Agriculture in Turkey

Agriculture in Turkey is an important part of the economy, and is the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.

Turkey is the world's largest producer of apricots[1]

Half of the land is agricultural,[3] employing 18% of the workforce, and providing 10% of exports, and 7% of GDP in 2020.[4] There are half a million[5][6] farmers. Turkey is a major producer of wheat, sugar beets, milk, poultry, cotton, tomatoes, and other fruits and vegetables.[3]

As of 2021, Turkey is the world's largest producer of hazelnuts and apricots.[3] In 2021, Turkey received 65 percent of all imported wheat from Russia and more than 13 percent from Ukraine.[7]

Since the 1980s, as most countries do as they become developed and industrialized, the agriculture sector's contribution to the Turkish economy has declined from 26% of GDP in 1980 to 6.68% today.[8][failed verification]

Turkish agriculture emits greenhouse gases. According to the World Bank the sector should adapt more to climate change in Turkey and make technical improvements.[5] 14% of food was lost during agricultural processing in 2016, and 23% was trashed by consumers before eating and 5% as leftovers.[9]

The livestock industry, compared to the initial years of the Republic, showed little improvement in productivity, and the later years of the decade saw stagnation. However, livestock products, including meat, milk, wool, and eggs, contributed to more than 13 of the value of agricultural output.[10] Almost all the seeds used in Turkey are produced domestically.[11]

Turkey is the EU's fourth largest non-EU vegetable supplier and the seventh largest fruit supplier. The European Commission had already started the formal process for extending the Customs Union Agreement to agricultural products,[12][13] before European Union–Turkey relations deteriorated and efforts to extend and modernize the Customs Union Agreement came to a halt in 2018.[14][15][16]

Avocado cultivation in Turkey has shown significant improvement in recent years.[17] In addition, banana cultivation in the Mediterranean region of Turkey has an important potential.[18]

HistoryEdit

 
Ancient water distribution channel in Amasya
 
The Atatürk Dam is the largest of the 22 dams in the Southeastern Anatolia Project. The program includes 22 dams, 19 hydraulic power plants, and the irrigation of 1.82 million hectares of land. The total cost of the project is estimated at $32 billion.

Historically, Turkey's farmers have been fairly fragmented.[19] The government initiated many projects, such as the Southeastern Anatolia Project.[20]

CropsEdit

Grape productionEdit

Turkey is the world's fourth largest producer of grapes for wine production, with over 8,120 square kilometres (2,010,000 acres) of vineyards. Turkey's total grape production was 4,264,720 tonnes in 2009, 4,255,000 tonnes in 2010, 4,296,351 tonnes in 2011, and 4,275,659 tonnes in 2012, ranking sixth in the world in all four years, according to FAO data.[21][page needed]

Olive productionEdit

Turkey is the world's third largest producer of olive oil, with 193,500 tonnes of virgin olive oil produced in 2019, according to the International Olive Council.[22][needs update] Turkey is the world's fourth largest producer of olives, with 1,730,000 tonnes of olives produced in 2016, and 846,000 hectares of cultivated olive groves in the same year, yielding 2.0460 tonnes per hectare, according to FAO data.[21][page needed]

Olio Officina Globe reported 2016 olive statistics for Turkey: There are 180 million trees covering 700,000 hectares (1,700,000 acres) with a production of 500,000 tonnes (490,000 long tons; 550,000 short tons) of table olives and 300,000 tonnes (300,000 long tons; 330,000 short tons) of olive oil. Exports are 70,000 tonnes (69,000 long tons; 77,000 short tons) of table olives and 60,000 tonnes (59,000 long tons; 66,000 short tons) of olive oil a year. Edremit (Ayvalık) is the main variety in northern Turkey and Memecik in the south. Gemlik is a black table olive and other varieties are Büyük Topak, Ulak, Çakır, Çekişte, Çelebi, Çilli, Domat, Edincik Su, Eğriburun, Erkence, Halhalı, İzmir Sofralık, Kalembezi, Kan Çelebi, Karamürsel Su, Kilis Yağlık, Kiraz, Manzanilla, Memeli, Nizip Yağlık, Samanlı, Sarı Haşebi, Sarı Ulak, Saurani, Taşan Yüreği, Uslu, and Yağ Celebi.[23]

LivestockEdit

Native cattle breeds such as Anatolian Black cattle are low yielding but hardy.[24]

Fish farmsEdit

There are some in the Black Sea.

