Half of the land is agricultural, employing 18% of the workforce, and providing 10% of exports, and 7% of GDP in 2020. There are half a million farmers. Turkey is a major producer of wheat, sugar beets, milk, poultry, cotton, tomatoes, and other fruits and vegetables.
As of 2021[update], Turkey is the world's largest producer of hazelnuts and apricots. In 2021, Turkey received 65 percent of all imported wheat from Russia and more than 13 percent from Ukraine.
Since the 1980s, as most countries do as they become developed and industrialized, the agriculture sector's contribution to the Turkish economy has declined from 26% of GDP in 1980 to 6.68% today.[failed verification]
Turkish agriculture emits greenhouse gases. According to the World Bank the sector should adapt more to climate change in Turkey and make technical improvements. 14% of food was lost during agricultural processing in 2016, and 23% was trashed by consumers before eating and 5% as leftovers.
The livestock industry, compared to the initial years of the Republic, showed little improvement in productivity, and the later years of the decade saw stagnation. However, livestock products, including meat, milk, wool, and eggs, contributed to more than 1⁄3 of the value of agricultural output. Almost all the seeds used in Turkey are produced domestically.
Turkey is the EU's fourth largest non-EU vegetable supplier and the seventh largest fruit supplier. The European Commission had already started the formal process for extending the Customs Union Agreement to agricultural products, before European Union–Turkey relations deteriorated and efforts to extend and modernize the Customs Union Agreement came to a halt in 2018.
Turkey is the world's fourth largest producer of grapes for wine production, with over 8,120 square kilometres (2,010,000 acres) of vineyards. Turkey's total grape production was 4,264,720 tonnes in 2009, 4,255,000 tonnes in 2010, 4,296,351 tonnes in 2011, and 4,275,659 tonnes in 2012, ranking sixth in the world in all four years, according to FAO data.[page needed]
Turkey is the world's third largest producer of olive oil, with 193,500 tonnes of virgin olive oil produced in 2019, according to the International Olive Council.[needs update] Turkey is the world's fourth largest producer of olives, with 1,730,000 tonnes of olives produced in 2016, and 846,000 hectares of cultivated olive groves in the same year, yielding 2.0460 tonnes per hectare, according to FAO data.[page needed]
Olio Officina Globe reported 2016 olive statistics for Turkey: There are 180 million trees covering 700,000 hectares (1,700,000 acres) with a production of 500,000 tonnes (490,000 long tons; 550,000 short tons) of table olives and 300,000 tonnes (300,000 long tons; 330,000 short tons) of olive oil. Exports are 70,000 tonnes (69,000 long tons; 77,000 short tons) of table olives and 60,000 tonnes (59,000 long tons; 66,000 short tons) of olive oil a year. Edremit (Ayvalık) is the main variety in northern Turkey and Memecik in the south. Gemlik is a black table olive and other varieties are Büyük Topak, Ulak, Çakır, Çekişte, Çelebi, Çilli, Domat, Edincik Su, Eğriburun, Erkence, Halhalı, İzmir Sofralık, Kalembezi, Kan Çelebi, Karamürsel Su, Kilis Yağlık, Kiraz, Manzanilla, Memeli, Nizip Yağlık, Samanlı, Sarı Haşebi, Sarı Ulak, Saurani, Taşan Yüreği, Uslu, and Yağ Celebi.
There are some in the Black Sea.
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