Open main menu
AR-15 style rifles come in many sizes and have many options, depending on the manufacturer. The part shown bottom center is the lower receiver without the receiver extension, rear takedown pin, and buttstock.

An AR-15 style rifle is a lightweight semi-automatic rifle based on the ArmaLite AR-15 design. ArmaLite sold the patent and trademarks to Colt's Manufacturing Company in 1959. After Colt's patents expired in 1977, Colt retained the trademark and is the exclusive owner of "AR-15" designation. [1] an expanded marketplace emerged with many manufacturers producing their own version of the AR-15 design for commercial sale. They are referred to as modern sporting rifles by the National Shooting Sports Foundation, a firearms industry trade association, and by some manufacturers.[2] Coverage of high-profile incidents where various versions of the rifle were involved often uses the shorthand AR-15.[3]

AR-15 style rifles have become one of the "most beloved and most vilified rifles" in the United States, according to the New York Times.[4] The rifle has been promoted as "America's rifle" by the National Rifle Association. They have been used in several mass shootings in the United States.[4] The Public Safety and Recreational Firearms Use Protection Act restricted the Colt AR-15 and derivatives from 1994-2004, although it did not affect rifles with fewer features.[5][6]

Contents

TerminologyEdit

 
1973 Colt AR-15 SP1 rifle with 'slab side' lower receiver (lacking raised boss around magazine release button) and original Colt 20-round box magazine

In 1956, ArmaLite designed a lightweight assault rifle for military use and designated it the ArmaLite Rifle-15, or AR-15.[7][8] Due to financial problems and limitations in terms of manpower and production capacity, ArmaLite sold the design and the AR-15 trademark along with the ArmaLite AR-10 to Colt's Manufacturing Company in 1959.[9] In 1964, Colt began selling its own version with an improved semi-automatic design known as the Colt AR-15.[10] After Colt's patents expired in 1977, an active marketplace emerged for other manufacturers to produce and sell their own semi-automatic AR-15 style rifles.[1] Some versions of the AR-15 were classified as "assault weapons" and banned under the Public Safety and Recreational Firearms Use Protection Act in 1994. This act expired in 2004.[5][11]

In 2009, the term "modern sporting rifle" was coined by the National Shooting Sports Foundation for its survey that year as a marketing term used by the firearms industry to describe modular semi-automatic rifles including AR-15s.[12][13][14][15] Today, nearly every major firearm manufacturer produces its own generic AR-15 style rifle.[16][14] As Colt continues to own and use the AR-15 trademark for its line of AR-15 variants, other manufacturers must use their own model numbers and names to market their AR-15 style rifles for commercial sale.[17]

ModularityEdit

While most earlier breech-loading rifles had a single receiver housing both the trigger and reloading mechanism, an innovative feature of the AR-15 was modular construction to simplify substitution of parts and avoid need for arsenal facilities for most repairs of malfunctioning military rifles.[18] A distinctive two-part receiver is used by both military and sporting AR-15 style rifles. As civilian ownership of AR-15 style rifles became sufficient to create a market for improvements, numerous manufacturers began producing one or more "improved" modules, assemblies, or parts with features not found on factory rifles; and individuals with average mechanical aptitude can often substitute these pieces for original equipment. Due to the vast assortment of aftermarket parts and accessories available, AR-15 style rifles have also been referred to as "the Swiss Army knife of rifles,"[19] "Barbie Dolls for Guys,"[20][21][22] or "LEGOs" (sic) for adults.[23][24][25] These more or less interchangeable modules are a defining characteristic of AR-15 style modern sporting rifles.[26]

The lower receiver is the serial-numbered part legally defined as the firearm under United States law. The lower receiver is visually distinguished by the trigger guard ahead of the detachable pistol grip, and behind the magazine well capable of holding detachable magazines. The lower receiver holds the trigger assembly including the hammer, and is the attachment point for the buttstock. The lower receiver is attached to the upper receiver by two removable pins. Disassembly for cleaning or repair of malfunctions often requires removal of these pins. Removal of the rear take-down pin allows the receiver to be opened by rotation around the forward pivot pin as a hinge.[18]

The upper receiver contains the bolt carrier assembly, and is attached to the barrel assembly. Sights will be attached to the upper receiver or to the barrel assembly. A handguard usually encloses the barrel and a gas-operated reloading device using burnt powder gas vented from a hole (or port) in the barrel near the forward end of the handguard. The handguard is attached to the upper receiver and may also be attached to the barrel.[18]

