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Alfons Vilhelm Robert Rebane, known simply as Alfons Rebane (24 June 1908 – 8 March 1976) was an Estonian military commander. He was the most highly decorated Estonian military officer during World War II, serving in various Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS units of Nazi Germany.[1]

Alfons Rebane
Alfons rebane.jpg
Rebane in the Estonian Army
Born(1908-06-24)24 June 1908
Valga, Livonia, Russian Empire
Died8 March 1976(1976-03-08) (aged 67)
Augsburg, Bavaria, West Germany
Allegiance Estonia
 United Kingdom
Service/branchMaavagi crest.svg Estonian Army (1929–1940)
German Army (1941–1944)
Waffen-SS (1944–1945)
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.svg Secret Intelligence Service (1947–1961)
Years of service1929–1940
RankSS-Standartenführer, colonel
Unit1929, 1st Armored Train Regiment
1935, Viljandi County Territorial Regiment
1939, Lääne County Territorial Regiment
1940, Commandant of Lihula
1941, 184th Security Battalion, Wehrmacht
1943, 658th (Estonian) Ost Battalion, Wehrmacht
1944, 20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian)
1947 MI6
Battles/warsWorld War II: Eastern Front
AwardsEstonian Defence League White Cross 3rd Class
Latvian Aizsargi Cross of Merit
Iron Cross 2nd & 1st class
Infantry Assault Badge
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves
Close Combat Clasp
Eastern Front Medal
Other workMI6

After World War II Rebane joined the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) where he played a key role in assisting the armed resistance to Soviet rule in Estonia and other Baltic countries. He led the Estonian portion of MI6's Operation Jungle well into the 1950s.

In 1961, Rebane retired from the British intelligence services and moved to Germany, where he stayed until his death in Augsburg in 1976. The 1999 reburial of Rebane in Estonia with state honors triggered a number of controversies.

Early lifeEdit

Rebane was born in Valga in southern Estonia, then part of the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire. In 1920 Rebane, son of a railway official, attended the Russian secondary school in Narva. From 1926 to 1929 he attended Tartu University and graduated from the Estonian War College with first class honours. He served as an infantry officer on the armoured train "Captain Irv" of the 1st Armored Train Regiment as a second lieutenant in 1929. Married in 1931 to Agnia Soomets, they had one daughter Tiiu who died soon afterwards. On Estonian Independence Day on 24 February 1933, Rebane was promoted to first lieutenant. From 1935 to 1939 he served as junior instructor in the Defence League Viljandi County Territorial Regiment, between 1939 and 1940 in the Lääne County Territorial Regiment. From January to June 1940 Rebane was the Commandant of Lihula.[2]

World War IIEdit

Rebane served as an officer in the Estonian Army until Soviet troops occupied the country in 1940. The Soviets disbanded and absorbed most of the Estonian Armed Forces and arrested and executed the entire Estonian high command. Many junior officers, such as Rebane, were dismissed due to their lack of "political reliability" and were liable to be deported. For a while, Rebane worked in construction, then fled into the forests when the Soviets began mass deportations in 1941. He established and led an anti-Soviet Forest Brothers unit in Virumaa (Northern Estonia) in May 1941.[3]

After Germany had taken control of Estonia, Rebane joined the German Wehrmacht and went on to fight against the Soviets in Northwestern Russia, subsequently becoming the captain of the 184th Security Battalion, then major of the Estonian 658th Eastern Battalion. In February 1944 Rebane's unit was transferred to the Narva Front and attached to the Wehrmacht's 26th Army Corps on 2 March. On 27 April 1944, the unit was released from the Wehrmacht. Rebane, after initially refusing, was forced to join[4] the newly formed 20th (Estonian) Division of the Waffen-SS, eventually becoming colonel of the 47th Waffen-Grenadier Regiment.[1] The Estonian division played a significant role in the Battle of Narva and the Battle of Emajõgi, holding back the Soviet re-occupation of Estonia until the Soviet Tallinn Offensive, September 1944 while suffering heavy casualties. Rebane's unit was then evacuated to Germany for refitting and saw more action on the Eastern Front in the spring of 1945. Rebane had a reputation for tactical skill.[5] With most of the Estonian forces captured by the Soviet Army in Czechoslovakia, Rebane managed to reach the British Occupation Zone with a number of his men at the end of the war.[4] Soldiers who fought in units under his command were colloquially referred to as "fox cubs" (Rebane translates to "fox" in Estonian).


