, after her marriage to Philibert de Gramont, at the court of Louis XIV where she was a lady-in-waiting to the French queen, Maria Theresa of Spain.

Elizabeth Hamilton
Comtesse de Gramont
Head of a blue-eyed lady cropped out of a full-length painted portrait
Tenure1678-1708
BornElizabeth Hamilton
1641
Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland
Died3 June 1708
Paris
Noble familyHamilton
Spouse(s)Philibert, comte de Gramont
Issue
Claude Charlotte & Marie Elizabeth
FatherGeorge Hamilton, Baronet
MotherMary Butler

She was known as "la belle Hamilton" and was one of the Windsor Beauties painted by Peter Lely and appears prominently in the Mémoires du comte de Grammont, written by her brother Anthony.

Birth and originsEdit

Elizabeth was born in 1641,[1] in Strabane, County Tyrone, Ireland. She was the third of the nine children[2] and the eldest of the daughters of George Hamilton and his wife Mary Butler. Her father was Scottish, the fourth son of James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, and would in 1660 be created baronet of Donalong and Nenagh.[3] Her mother, Mary, was the third daughter of Thomas Butler, Viscount Thurles, and a sister of the future 1st Duke of Ormond.[4] Her mother's family, the Butler dynasty, was Old English and descended from Theobald Walter, who had been appointed Chief Butler of Ireland by King Henry II in 1177.[5] Her parents had married in 1629.[6]

Family tree
Elizabeth Hamilton with husband, children, parents, and other selected relatives.
James
1st Earl

1575–1618
Marion
Boyd

d. 1632
Recusant
Thomas
Butler
Viscount
Thurles

d. 1619
Claud
2nd Baron
H. of
Strabane

d. 1638
George
1st Bt.
Donalong

c. 1607 –
1679
Mary
Butler

d. 1680
James
Butler
1st Duke
Ormond

1610–1688
James
c. 1630 –
1673

Courtier
{{{GrgMm}}}Anthony
c. 1645 –
1719

Writer
Richard
c. 1655 –
1717

Jacobite
Philibert
de
Gramont

1621–1707
Elizabeth
1641–1708
Thomas
d. 1687
Captain
R. N.
Henry
1st Earl
Stafford

c. 1648 –
1719
Claude
Charlotte

d. 1739
Marie
Elizabeth

1667–1729
Abbess
Legend
XXXElizabeth
Hamilton
XXXDuke of
Ormond
XXXEarls of
Abercorn
This family tree is partly derived from the Abercorn pedigree pictured in Cokayne.[7] Also see the lists of siblings and children in the text.
 
Portrait by Peter Lely, c. 1663, one of the series of Windsor Beauties.[18] She is depicted as Saint Catherine as she holds a martyr's palm leaf in her left hand and a wheel leans against the socle of the column behind.

Both her parents were Catholic, but some relatives on her father's as on her mother's side were Protestant. Her grandfather, James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Abercorn, had been a Protestant,[19] but her father and all her paternal uncles were raised as Catholics due to the influence of her paternal grandmother, Marion Boyd, a Scottish recusant.[20] Some branches of the family were Protestant, such as that of her father's cousin Gustavus (1642–1723). Her mother's family, the Butlers, were generally Catholic with the notable exception of her maternal uncle, the future 1st Duke of Ormond. Her eldest brother, James, would turn Protestant when marrying Elizabeth Colepeper in 1661.[21] Her younger brother Thomas seems to have made the same choice as he became a captain in the Royal Navy.[22]

Irish wars (1641–1651)Edit

Her father served in the Irish army and fought for the royalists under the leadership of her uncle James Butler, the Earl of Ormond, in the Irish Confederate Wars (1641–1648) and the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland (1649-1653) until he followed Ormond into French exile in 1651.[23]

She is said to have been born in Strabane, County Tyrone, Ulster, near to which lies the townland of Dunnalong (or Donalong), which was her father's share of the land given to her grandfather Abercorn during the Plantation of Ulster.[24] Her uncle Claud had lived in the Castle of Strabane until his death in 1638. The family must have fled from Ulster during the Irish Rebellion of 1641 when Phelim O'Neill burned the Castle of Strabane and took her aunt Jean, the widow of her uncle Claud, prisoner.[25]