The initial design included a tube to vent burnt powder gas back into the bolt carrier assembly where it expands in a variable volume chamber forcing the bolt open to eject the spent cartridge case. A buffer spring in the butt stock then pushes the bolt closed picking up a new cartridge from the magazine. This direct gas impingement (DGI) system has the disadvantage of venting un-burned smokeless powder residue into the receiver where it may ultimately accumulate in quantities causing malfunctions. A more recent alternative design has a metal operating rod pushing against the bolt carrier from a gas piston under the hand guard near the barrel port. This piston keeps the receiver cleaner by exhausting under the hand guard.[27] While both the DGI and piston systems produce semi-automatic fire, an alternative un-ported barrel assembly includes a sliding hand guard connected to a rod moving the bolt by a pump action and eliminating semi-automatic fire.[28]

Most rifles eject spent cartridges from the right side of the receiver away from right handed shooters who place the butt against the right shoulder while sighting with the right eye and using a finger of the right hand to pull the trigger.[29] Right-side ejection is a disadvantage for the third of the population whose left eye is dominant,[30] and for the tenth of the population who are left handed,[31] because holding these rifles against their left shoulder for maximum accuracy causes the rifle to eject hot spent cases toward the chest, neck or face of a left handed shooter.[32] The modular design of AR-15 style rifles has encouraged several manufacturers to offer specialized parts including leftward ejecting upper receivers for converting right handed AR-15 style rifles for left handed use.[33][34][35]

Some AR-15-style rifles have features limiting use of detachable magazines to comply with state regulations.[36][37] A few unusual versions are incapable of semi-automatic fire.[28][38] Nearly all versions of the civilian AR-15 have a pistol grip like the military versions, and some have folding or collapsible stocks like the M4 carbine which reduce the overall length of the rifle.

Comparison to military versionsEdit

The semi-automatic civilian AR-15 was introduced by Colt in 1963. The primary distinction between civilian semi-automatic rifles and military models is select fire. Military models were produced with firing modes, semi-automatic fire and either fully automatic fire mode or burst fire mode, in which the rifle fires three rounds in succession when the trigger is depressed. AR-15 Rifles with select fire modes are classified as M16's (followed by the Variant- M1-4) Most components are interchangeable between semi-auto and select fire rifles including magazines, sights, upper receiver, barrels and accessories.[39][40] The military M4 carbine typically uses a 14.5" barrel. Civilian rifles commonly have 16 inch or longer barrels to comply with the National Firearms Act.[41]

In order to prevent a civilian semi-automatic AR-15 from being readily converted for use with the select fire components, a number of features were changed. Parts changed include the lower receiver, bolt carrier, hammer, trigger, disconnector, and safety/mode selector. The semi-automatic bolt carrier has a longer lightening slot to prevent the bolt's engagement with an automatic sear. Due to a decrease in mass the buffer spring is heavier. On the select fire version, the hammer has an extra spur which interacts with the additional auto-sear that holds it back until the bolt carrier group is fully in battery, when automatic fire is selected.[42] Using a portion of the select fire parts in a semi-automatic rifle will not enable a select fire option(this requires a Registered part with the ATF). Lower receivers that are select fire are easily identified by a pin hole above the safety/mode selection switch.[43] As designed by Colt the pins supporting the semi-auto trigger and hammer in the lower receiver are larger than those used in the military rifle to prevent interchangeability between semi-automatic and select fire components.[44]

Production and salesEdit

 
A custom built AR-15 style rifle with an ACOG sight.

The first version produced for commercial sale by Colt was the AR-15 Sporter, in .223 Remington, with a 20-inch barrel and issued with 5-round magazines.[10] Initial sales of the Colt AR-15 were slow, primarily due to its fixed sights and carry handle that made scopes difficult to mount and awkward to use.[45]