According to Carlos Jurado, an expert on non-German units,[6] and Nigel Thomas: Rebane was "the most decorated and probably the most talented and charismatic Baltic soldier during WWII".[1] Rebane became one of the most decorated Estonians. During his days in the Estonian Army, he was awarded the Defence League White Cross 3rd Class and the Latvian Aizsargi Cross of Merit. In the German army he was awarded the Iron Cross first and second class, the War Merit Cross with swords second class, the Eastern Front Medal, the silver Infantry Assault Badge and the silver Ostvolk Medal for bravery. Rebane was also decorated with the silver Close Combat Clasp, awarded for hand-to-hand fighting by unsupported infantry for a total of 30 days.[7] In February 1944 he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross and in April 1945 he was promoted to Waffen-Standartenführer and awarded the Knight's Cross with Oakleaves for extreme bravery on the battlefield.[8]

Post warEdit

In 1947 Rebane moved to England and joined the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) as the Estonian expert at the Intelligence School in London.[4] There he played a key role in assisting the armed resistance to the Soviet rule in Estonia and other Baltic countries. He led the Estonian portion of MI6's Operation Jungle well into the 1950s.[9] In 1961, Rebane retired from the British intelligence services[4] and moved to Germany, where stayed until his death in Augsburg in 1976.[10]


In 1977, Patrice Chairoff [fr] and Beate Klarsfeld alleged Rebane was a war criminal.[11] According to a 2005 report published by the Estonian State Commission on the Examination of the Policies of Repression, investigations conducted by the KGB after World War II found no documents confirming the accusation against Rebane and his "army unit".[12]

The return and reburial of Rebane's ashes with military honours at a national cemetery in 1999 in Estonia sparked a controversy. The American Jewish Congress protested that the reburial served as an "indication that fascist ideology is recognized in Estonia".[13] A tombstone to Rebane, unofficially erected in 2004 but unveiled before Pärnumaa District Parliamentarian and former Foreign Minister Trivimi Velliste, was protested by Russia's Chief Rabbi, Berl Lazar and the Russian Jewish Congress.[14]

The citations of the Judgement of the Nuremberg Tribunal by the Russian Federation's Permanent Mission to the United Nations in according criminal responsibility (and thus charges of historical revisionism in Estonia[15]) has been criticized as inaccurate by the EU Presidency.[16] The Nuremberg Tribunal in declaring the Waffen SS a criminal organization explicitly exempted conscripts who had committed no crimes from that judgement, which included the Baltic Waffen-SS divisions.[17] It is mention of this exemption from the Nuremberg judgement that is omitted by the Russia Federation. The United States officials have declared the Baltic Waffen-SS units not hostile to the Government of the United States and "considered as separate and distinct in purpose, ideology, activities and qualification from the regular SS".[17]

The Estonian authorities assert that the Estonian Waffen-SS units engaged solely in combat operations at the front to defend Estonia's independence and had nothing to do with punitive operations in the territories occupied by the Nazi Germany. According to the President of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves "We are witnesses to the information war against Estonia which already reminds of an ideological aggression".[18] According to the editor of Virumaa Teataja newspaper Rein Sikk: "Alfons Rebane was a good soldier according to our historians. He was never convicted of war crimes and [the allegations] are just a political game to try to show that Estonia has lots of fascists."[14]

In June 2018, a plaque commemorating Rebane was unveiled in the southern Estonian town where he had lived.[19] The Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs protested the unveiling.[20]



  1. ^ Alfons Rebane received the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross on 23 February 1944 as Major and commander of the estnisches Freiwilligen-Bataillon 658 in the 28. Jäger-Division, at the time a Wehrmacht division and not part of the Waffen-SS. His nomination of the Oak Leaves was submitted to the Heeres Personalamt (Army Staff Office) on 12 April 1945. The German Federal Archives only hold a copy of the nomination. There is no indication or remark that the nomination was processed. The nomination list for the higher grade of the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves dates the nomination on 2 April 1945. This list also gives no indication that the nomination had been processed. The Order Commission of the Association of Knight's Cross Recipients (AKCR) processed this case in 1974 and decided: 875th Oak Leaves on 8 May 1945. The sequential number "875" was assigned by the AKCR, the date was later changed by Fellgiebel to 9 May 1945. Rebane was member of the AKCR.[24]