She was still an infant on 17 September 1646, when Owen Roe O'Neil, who had taken over from Phelim as leader of the Confederate Ulster army, captured Roscrea Castle where she lived. The confederates spared her, her siblings, and her mother but put everybody else to the sword.[26][27] Owen O'Neill was leading his army south after his victory over the Scottish Covenanters at Benburb in June and was now attacking the royalists as directed by Rinuccini, the papal nuncio.[28][29]

Her father was governor of Nenagh Castle, 30 kilometres (19 mi) west of Roscrea, in October 1650 when the Parliamentarian army under Henry Ireton attacked and captured the castle on the way back from the unsuccessful siege of Limerick to their winter quarters at Kilkenny.[30]

French exile (1651–1661)Edit

Early in 1651, when she was about ten, her father followed Ormond into French exile.[31] The family first went to Caen[32] where they were accommodated for some time by Elizabeth Preston, the Marchioness of Ormond.[33] Her father and her elder brothers, James and George, were soon employed by Charles II in various functions.[34][35] She then left for Paris with her mother, who would find shelter in the convent of the Feuillantines, together with her sister Eleanor Butler, Lady Muskerry,[36] while she was sent to boarding school at the abbey of Cistercian nuns of Port-Royal-des-Champs, near Versailles. This school had an excellent reputation and was ahead of its time by teaching in French rather than in Latin. She attended this school for seven or eight years, together with her cousin Helen Muskerry.[37][38] The abbey also was a stronghold of Jansenism, a Catholic religious movement that insisted on earnestness and asceticism but which was later declared heretic for its position on grace and original sin.[39]

Having left school, she was associated with the court in exile of Henrietta Maria, the dowager queen, Charles I' s widow, who had fled to France in 1644 and had in 1657 moved to the Château de Colombes, near Paris.[40] In March 1660 she met Sir John Reresby at the celebration of the Restoration organised by Henrietta Maria at the Palais-Royal in Paris.[41]

Whitehall (1661–1669)Edit

She became a member of the English court at Whitehall in 1661. She was admired as a great beauty and called "la belle Hamilton".[42] She also became known for her judgement, charm and sensibility. She was seen as witty and careful with her words as she, reportedly, said no more than she thought.[43] She also loved practical jokes and mischief. So she made fun of Margaret Bourke, a rich heiress, whom her cousin Lord Muskerry had married, by making her believe that she had been invited to a masquerade by the Queen and had to disguise herself as a Babylonian woman. This episode is told in the Mémoires du comte de Grammont.[44]

She was much courted at Whitehall. First of all by the Duke of Richmond whom she rejected when she found out that he would not marry her without a dowry.[45] She also resisted the advances of Henry Jermyn, 1st Baron Dover, though reputed irresistible.[46] She was not tempted by the thirty thousand per year of the heir of Norfolk.[47] She rejected Charles Berkeley, 1st Earl of Falmouth.[48] When courted by the Duke of York, the future King James II,[49] she doubted the sincerity of his intentions as he had just married Anne Hyde in 1660.[50]

Finally, in January 1663, appeared on the scene Philibert, chevalier de Gramont, a French exile.[51][52] He was already forty years old and a younger half-brother of Antoine III, duc de Gramont. He had got into trouble at the French court by courting Mademoiselle Anne-Lucie de la Mothe-Houdancourt, on whom Louis XIV had set his eyes.[53][54][55][a]

De Gramont quickly entered into the English court's inner circle. Not much adaptation was needed as French was the predominant language at the Restoration court.[56] Elizabeth admired his wit and gallantry and fell in love with him.

 
Engraving by Edward Scriven 1810, after Peter Lely.

MarriageEdit

Philibert married her in London late in 1663 or early in 1664.[57][58][59] In March 1664, having heard of his marriage, Louis XIV wrote him a letter giving him permission to return.[60] The couple had a son on 28 August old style, but he died as an infant.[61][62][63]

A famous anecdote is told about her marriage, which reverts the order of events by placing the marriage, which was according to this tale forced on de Gramont by her brothers, after the permission to return. It goes as follows:

When in 1664 he was allowed to return to France, he left in haste, giving the impression that he would not honour his commitments. Her brothers George and Anthony therefore pursued and intercepted him on his way to Dover and pressured him to return and marry her.[64] They asked him whether he had not forgotten something in London. He replied "Pardonnez-moi, messieurs, j'ai oublié d'épouser votre sœur." (Forgive me, Sirs, I have forgotten to marry your sister).[65][66][67] He turned around, went back to London, and dutifully married her.[68]

The story is partly proven wrong since he married her before Louis allowed him to come back, but it could well be true that a bit of pressure from her brothers was needed. It has been said that this incident suggested to Molière his comedy Le mariage forcé, first presented on 29 January 1664,[69] but this idea clashes with the known dates.