In the 1990s, sales of AR-15 style rifles increased dramatically, partly as a result of the introduction of the flat top upper receiver(M4 variant) which allowed scopes and sighting devices to be easily mounted as well as new features such as free floating hand guards that increased accuracy.[45] While only a handful of companies were manufacturing these rifles in 1994, by the 21st century the number of AR-15 style rifles had more than doubled.[46] From 2000 to 2015, the number of manufacturers of AR-15 style variants and knock-offs increased from 29 to about 500.[47] Today, AR-15 style rifles are available in a wide range of configurations and calibers from a large number of manufacturers. These configurations range from standard full-sizes rifles with 20 inch barrels, to short carbine-length models with 16 inch barrels, adjustable length stocks and optical sights, to long range target models with 24 inch barrels, bipods and high-powered scopes.[48]

Estimates vary as to how many of the rifles are owned in the United States. The National Shooting Sports Foundation has estimated that approximately 5 million to 10 million AR-15 style rifles exist in the U.S. within the broader total of the 300 million firearms owned by Americans.[49]

HuntingEdit

Some hunters prefer using AR-15 style rifles because of their versatility, accuracy, wide variety of available features, and wide variety of calibers(see below).[50] Collapsible stocks are convenient for hunters who pack their rifles into remote hunting locations or to fit any sized hunter.[51] Construction with lightweight polymers and corrosion-resistant alloys makes these rifles preferred for hunting in moist environments with less concern about rusting or warping wood stocks. Positioning of the AR-15 safety is an improvement over traditional bolt action hunting rifles. Many states require hunters to use reduced-capacity magazines,[52] but the self-loading feature is important when shooting pack animals like coyote so several may be killed before the pack disperses and hides. If a hunter misses with a first shot, the self-loading feature enables rapid followup shots against dangerous animals like feral pigs or rapidly moving animals like jackrabbits.[50] Hunters shooting larger game animals often use upper receivers and barrels adapted for larger cartridges or heavier bullets. Several states consider .22 caliber cartridges like the 5.56×45mm NATO inadequate to ensure a clean kill.[53][54][55]

Cartridge variationsEdit

Since the upper and lower receivers may be swapped between rifles, forensic firearm examination of bullets and spent cartridges may reveal distinguishing marks from the barrel and upper receiver group without identifying the lower receiver for which legal records may be available.[56] An individual may use several upper receiver groups with the same lower receiver. These upper receiver groups may have differing barrel lengths and sights, and may fire different cartridges. A hunter with a single lower receiver might have one upper receiver with a .223 Remington barrel and telescopic sight for varmint hunting in open country and another upper receiver with a .458 SOCOM barrel and iron sights for big-game hunting in brushy woodland. The dimensions of upper and lower receivers originally designed for the 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge impose an overall length limit and diameter limits when adapting modules for other cartridges included in this list of AR platform calibers.[57][48] The same magazine in the lower receiver group may hold differing numbers of different cartridges.[27]

Use in crime and mass shootingsEdit

Most gun killings in the United States are with handguns.[58][59][60] According to a 2013 analysis by Mayors Against Illegal Guns 14 out of 93 mass shootings involved high capacity magazines or assault weapons.[61] Nevertheless, AR-15 style rifles have played a prominent role in many high-profile mass shootings in the United States[62] and have come to be widely characterized as the weapon of choice for perpetrators of these crimes.[63] AR-15's or similar rifles were the primary weapons used in around half of the 10 deadliest mass shootings in modern American history,[64][65] including the 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, the 2015 San Bernardino attack,[4] the 2017 Las Vegas shooting,[66] the 2017 Sutherland Springs church shooting,[66] and the 2018 Stoneman Douglas High School shooting.[67] Gun expert Dean Hazen and mass murder researcher Dr. Pete Blair think that mass shooters' gun choices have less to do with the AR-15's specific characteristics but rather with familiarity and a copycat effect.[68][69]

Following the use of a Colt AR-15 rifle in the Port Arthur massacre, the worst single-person shooting incident in Australian history, the country enacted the National Firearms Agreement in 1996, restricting the private ownership of semi-automatic rifles with a capacity of more than 5 rounds (Category D[70]).[71][72][73]

