Amélie of Orléans

Dona Maria Amélia (French: Marie Amélie Louise Hélène; 28 September 1865 – 25 October 1951) was the last Queen consort of Portugal as the wife of Carlos I of Portugal. As the eldest daughter of Prince Philippe, Count of Paris, and his wife, Princess Marie Isabelle d'Orléans, she was a "Princess of Orléans" by birth.

Amélie of Orléans
Retrato da Rainha D. Amélia.jpg
Queen Amélia
Queen consort of Portugal
Tenure19 October 1889 – 1 February 1908
Born(1865-09-28)28 September 1865
Twickenham, London, England
Died25 October 1951(1951-10-25) (aged 86)
Le Chesnay, Yvelines, France
Burial
Spouse
(
m. 1886; died 1908)
Issue
Detail
Full name
Marie Amélie Louise Hélène d'Orléans
HouseOrléans
FatherPhilippe, Count of Paris
MotherMarie Isabelle of Orléans
ReligionRoman Catholicism
SignatureAmélie of Orléans's signature

FamilyEdit

Amélia's paternal grandparents were Prince Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans, and Duchess Helena of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Her maternal grandparents were Prince Antoine, Duke of Montpensier, and the Infanta Luisa Fernanda of Spain. The Dukes of Orléans and Montpensier were siblings, both sons of Louis-Philippe I, King of the French, and Maria Amalia of the Two Sicilies.

Marriage and issueEdit

On 22 May 1886, Amélia married Carlos, Prince Royal of Portugal. He was the eldest son of King Luís I of Portugal and Maria Pia of Savoy. He was at the time the heir apparent to the throne. The bride was almost twenty-one years old and the groom about twenty-three. The marriage had been arranged by their families after several attempts to arrange a marriage for her with a member of the Austrian or Spanish dynasties. At first, the marriage was not popular and Queen Maria Pia was expecting to marry Carlos to Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria, Princess Mathilde of Saxony, Princess Viktoria of Prussia or Princess Victoria of Wales. However, Amélia and Carlos came to live quite harmoniously with each other.

They had three children:

Queen consortEdit

 
The Queen wearing the Diadem of the Stars.

Amélia played an active role as a queen, and somewhat softened the growing criticism towards the monarchy with her personal popularity, though she did receive some criticism for her expenses. She was active in many social projects, such as the prevention and treatment of tuberculosis and the foundation of charity organisations, sanatoriums and drugstores. She was considered less formal than her mother-in-law Maria Pia, learned Portuguese well and was described as calm and mild. She was interested in literature, opera and theatre, was a diarist and also painted. During the absence of her spouse in 1895, she acted as regent. In 1902, she made a cruise on the Mediterranean Sea that was much criticised for its luxury.

In 1892, Pope Leo XIII gave a Golden Rose to Amélia.

On 19 October 1889, King Luís died and Carlos succeeded him on the throne. Amélia became the new Queen consort of Portugal. However her husband became known for his extramarital affairs while the popularity of the Portuguese monarchy started to wane in the face of a bankrupt economy, industrial disturbances, socialist and republican antagonism and press criticism.

Lisbon regicideEdit

 
Illustration of the Lisbon Regicide

On 1 February 1908, the royal family returned from the palace of Vila Viçosa to Lisbon. They travelled in the royal train to Barreiro and from there took a boat to cross the Tagus River. They disembarked at Cais das Colunas in the principal square of downtown Lisbon, the Terreiro do Paço. On their way to the Palace of Necessidades, the carriage carrying Carlos and his family passed through the Rua do Arsenal. While crossing the square and turning to the street, several shots were fired from the crowd by at least two men (Alfredo Luís da Costa and Manuel Buiça), among others. The King died immediately, his heir Prince Dom Luís was mortally wounded and Infante Dom Manuel was hit in the arm, yet Queen Amélia was surprisingly unharmed after trying to defend her youngest son, the new king Manuel II, with the flower bouquet she kept in her hand.

The two assassins were shot on the spot by members of the royal bodyguard and later were recognized as members of the Portuguese Republican Party and of their masonic left-wing organisation Carbonária. About twenty minutes later, Prince Luis Filipe died and the next day Manuel was acclaimed King of Portugal, the last of the Braganza dynasty.

Manuel II of Portugal was deposed by a military coup, later known as the 5 October 1910 revolution, which resulted in the establishment of the Portuguese First Republic. Queen Amélia left Portugal with the rest of the royal family and went into exile. She lived most of her remaining life in France. During World War II the Portuguese government invited her to return to Portugal, but she declined the offer. She visited Portugal for the last time in 1945.

HonoursEdit

AncestryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2016-05-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Photographic image : A Fillon" (JPG). 40.media.tumblr.com. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  3. ^ "Amelia of Orleans, Queen of Portugal, late 19th-early 20th century.Artist: Camacho". Gettyimages.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  4. ^ "Filial Hommage" (PDF). L'Express du Midi (in French). 10 May 1909. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-10-30. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  5. ^ a b Justus Perthes, Almanach de Gotha (1921) p. 26
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-26. Retrieved 2016-05-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ "Real orden de Damas Nobles de la Reina Maria Luisa". Guía Oficial de España (in Spanish). 1887. p. 169. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  9. ^ Bragança, Jose Vicente de; Estrela, Paulo Jorge (2017). "Troca de Decorações entre os Reis de Portugal e os Imperadores da Rússia" [Exchange of Decorations between the Kings of Portugal and the Emperors of Russia]. Pro Phalaris (in Portuguese). 16: 7. Retrieved 19 March 2020.

External linksEdit

Amélie of Orléans
Cadet branch of the House of Bourbon
Born: 28 September 1865 Died: 25 October 1951
Portuguese royalty
Preceded by
Maria Pia of Savoy
Queen consort of Portugal and the Algarves
19 October 1889 – 1 February 1908
Monarchy abolished