At the French court (1669–1708)Edit

She went with her husband to France[70] and was appointed in 1667 dame du palais or lady-in-waiting to the French Queen, Maria Theresa of Spain.[71] At that time the French court was seated at the Louvre in Paris, not yet at Palace of Versailles. At the court she was recognised as a woman of considerable wit and beauty.[72] She also knew how to hold her own at the court of Louis XIV, being said to have "beak and claws".[73] Her husband nevertheless pursued his gallant exploits to the close of a long life, being, said Ninon de l'Enclos, the only old man who could affect the follies of youth without being ridiculous.[74]

In 1679, at the death of his elder brother Henri, who had appointed him his heir,[75] her husband became comte de Toulongeon. He did not want to change his name to Toulongeon, but changed it from chevalier de Gramont to comte de Gramont. She was henceforth known as the comtesse de Gramont.

In 1679 she was pointed out as a client of La Voisin, and was thereby incriminated in the affaire des poisons. However, no action was taken against her. In May 1682 the French court moved its seat from the Louvre to the Palace of Versailles.[76] In 1683 she lost her appointment as lady-in-waiting due to the queen's death. In 1684 Fénelon became a spiritual guide to her.[77] In May 1690 the King assigned her an apartment in the Palace of Versailles that had been freed by the death of Charles de Sainte-Maure, duc de Montausier, the Dauphin's tutor.[78]

On 6 April 1694 N.S. her daughter Claude Charlotte, aged 29, married Henry Stafford-Howard, 1st Earl of Stafford, aged 46, who had fled to France with James II. The marriage was held at Saint-Germain-en-Laye.[79] She thus became Lady Stafford. The groom had been created Earl Stafford By James II on 5 October 1688 and had, at the same time, changed his name from Howard to Stafford-Howard.[80] As the earldom was created before James II's flight, it was a valid English peerage and not a Jacobite one. The marriage would remain childless and was not happy.

In 1696, her husband fell gravely ill, and after he recovered, he followed her example and turned to devotion.[81] In 1699, she fell into disgrace because of a visit she had paid to the abbey of Port-Royal-des-Champs.[82] The king disliked the Jansenists. She had to beg his pardon.[83]

In May 1703, when she was 61, Louis XIV lent her a house near the end of the Gardens of Versailles, called Les Moulineaux,[84][85][b] which she renamed Pontalie.[86] This name is explained in the story "Le Bélier", written by her brother Anthony, who derives it from "pont d'Alie" (Alie's bridge), Alie being the daughter of a druid who marries a Prince of Noisy (after nearby Noisy-le-Roi) in the story.[87]

ChildrenEdit

Elizabeth and Philibert had two daughters,[88] who were maids-of-honour to Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, whom the Grand Dauphin married in 1680.[89][90]

  1. Claude Charlotte (c. 1665 – 1739), married Henry Stafford-Howard, 1st Earl of Stafford.[91][92]
  2. Marie Elizabeth (1667–1729), became abbess in 1695 of the Chapter of Poussay [fr] in Lorraine.[93][94][95]

The marriage of the elder daughter was childless and the younger was a nun. Philibert's cadet branch of the house of Gramont therefore ended here.

Death and timelineEdit

Her husband died on 31 January 1707 in Paris.[96] She died about a year later on 3 June 1708 in Paris.[97][98]