  1. ^ a b c Jurado, Carlos Caballero; Nigel Thomas; Darko Pavlović (2002). Germany's Eastern Front allies (2): Baltic forces. Osprey Publishing. p. 8. ISBN 1-84176-193-1.
  2. ^ Savitsch, Aavo (23 June 2008). "Kiri: Kolonel Rebane 100". Delfi news portal. Delfi. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
  3. ^ Berezin, Karl & Aksel Saar. "Эстонский корсак" ("Estonian Fox"). Press Obozreniye. 31 January 2001. Retrieved 22 June 2009. (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b c d Toivo Miljan, Historical Dictionary of Estonia, Scarecrow Press, 2004
  5. ^ Buttar, Prit (2013). Between Giants: The Battle for the Baltics in World War II. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 203.
  6. ^ Smelser & Davies 2008, p. 184.
  7. ^ Windrow 1992, p. 38.
  8. ^ "Alfons Rebane". Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  9. ^ Dorril, Stephen (2002). MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service. Simon and Schuster. p. 288. ISBN 9780743217781.
  10. ^ Dorril, Stephen (2002). MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service. Simon and Schuster. p. 516. ISBN 9780743217781.
  11. ^ Chairoff, Patrice & Beate Klarsfeld. Dossier néonazisme. Paris: Ramsay, 1977. ISBN 2-85956-030-0. (in French)
  12. ^ The White Book (PDF). Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers. 2005. p. 13.
  13. ^ Eschenazi, Gabriel. "Estonian Nazi Collaborator Buried with Honors in National Cemetery". Archived 26 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 27 June 1999. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
  14. ^ a b Osborn, Andrew. "Estonia Accused of Anti-Semitism After Memorial is Erected to 'SS Executioner'". The Independent. 26 May 2004. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
  15. ^ "Involvement of the Estonian SS Legion in War Crimes in 1941–1945 and the Attempts to Revise the Verdict of the Nuremberg Tribunal in Estonia". Archived 11 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine Permanent Mission of the Russian Federation to the United Nations. Retrieved 22 June 2009.
  16. ^ EU representative to the UN, EU Presidency Explanation of Vote – United Nations 3rd Committee: Draft resolution on fuelling contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance Archived 5 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 2007
  17. ^ a b Rislakki, Jukka (2008). The Case for Latvia Disinformation Campaigns Against a Small Nation:. Rodopi. p. 132.
  18. ^ Statement made by the President of Estonia Toomas Hendrik Ilves, 30 April 2007 Sinisalu, Arnold. "Propaganda, Information War and the Estonian-Russian Treaty Relations: Some Aspects of International Law". Juridica International. Retrieved 4 April 2009.[permanent dead link]
  19. ^ "Plaque commemorating SS recipient of Iron Cross to be unveiled in Mustla". Eesti Rahvusringhääling. 22 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  20. ^ "Comment by the Information and Press Department on the unveiling of a memorial plaque to Waffen-SS Colonel Alfons Rebane in Estonia". The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  21. ^ a b Thomas 1998, p. 185.
  22. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 350.
  23. ^ Fellgiebel 2000, p. 104.
  24. ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 165.


  • Fellgiebel, Walther-Peer (2000) [1986]. Die Träger des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939–1945 – Die Inhaber der höchsten Auszeichnung des Zweiten Weltkrieges aller Wehrmachtteile [The Bearers of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939–1945 – The Owners of the Highest Award of the Second World War of all Wehrmacht Branches] (in German). Friedberg, Germany: Podzun-Pallas. ISBN 978-3-7909-0284-6.
  • Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives [The Knight's Cross Bearers 1939–1945 The Holders of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross 1939 by Army, Air Force, Navy, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm and Allied Forces with Germany According to the Documents of the Federal Archives] (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Miltaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2.
  • Smelser, Ronald; Davies, Edward J. (2008). The Myth of the Eastern Front: The Nazi-Soviet War in American Popular Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83365-3.
  • Thomas, Franz (1998). Die Eichenlaubträger 1939–1945 Band 2: L–Z [The Oak Leaves Bearers 1939–1945 Volume 2: L–Z] (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2300-9.
  • Thomas, Dr. Nigel (2002). Germany's Eastern Front Allies (2): Baltic Forces. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-193-1.
  • Windrow, Martin (1992). The Waffen SS. Ospey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-425-5.