Partial list of modelsEdit

Examples of AR-15 style rifles and carbinesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Jeff Zimba (2014-11-26). The Evolution of the Black Rifle: 20 Years of Upgrades, Options, and Accessories. ISBN 9780692317266.
  2. ^ "Modern Sporting Rifle Facts". National Shooting Sports Foundation. 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
  3. ^ Walker, Rob (2016-12-30). "The Year in Nine Objects". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 2018-03-12.
  4. ^ a b c Feuer, Alan (13 June 2016). "AR-15 Rifles Are Beloved, Reviled and a Common Element in Mass Shootings". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  5. ^ a b Plumer, Brad (2012-12-17). "Everything you need to know about the assault weapons ban, in one post". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  6. ^ >/ "Guns Like The AR-15 Were Never Fully Banned". FiveThirtyEight. 2016-06-14. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  7. ^ "ArmaLite History: 1955-1959". Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  8. ^ Bartocci, Christopher R. (July 16, 2012). "The AR-15/M16: The rifle that was never supposed to be". Gun Digest. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  9. ^ Bartocci, Christopher R. (July 16, 2012). "AR-15/M16: The Rifle That Was Never Supposed to Be". Gun Digest. Retrieved May 24, 2017.
  10. ^ a b Bob Hutton & Bob Forker (October 1964). "A Beautiful Marriage: .223 Remington and Colt's AR-15 'Sporter'". Guns & Ammo.
  11. ^ Bocetta, Sam (March 15, 2018). "The Complete History of the AR-15 Rifle". Small Wars Journal. Retrieved March 18, 2018.
  12. ^ "Modern Sporting Rifle Owners Are Most Active Shooters, Says NSSF/Responsive Management Survey". National Shooting Sports Foundation. 2010-04-19. Archived from the original on 2010-04-25. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
  13. ^ Peters, Justin (2016-06-14). "Omar Mateen Had a "Modern Sporting Rifle"". Slate. ISSN 1091-2339. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
  14. ^ a b "DPMS Founder and President Retires". The Outdoor Wire Digital Network. 14 December 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2013. Luth's quest to introduce the hunting market to the AR platform was recognized in January 2009 when he was named to the Outdoor Life's OL-25, and later chosen by online voters as the OL-25 "Reader's Choice" recipient. The recent campaign by the NSSF to educate hunters everywhere about the "modern sporting rifle" can be directly attributed to Luth's push to make AR rifles acceptable firearms in the field, the woods and on the range.
  15. ^ "Modern Sporting Rifle - AR-15 platform-based rifles". NSSF. Retrieved 2018-02-16.
  16. ^ Richardson, Reed (July 12, 2016). "American Rifle: A Biography of the AR-15". Talking Points Memo. Retrieved March 28, 2017. Fueled by this “Obama effect” — his reelection in 2012 coincided with the best month for gun sales in decades — every mainline gun manufacturer now sells an AR-15 model.
  17. ^ "AR-15 - Trademark Details". JUSTIA Trademarks. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  18. ^ a b c Colt (January 1980). M16A1 RIFLE. Hartford, Connecticut: Colt's Manufacturing Company.
  19. ^ Patrick Sweeney ARS Across the Board Archived 2011-08-19 at the Wayback Machine.. GUNS&AMMO November 2010
  20. ^ "Chicago Tribune: Why Assault Rifle Sales are Booming - The Truth About Guns". June 17, 2015.
  21. ^ Levings, Darryl (February 2, 2013). "AR-15 rifle more loved — and hated — than ever - Amid the rising call for the rifle to be banned, sales of the "Barbie doll for guys" have soared". Kansas City Star. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
  22. ^ Kyle, Chris (2014). American Gun. William Morrow Paperbacks. p. 252. ISBN 0062242725.
  23. ^ Stokes, Jon. "The AR-15 Is More Than a Gun. It's a Gadget". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
  24. ^ "Fifteen of the Best Cheap AR Accessories". The Shooter's Log. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
  25. ^ "Lego Kits for Adults". AR Blog. 2016-07-13. Retrieved 2017-01-30.
  26. ^ "Modern Sporting Rifle". National Shooting Sports Foundation. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  27. ^ a b Popenker, Maxim. "Ar-15-type rifles". Modern Firearms. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  28. ^ a b Horman, B. GIl. "Review: Troy 223 National Sporting Pump-Action Rifle". American Rifleman. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  29. ^ Craige, John Houston The Practical Book of American Guns (1950) Bramhall House pp. 108–114