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ The girl courted by Louis XIV and Philibert de Gramont in 1662 was Anne-Lucie de La Motte-Houdancourt, who would marry René-François de La Vieuville [fr] in 1676. Walpole, when translating the Mémoires du comte de Gramont into English, confused her with Anne-Madeleine de Conty d'Argencourt [fr], who had been a lesser mistress of Louis XIV four years earlier, in 1658.[54] Cyril Hughes Hartmann repeats this error.[55]
  2. ^ Les Moulineaux is today on the Chemin de la Ferme des Moulineaux in the Commune of Bailly in the Yvelines department, not at Meudon as Corp says.
  1. ^ a b Rigg 1890, p. 146, left column: "... was born in 1641."
  2. ^ Debrett 1828a, p. 63, line 20: "He [George Hamilton] m. Mary, 3d daughter of Thomas, Viscount Thurles, son of Walter, 11th earl of Ormond and sister of James, duke of Ormond, and had issue 6 sons and 3 daughters ..."
  3. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 1: "George (Sir) of Donalong, co. Tyrone, and Nenagh, co. Tipperary, created a baronet of Scotland, about 1660;"
  4. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 3: "... Mary 3rd dau. of Thomas Viscount Thurles and sister of the 1st Duke of Ormonde. He d. 1679. She d. Aug 1680 ..."
  5. ^ Debrett 1828b, p. 640: "THEOBALD LE BOTELER on whom that office [Chief Butler of Ireland] was conferred by King Henry II., 1177 ..."
  6. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 2: "[Sir George] m. (art. dated 2 June 1629) Mary, 3rd dau. of Thomas, Viscount Thurles ..."
  7. ^ Cokayne 1910, p. 4: "Tabular pedigree of the Earls of Abercorn"
  8. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 6: "James Col. ... he d.v.p. of a wound received in a naval engagement with the Dutch, 6 June 1673 and was buried in Westminster Abbey."
  9. ^ Sergeant 1913, p. 217: "At the beginning of June he took part in the battle of Zebernstieg and was engaged in covering the French retreat on Saverne when he was killed by a musket-shot."
  10. ^ Burke 1949, p. 3, right column, line 17: "Anthony, the celebrated Count Hamilton, author of 'Mémoires de Grammont', Lieut.-Gen. in the French service, d. 20 April 1719, aged 74."
  11. ^ Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 25: "Thomas, in the sea service; d. in New England."
  12. ^ Clark 1921, p. 74: "[Thomas Hamilton] rendered James no small service in capturing, off the west coast of Scotland, some of the ships which the Earl of Argyle had equipped to aid Monmouth in his rising."
  13. ^ Sewall 1878, p. 176: "May 9 [1687]. Hamilton, Capt. of the Kingsfisher dies."
  14. ^ Boulger 1911, p. 155: "Richard Hamilton had been wounded and taken prisoner by the time that William's cavalry came down from Donore on the right flank of the Irish infantery commanded by him in and behind Oldbridge."
  15. ^ Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 27: "John, Colonel in the army of James II., killed at the battle of Aughrim."
  16. ^ Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 31: "Lucia, who married Sir Donogh of Lamineagh, Bart"
  17. ^ Burke 1869, p. 3, left column, line 33: "Margaret, m. to Mathew Forde, Esq. of Seaforde."
  18. ^ Cunningham 1865, p. 8: "9. COUNTESS GRAMMONT (La Belle Hamilton)"
  19. ^ Metcalfe 1909, p. 234, line 10: "Her [Marion Boyd's] husband had been a staunch Protestant, an elder in the Kirk, and a member of the General Assembly."
  20. ^ Metcalfe 1909, p. 234, line 12: "During his [James Hamilton's] lifetime she had evidently conformed; but after his death she had evidently relapsed."
  21. ^ Clark 1921, p. 16: "James Hamilton's marriage to Elizabeth, daughter of Sir John Colepeper ... took place as early as 1660 or 1661. As the lady was a Protestant, James Hamilton left the Church of Rome shortly before his marriage, to the great sorrow and anger of his devout mother ..."
  22. ^ Clark 1921, p. 13: "... Thomas, Anthony's junior had entered the Navy in 1666 or earlier."
  23. ^ a b Millar 1890, p. 177, left column, line 46: "... the Marquis of Ormonde, whom he [Sir George Hamilton] followed to Caen in the spring of 1651 with his wife and family."