FarmersEdit

Although there are over 2 million people on the Agriculture Ministry's Farmer Registration System,[25] only half a million are known to the Social Security Institution.[26]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Turkey world's largest hazelnut, cherry, fig, apricot, quince, poppy producer". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2022-07-18.
  2. ^ "Top countries for Hazelnuts Production - Source FAO". NationMaster. Retrieved 2022-04-13.
  3. ^ a b c "Turkey - Country Commercial Guide". International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. 2021-12-07.
  4. ^ "World Bank Provides $341 Million Boost to Advance Green and Competitive Growth of Turkey's Agricultural Sector". World Bank. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  5. ^ a b "Turkey's farmers battle with soaring costs and mounting debt". Financial Times. 2022-05-04. Retrieved 2022-05-13.
  6. ^ "Number of farmers in Turkey plummets below half a million". Duvar (in Turkish). 2022-04-21. Retrieved 2022-09-10.
  7. ^ Gostev, Aleksandr; Liklikadze, Koba (30 April 2022). "Analysis: Erdogan Hoping Russian Invasion Of Ukraine Can Bolster Turkish Regional Power". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  8. ^ "Turkey - Value Added In The Agricultural Sector". maxinomics.com. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  9. ^ "One-fourth of wasted food could feed 870M people: expert".
  10. ^ Fisheries and Aquaculture 2005 statistics.
  11. ^ Gazete, Banka (21 November 2021). "Bakan Pakdemirli: 'Ülkemizde kullanılan tohumlukların yüzde 96'sı yurt içinde üretilmektedir'". Gazetebanka.com. p. https://gazetebanka.com/. Retrieved 21 November 2021.
  12. ^ "EU imported 21% more fruit and veg from Turkey". www.freshplaza.com.
  13. ^ "The fruit and vegetable sector in the EU - a statistical overview/ - Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2017-02-02. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
  14. ^ "EU Council issues strong message about Turkey's obligations". Cyprus Mail. 26 June 2018.
  15. ^ "EU will Zollunion mit der Türkei nicht ausbauen". Die Zeit (in German). 27 June 2018.
  16. ^ "ENLARGEMENT AND STABILISATION AND ASSOCIATION PROCESS Council conclusions" (PDF). Council of the European Union. 26 June 2018.
  17. ^ Gazete, Banka (15 November 2021). "Korona virüs avokado üretimini arttırdı, üretici talebe yetişemiyor". Gazetebanka Haber. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  18. ^ Gazete, Banka (15 November 2021). "Muzda 6 çeşit tescillenecek". Gazetebanka. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  19. ^ Ray, I., Gul, S. (2000). More from less: policy options and farmer choice under and Drainage Systems Archived 2008-02-16 at the Wayback Machine 13:363-383.
  20. ^ "Southeastern Anatolia Project: What is G.A.P.?". gap.gov.tr. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
  21. ^ a b "FAOSTAT".
  22. ^ ""World Olive Oil Figures"".
  23. ^ "The Turkish olive oil sector". www.olioofficina.net. (2016)- Retrieved 2018-07-11
  24. ^ "Genetic diversity and population structure of four cattle breeds raised in Turkey using microsatellite markers". Archived from the original on 9 February 2020.
  25. ^ "Çiftçi sayısı en fazla il: Ordu". www.trthaber.com (in Turkish). Retrieved 2022-09-10.
  26. ^ "Türkiye'de çiftçi sayısı son 5 yılda yüzde 28 azaldı". euronews (in Turkish). 2021-12-09. Retrieved 2022-09-10.

External linksEdit