  30. ^ Chaurasia BD, Mathur BB (1976). "Eyedness". Acta Anat (Basel). 96 (2): 301–5. doi:10.1159/000144681. PMID 970109.
  31. ^ Hardyck C, Petrinovich LF (1977). "Left-handedness". Psychol Bull. 84 (3): 385–404. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.84.3.385. PMID 859955.
  32. ^ Boddington, Craig. "Rifles For Left-Out Lefties". American Rifleman. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  33. ^ "LEFT HAND". Moriarti Armaments. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  34. ^ "Left Handed Upper Halves". Stag Arms. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  35. ^ "LEFT HANDED". Black Rain Ordnance. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  36. ^ "AR-15 COMPMAG". COMPMAG. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  37. ^ LaPedis, Ron. "How to make your AR great again – in California". PoliceOne. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  38. ^ "ComGraf Pump Action Rifle". TREND EDITOR. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  39. ^ Bartocci, Christopher. "AR-15/M16: The Rifle That Was Never Supposed to Be". GunDigest. Gun Digest Media. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  40. ^ Zimba, Jeff (2014). The Evolution of the Black Rifle. Prepper Press. ISBN 0692317260.
  41. ^ Muramatsu, Kevin (2014). Gun Digest Guide to Customizing Your AR-15. F+W Media, Inc. ISBN 1440242798.
  42. ^ Hanks, D. A. (2004). Workbench AR-15 Project. Paladin Press. ISBN 1610048466.
  43. ^ Leghorn, Nick. "Ask Foghorn: What's the Difference Between a Full Auto and Semi-Auto Only AR-15 Bolt Carrier?". The Truth About Guns. THETRUTHABOUTGUNS.COM. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  44. ^ Sweeney, Patrick (2016). Gunsmithing the Ar-15, the Bench Manual. F+W Media, Inc. ISBN 1440246602.
  45. ^ a b Mann, Richard A. (30 April 2014). GunDigest Shooter's Guide to the AR-15. Iola, Wisconsin: Krause Publications. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-1-4402-3847-5.
  46. ^ Sweeney, Patrick (30 August 2016). Gunsmithing the AR-15, the Bench Manual. Iola, Wisconsin: F+W Media, Inc. pp. 7–9. ISBN 978-1-4402-4660-9.
  47. ^ O’Dea, Meghan (June 13, 2016). "What Makes the AR-15 So Appealing to Mass Shooters?". Fortune. Retrieved February 15, 2018. While Colt alone makes the official AR-15, variants and knock-offs are made by a huge number of gun manufactures, including Bushmaster, Les Baer, Remington, Smith & Wesson (swhc, +0.00%), and Sturm & Ruger (rgr, -2.04%), just to name a few. TacticalRetailer claims that from 2000 to 2015 the AR manufacturing sector expanded from 29 AR makers to about 500, “a stunning 1,700% increase.”
  48. ^ a b Evolution of an AR | Gear | Guns & Ammo Archived September 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Archives.gunsandammo.com (August 29, 2011). Retrieved on 2011-09-27.
  49. ^ Schoen, John W. (13 June 2016). "Owned by 5 million Americans, AR-15 under renewed fire after Orlando massacre".
  50. ^ a b Drabold, Will. "Here Are 7 Animals Hunters Kill Using an AR-15". Time. Retrieved 22 May 2018. In interviews with TIME, leaders of 15 state shooting groups said semiautomatic rifles are popular with hunters in their states. Hunters say they favor the gun for its versatility, accuracy and customizable features for shooting animals. The semiautomatic feature, which allows these guns to shoot up to 45 rounds a minute, is not always necessary, but useful in some situations, hunters say.
  51. ^ Billings, Jacki. "Why hunters are trading in traditional hunting rifles for the AR-15". Guns.com. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
  52. ^ Metcalf, Dick. "The AR for Deer Hunting?". North American Whitetail. Retrieved 24 May 2018.
  53. ^ "Legal Hunting Weapons for Game Mammals". Oregon Hunting Regulations. J.F. Griffin Publishing. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  54. ^ "Legal Firearms for Hunting Big Game or Trophy Game Animals". Wyoming Hunter Ed Course. Kalkomey Enterprises LLC. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  55. ^ "Legal Use of Firearms and Archery Tackle". General Information & Hunting Regulations. Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries. Retrieved 26 July 2018.
