2020 coronavirus pandemic in the United Kingdom

The ongoing global pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), spread to the United Kingdom in January 2020.[4] Transmission within the UK was confirmed in February,[5] leading to an epidemic with a rapid increase in cases in March.[6] As of 7 April, there have been 55,242 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the UK,[nb 3][3] and 5,373 people with confirmed infection have died.[nb 1][3]

2020 coronavirus pandemic in the United Kingdom
COVID-19 outbreak UK case counts.svg
Confirmed cases by country and NHS region in the United Kingdom[1][2]
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationUnited Kingdom
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseYork, North Yorkshire, England
Arrival date31 January 2020
(2 months and 1 week ago)
Confirmed cases55,242[3]
Deaths
6,159[nb 1][3]
Official website
'Coronavirus (COVID-19): latest information and advice' at www.gov.uk[nb 2]

On 12 January, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus had caused a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, which had initially come to the attention of the WHO on 31 December 2019.[12] The UK subsequently developed a prototype specific laboratory test for the new disease.[13] The four UK Chief Medical Officers (CMOs) raised the UK risk level from low to moderate on 30 January, upon the WHO's announcement of the disease as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).[13] After cases appeared in the UK on 31 January a public health information campaign was launched to advise people how to lessen the risk of spreading the virus.[13] Further cases in early February prompted the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, Matt Hancock, to introduce the Health Protection (Coronavirus) Regulations 2020 statutory instrument.[12] Guidance on infection prevention and control, how to detect and diagnose COVID-19, and daily updates, including advice to travellers, have been published by the UK's Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) and Public Health England (PHE).[12] In addition, the National Health Service (NHS) set up COVID-19 drive-through screening centres at some hospitals.[14][15] The Chief Medical Officer for England, Chris Whitty, explained a four-pronged strategy to tackle the outbreak: contain, delay, research and mitigate.[16]

The earliest documented transmission within the UK appeared on 28 February 2020; all of the cases detected previously had been infected abroad.[5] By 1 March, cases had been detected in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland.[12][17] Subsequently, Prime Minister Boris Johnson unveiled the Coronavirus Action Plan,[12] and the government declared the outbreak a "level 4 incident".[18] On 11 March, the WHO declared the outbreak a pandemic.[6] Other responses included some schools in England choosing to close.[19] Airlines announced a number of flight cancellations,[20] and some online retailers reported consumers placing unusually large orders.[21] On 12 March, the UK risk level was raised from moderate to high.[22] Four days later, following the outbreak in Italy,[23] whose health system shares similar values and organisation to the NHS,[24] and based on evidence including forecasting by epidemiologists at Imperial College London,[25] the government advised on further measures on social distancing and advised people in the UK against "non-essential" travel and contact with others, as well as suggesting people should avoid pubs, clubs and theatres, and work from home if possible. Pregnant women, people over the age of 70, and those with certain health conditions were urged to consider the advice "particularly important", and were asked to self-isolate.[23]

On 18 March, it was announced that the UK would close all schools except for children of key workers and vulnerable children.[26] On 20 March, all restaurants, pubs, clubs, and indoor sport and leisure facilities were ordered to close, though delivery and take-out chains were allowed to remain open.[27] On 23 March, the government announced that in order to protect the NHS, these measures were to be tightened further, with wide-ranging restrictions made on freedom of movement, enforceable in law,[28] resulting in the Coronavirus Act 2020, the Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (England) Regulations 2020 and other similar statutory instruments covering the other home nations.

In late March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson developed COVID-19 symptoms and tested positive for the virus. On 5 April, Johnson was hospitalised due to the coronavirus. He was moved to an intensive care unit the following day. As the United Kingdom does not have a constitution determining who would suceed the Prime Minister if they were imcapacitated, Boris Johnson nominated his First Secretary of State, Dominic Raab to deputise for him during this crisis if Boris Johnson could not perform his duties.[29]

Background

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[30][31]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[32][33] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[34][32] From 19 March, Public Health England no longer classified COVID-19 as a "High consequence infectious disease".[33]