  24. ^ Lodge 1789, p. 110: "The great proportion and manor of Donalong on his third son George and his heirs ... [footnote]"
  25. ^ Paul 1904, p. 50, line 12: "[Jean Gordon] who was taken prisoner by Sir Phelim O'Neile, in the rebellion of 1641, when he burned and destroyed the castle of Strabane, but whom she afterwards married ..."
  26. ^ Sergeant 1913, p. 145, line 21: "For some reason, when the rebel leader Owen O'Neill took Roscrea, Tipperary, the home of the Hamiltons, in September 1646, and put the inhabitants to the sword, he spared Lady Hamilton and her young children ..."
  27. ^ a b Carte 1851, p. 265: "... after taking Roscrea on Sept. 17, and putting man, woman, and child to the sword, except sir G. Hamilton's lady, sister to the marquis of Ormond ..."
  28. ^ Hayes-McCoy 1990, p. 197: "He [Owen Roe O'Neill] listened to the nuncio's plea, 'quitted the opportunity of conquest in Ulster' and marched south."
  29. ^ Coffey 1914, p. 178: "Now seemed the time to follow up the victory of Benburb and subdue the whole North of Ireland; but it was not to be for letters from the Nuncio caused O'Neill to withdraw from the North and move South ..."
  30. ^ a b Warner 1768, p. 228: "... taking Nenagh and two other castles, on the tenth of November, he came to his winter quarters at Kilkenny."
  31. ^ Clark 1921, p. 5: "In the spring of 1651 took place, at last, the event which had such a determining influence on the fate of the young Hamiltons. Sir George Hamilton left his country for France with his family ..."
  32. ^ Millar 1890, p. 177, left column: "Marquis of Ormonde, whom he followed to Caen in the spring of 1651 with his wife and family."
  33. ^ Carte 1851, p. 384: "The marchioness of Ormond had landed in that country on June 23d [1648], with her three sons and two daughters, and had taken up her residence at Caen"
  34. ^ Clark 1921, p. 8, line 14: "... James the eldest also joined the wandering court, though the precise nature of his connexion is not known."
  35. ^ Clark 1921, p. 8, line 13: "... George, the second son, was made a page to Charles II ..."
  36. ^ Clark 1921, p. 8, line 27: "... his [Anthony Hamilton's] mother and his aunt, Lady Muskerry, had apartments at the couvent des Feuillantines in Paris ..."
  37. ^ a b Clark 1921, p. 8, line 16: "Elizabeth was sent with her cousin Helen, Lady Muskerry's daughter, to Port-Royal, where, as she herself was not ashamed to relate many years afterwards, the daughter of a penniless refugee, was charitably received and sheltered during seven or eight years."
  38. ^ Sainte-Beuve 1878, p. 107: "Mesdemoiselles Hamilton et Muskry furent mises à Port-Royal; elles durent y être dès avant 1655."
  39. ^ Pope Alexander VII 1665, pp. 15–16: "C'est dans cette vûë que nous tâchâmes dès la seconde année de notre Pontificat, d'achever de détruire par une Constitution expresse que nous publiâmes à ce dessein, l'heresie de Cornelius Jansenius qui se glissoit principalement en France ..."
  40. ^ Britland 2011, p. 138: "In 1657, with money that had been made available to her by the French queen regent, she purchased a country house in the village of Colombes, north of Paris ... The house had belonged to Basile Fouquet, the brother of notorious Nicolas Fouquet, surintendant of Louis XIV's finances ... "
  41. ^ Clark 1921, p. 21: "In Paris, when she had scarcely left school, she had become one of the attractions of the Queen-Mother's court at the Palais Royal and made a deep impression there on Sir John Reresby, who described her as the finest woman in the world and thought seriously of marrying her."
  42. ^ Corp 2004a, p. 786, line 1 of the entry: "called "La Belle Hamilton""
  43. ^ Adams 1865, p. 68: "Her mind was a proper companion for such a form; she did not endeavour to shine in conversation by those sprightly sallies which only puzzle ..."
  44. ^ Hamilton 1930, pp. 120–132.
  45. ^ Melville 1928, p. 111: "the duke of Richmond was one of the first to come forward. He was a gambler and a sot; but he was well and truly enamoured."