  56. ^ Davis, Ann L. "How can a bullet be traced to a particular gun?". Scientific American. Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  57. ^ U.S. Military Small Arms Ammunition Failures and Solutions, GK Roberts, NDIA Dallas, TX, May 21, 2008 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-28. Retrieved 2011-02-04.
  58. ^ "In Many U.S. States, 18 Is Old Enough to Buy a Semiautomatic". CBS News. The Associated Press. February 16, 2018. Retrieved February 19, 2018. On average, more than 13,000 people are killed each year in the United States by guns, and most of those incidents involve handguns while a tiny fraction involve an AR-style firearm. Still, the AR plays an oversized role in many of the most high-profile shootings...
  59. ^ "Expanded Homicide Data Table 4". 2016 Crime in the United States. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  60. ^ Balko, Radley (2013-07-09). Rise of the Warrior Cop: The Militarization of America's Police Forces. PublicAffairs. ISBN 9781610392129.
  61. ^ Todd, Michael (December 23, 2013). "The Simple Facts About Mass Shootings Aren't Simple at All". Pacific Standard. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
  62. ^ http://uk.businessinsider.com/ap-florida-shooting-revives-debate-over-gun-age-requirement-2018-2
  63. ^ Jansen, Bart; Cummings, William (November 6, 2017), "Why mass shooters are increasingly using AR-15s", USA Today, retrieved February 15, 2018, AR-15 style rifles have been the weapon of choice in many recent mass shootings, including the Texas church shooting Sunday, the Las Vegas concert last month, the Orlando nightclub last year and Sandy Hook Elementary School in 2012.
    Oppel Jr., Richard A. (February 15, 2018), "In Florida, an AR-15 Is Easier to Buy Than a Handgun", The New York Times, retrieved February 15, 2018, The N.R.A. calls the AR-15 the most popular rifle in America. The carnage in Florida on Wednesday that left at least 17 dead seemed to confirm that the rifle and its variants have also become the weapons of choice for mass killers.
    Lloyd, Whitney (February 16, 2018), Why AR-15-style rifles are popular among mass shooters, ABC News, retrieved March 2, 2018, AR-15-style rifles have become something of a weapon of choice for mass shooters.
  64. ^ The LA Times identified five shootings including the Pulse Nightclub Shooting. Early reports on that shooting identified the rifle as an AR-15. Later reports noted that the rifle was a SIG MCX [Howerton, Jason (June 14, 2016). "The gun the Orlando shooter used wasn't actually an AR-15". Business Insider. Retrieved October 6, 2018.], [Gibbons-Neff, Thomas (June 14, 2016). "The gun the Orlando shooter used was a Sig Sauer MCX, not an AR-15. That doesn't change much". Washington Post. Retrieved October 6, 2018.]
  65. ^ Pearce, Matt (14 February 2018). "Mass shootings are getting deadlier. And the latest ones all have something new in common: The AR-15". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 May 2018. in all of the latest incidents...the attackers primarily used AR-15 semiautomatic rifles.
  66. ^ a b "Why the AR-15 keeps appearing at America's deadliest mass shootings". USA Today. Retrieved 22 February 2018.
  67. ^ Shapiro, Emily (February 14, 2018). "At least 17 dead in 'horrific' Florida school shooting, suspect had 'countless magazines'". ABC News. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  68. ^ Cummings, William (February 15, 2018). "Why the AR-15 keeps appearing at America's deadliest mass shootings". USA Today. Retrieved June 1, 2018.
  69. ^ Lloyd, Whitney (February 16, 2018). "Why AR-15-style rifles are popular among mass shooters". ABC News. Retrieved June 6, 2018.
  70. ^ Oakes, Dan (2013-01-23). "Assault guns made here". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  71. ^ "Firearms in Australia: a guide to electronic resources". aph.gov.au. Commonwealth of Australia. 9 August 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
  72. ^ "How Australia Passed Gun Control: The Port Arthur Massacre and Beyond". Foreign Affairs. October 13, 2017. Retrieved 18 February 2018.
  73. ^ Wahlquist, Calla (14 March 2016). "It took one massacre: how Australia embraced gun control after Port Arthur". The Guardian.

BibliographyEdit

  • Stevens, R. Blake and Edward C. Ezell. The Black Rifle M16 Retrospective. Enhanced second printing. Cobourg, Ontario, Canada: Collector Grade Publications Incorporated, 1994. ISBN 0-88935-115-5.
  • Bartocci, Christopher R. Black Rifle II The M16 Into the 21st Century. Cobourg, Ontario, Canada: Collector Grade Publications Incorporated, 2004. ISBN 0-88935-348-4.