  46. ^ Melville 1928, p. 112, line 1: "Miss Hamilton could and did resist the advances of the almost irresistible Henry Jermyn, famous for his conquests."
  47. ^ Melville 1928, p. 112, line 5: "Not himself, nor the prospective dukedom, nor his thirty thousand a year, tempted her."
  48. ^ Melville 1928, p. 112, line 8: "Berkeley, afterwards Earl of Falmouth, wealthy and attractive in person, though dissipated, a boon companion of the King and of the Duke of York ..."
  49. ^ Adams 1865, p. 70: "The highest in rank and the most important of her lovers was the Duke Of York, who had been captivated by a glance at her portrait in Lely's studio."
  50. ^ Ward 1892, p. 183: "... soon after the acknowledgement of his marriage to Anne Hyde (concluded 3 Sep. 1660) he engaged in new inconstancies ..."
  51. ^ Boislisle 1899, p. 560: "Il arriva à Londres le 15 janvier 1663, et retrouva entre autres camarades, les Hamilton, de grande maison écossaise et catholique, dont il avait fréquenté plusieurs jeunes gens au Louvre dans l'entourage de la veuve et du fils de Charles 1er."
  52. ^ Auger 1805, p. 2: "Près de deux ans après le rétablissement de Charles II, arriva à Londres le fameux chevalier de Grammont, exilé de France ..."
  53. ^ Hamilton 1713, p. 104: "LA MOTTE HOUDANCOURT étoit une des filles de la Reine-Mère."
  54. ^ a b Hamilton 1858, p. 107: "La Motte-Agencourt was one of maids of honour of the queen dowager ..."
  55. ^ a b Hartmann 1924, p. 58: "Gramont was thoroughly competent to speak on such a matter, seen that his own presence in England was due to the fact that he had been misguided enough to make advances to Mademoiselle La Motte Argencourt, with whom his own master, Louis XIV, was also enamoured."
  56. ^ Auger 1805, p. 2, line 25: "... enfin on parloit françois à St.-James presqu'aussi habituellement qu'à Versailles."
  57. ^ Hartmann 1930, p. 378: "The chevalier de Gramont's rare constancy had met with its reward long before, towards the end of December 1663."
  58. ^ a b Paul 1904, p. 55: "she [Elizabeth] married in 1664 the dissipated Philibert, Count de Gramont ..."
  59. ^ Boislisle 1899, p. 563, line 8: "Le contrat de mariage fut passé sans autre retard, le 9 décembre 1663 (style anglais) ..."
  60. ^ Louis XIV 1806, p. 170: "Au comte de Grammont. Paris le 6 mars 1664. MONSIEUR LE COMTE DE GRAMMONT. Il ne faut point que l'impatience de vous rendre auprès de moi, trouble vos nouvelles douceurs. Vous serez toujours le bien-venu ..."
  61. ^ a b Boislisle 1899, p. 563, line 11: "... ayant déjà un fils né le 7 septembre, mais qui ne vécut point."
  62. ^ Brunet 1883, p. xii: "Comminges à Lionne, Londres, 29 août — 8 septembre 1664. Madame la comtesse de Grammont accoucha hier au soir d'un fils beau comme la mère ... "
  63. ^ Jusserand 1892, p. 229: "Comminges to Lionne Sept. 8, 1664 [NS]. Madame la comtesse de Grammont accoucha hier au soir d'un fils beau comme la mère ... "
  64. ^ Adams 1865, p. 81, line 18: "Her brothers immediately pursued him and came up with him near Dover, resolved to extort from him an explanation, or to obtain satisfaction with their swords ... "
  65. ^ Auger 1805, p. 3: "Chevalier de Grammont, lui crièrent-ils du plus loin qu'ils l'aperçurent chevalier de Grammont avez-vous rien oublié à Londres? — Pardonnez-moi, Messieurs, j'ai oublié d'épouser votre sœur."
  66. ^ Michel 1862, p. 368: "... lui dirent en l'abordant 'Chevalier de Grammont, n'avez-vous rien oublié à Londres?'—'Pardonnez-moi, messieurs, j'ai oublié d'épouser votre sœur.'"
  67. ^ Adams 1865, p. 81, line 24: "'Excuse me' he rejoined, with his accustomed self-possession, 'I forgot to marry your sister.'"
  68. ^ Wheatley 1907–1921, https://www.bartleby.com/218/1018.html: "Note 15: This well known story is told in a letter from Lord Melfort to Richard Hamilton ..."
  69. ^ Adams 1865, p. 81, footnote: "This incident, we are told, suggested to Molière his comedy 'Le Marriage Forcé.'"
  70. ^ Adams 1865, p. 82, line 1: "After the birth of their first child, in 1669, they repaired to France."
  71. ^ a b Boislisle 1899, p. 563, line 12: "... qui, en fevrier 1667, donna à Mme de Gramont une septième place de dame du palais ..."
  72. ^ Saint-Simon 1902, p. 501: "La comtesse de Gramont avait l'air d'une reine ..."
  73. ^ Saint-Simon 1895, p. 110, line 12: "... ayant bec et ongles ..."
  74. ^ Coulanges & L'Enclos 1823, p. 216: "C'est le seul vieillard qui ne soit pas ridicule à la cour."
  75. ^ La Chesnaye des Bois 1866, p. 642, line 5: "Le comte de Toulongeon, son frère, l'institua pour héritier par son testament ..."
  76. ^ a b Cangioli 1981, p. 6, right column: "... in May 1682, the king, his ministers and the entire court moved into the new palace."
  77. ^ Corp 2004a, p. 786, right column: "The following year Fénelon became her spiritual director ..."
  78. ^ a b Dangeau 1854b, p. 129: "Nous apprenons à Versailles que le roi a donné l'appartement qu'avoit M. de Montausier à madame la comtesse de Gramont."
  79. ^ La Chesnaye des Bois 1866, p. 642: "CLAUDE CHARLOTTE, mariée, le 6 Avril 1694, à Henri Howard, comte de Stafford ..."
  80. ^ Cokayne 1896, p. 216: "THE HON. STAFFORD-HOWARD, formerly Howard, 1st son of the above, b. 1658, was cr. 5 October 1688 (...) EARL OF STAFFORD ..."
  81. ^ Adams 1865, p. 83: "... following the example of his wife devoted him to religious duties."
  82. ^ a b Saint-Simon 1895, p. 112, line 4: "... elle osa s'enfermer à Port-Royal toute une octave de la Fête-Dieu. Son absence fit un vuide qui importuna le Roi ..."
  83. ^ Saint-Simon 1895, p. 112, line 8: "... il en fallut venir aux excuses et aux pardons ..."
  84. ^ a b Corp 2004b, p. 217: "In May 1703 Louis XIV gave Hamilton's sister the use during her lifetime of a house near Meudon called 'Les Moulineaux'. In the five years until her death in June 1708 it was much frequented and became the centre of [Anthony] Hamilton's social world."
  85. ^ Clark 1921, p. 122: "When Félix, the chief-surgeon, died in 1703, a small property of his, les Moulineaux, which lay within the grounds of Versailles, fell vacant and the king at once gave it to Madame de Gramont, a present which caused no little talk ..."
  86. ^ Saint-Simon 1895, p. 112, line 23: "Le présent des Moulineaux, cette petite maison revenu à la disposition du Roi par la mort de Félix, qu'elle appela Pontalie, fit du bruit ... "
  87. ^ Hamilton 1805, p. 282: "Ce lieu qui s'appelait autrefois Pont d'Alie ..."
  88. ^ Saint-Simon 1902, p. 502, line 1: "Les deux filles de la comtesse de Gramont n'ont pas prospéré, avec l'esprit de deux demons, méchantes et galantes à l'avenant, quoique fort laides ..."
  89. ^ Michel 1862, p. 407: "qui avaient été filles d'honneur de la Dauphine de Bavière ..."
  90. ^ Dangeau 1854a, p. 228: "Le roi a accordé à madame la comtesse de Grammont pour sa seconde fille ... la place de fille d'honneur de Madame la Dauphine ..."
  91. ^ a b Rigg 1890, p. 147, left column: "They had two daughters only: (i) Claude Charlotte, who married at St. Germains on 3 April 1694 Henry Howard, earl of Stafford,..."
  92. ^ a b Corp 2004a, p. 787: "The Count and Countess de Gramont had two daughters: Claude-Charlotte (b. c. 1665) and ..."
  93. ^ a b Paul 1904, p. 56: "Marie Elizabeth de Gramont, born 27 December 1667, abbesse de St Marine of Poussay in Lorraine."
  94. ^ Saint-Simon 1902, p. 502, line 4: "L’aînée, pour faire une fin, se fit abbesse de Poussay, qui est un chapitre en Lorraine ..."
  95. ^ a b Gaspard 1871, p. 42: "Marie-Elisabeth de Grammont fut élue le 6 janvier 1695, les bulles sont du 9 de novembre de la même année. Elle est fille de Philibert, comte de Grammont, vicomte d'Aster, commandeur des ordres du roi, et d'Elisabeth d'Hamilton d'Albercorne."
  96. ^ a b Dangeau 1857a, p. 293: "Le comte de Gramont mourut à Paris la nuit passée."
  97. ^ Dangeau 1857b, p. 150: "June 1708. Dimanche 3 ... La comtesse de Gramont mourut à Paris."
  98. ^ a b Paul 1904, p. 56, line 7: "... she [Elizabeth Hamilton] died, 3 June 1708, aged sixty-seven."

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