Timeline

COVID-19 cases in the United Kingdom  ()
     Deaths        Recoveries        Active cases
Date
Cases (% rise)
Deaths (% rise)
2020-01-31
2(n.a.)
2020-02-01
2
2020-02-02
2
2020-02-03
2
2020-02-04
2
2020-02-05
2
2020-02-06
3(50%)
2020-02-07
3
2020-02-08
3
2020-02-09
4(33%)
2020-02-10
8(100%)
2020-02-11
8
2020-02-12
8
2020-02-13
9(13%)
2020-02-14
9
2020-02-15
9
2020-02-16
9
2020-02-17
9
2020-02-18
9
2020-02-19
9
2020-02-20
9
2020-02-21
9
2020-02-22
9
2020-02-23
9
2020-02-24
13(44%)
2020-02-25
13
2020-02-26
13
2020-02-27
13
2020-02-28
19(46%)
2020-02-29
23(21%)
2020-03-01
35(52%)
2020-03-02
40(14%)
2020-03-03
51(28%)
2020-03-04
85(67%)
2020-03-05
114(34%) 1(n.a.)
2020-03-06
160(40%) 2(100%)
2020-03-07
206(29%) 2
2020-03-08
271(32%) 3(50%)
2020-03-09
321(18%) 5(67%)
2020-03-10
373(16%) 6(20%)
2020-03-11
456(22%) 8(33%)
2020-03-12
590(29%) 8
2020-03-13
797(35%) 10(25%)
2020-03-14
1,061(33%) 21(110%)
2020-03-15
1,391(31%) 35(67%)
2020-03-16
1,543(11%) 55(57%)
2020-03-17
1,950(26%) 71(29%)
2020-03-18
2,626(35%) 103(45%)
2020-03-19
3,269(24%) 144(40%)
2020-03-20
3,983(22%) 177(23%)
2020-03-21
5,018(27%) 233(32%)
2020-03-22
5,683(13%) 281(21%)
2020-03-23
6,650(17%) 335(19%)
2020-03-24
8,077(21%) 422(26%[i])
2020-03-25
9,529(18%) 578(37%)
2020-03-26
11,658(22%) 759(31%)
2020-03-27
14,543(25%) 1,019(34%)
2020-03-28
17,089(18%) 1,228(21%)
2020-03-29
19,522(14%) 1,408(15%)
2020-03-30
22,141(13%) 1,789(27%)
2020-03-31
25,150(14%) 2,352(31%)
2020-04-01
29,474(17%) 2,921(24%)
2020-04-02
33,718(14%) 3,605(23%)
2020-04-03
38,168(13%) 4,313(20%)
2020-04-04
41,892(9.8%) 4,932(14%)
2020-04-05
47,806(14%) 5,373(8.9%)
2020-04-06
51,608(8.0%) 6,159(15%)
2020-04-07
55,242(7.0%)
Sources:
  • Based on confirmed cases reported daily by Public Health England. Figures do not include the cases from British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies.[35]

Notes:

  1. ^ On 25 March PHE changed reporting of deaths to be correct up to 17:00 the previous day, while cases are reported up to 09:00 the same day. Deaths reported for 24 March only cover from 09:00 to 17:00 on Tuesday 24 March. Subsequent reporting is for 24-hour periods from 17:00 to 17:00[36].

Late January 2020 – First cases

On 22 January, following a confirmed case of COVID-19 in the United States the previous day, in a man returning to Washington from Wuhan, China, where there were 440 confirmed cases at the time, the DHSC and PHE raised the risk level from "very low" to "low". As a result, Heathrow Airport received additional clinical support and tightened surveillance of the three direct flights that it received from Wuhan every week; each were to be met by a Port Health team with Mandarin and Cantonese language support. In addition, all airports in the UK were to make written guidance available for unwell travellers.[37][38] Simultaneously, efforts to trace 2,000 people who had flown into the UK from Wuhan over the previous 14 days were made.[39]

On 31 January, two members of a family of Chinese nationals staying in a hotel in York, one of whom studied at the University of York, became the first confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the UK. Upon confirmation, they were transferred from Hull University Teaching Hospital to a specialist isolation facility, a designated High Consequence Infectious Diseases Unit in Newcastle upon Tyne.[4][40] The index case for the UK, a 50 year old female who had travelled from Hubei province and entered the UK on 23 January, had developed fever and fatigue after three days. Her close household contact, a 23 year old student who had travelled from Hubei province on 6 January, developed symptoms on 28 January.[41]

On the same day, an evacuation flight from Wuhan landed at RAF Brize Norton and the passengers, none of whom were showing symptoms, were taken to quarantine, in a staff residential block at Arrowe Park Hospital on the Wirral.[42] There had previously been contention over whether the government should assist the repatriation of UK passport holders from the most affected areas in China, or restrict travel from affected regions altogether.[43][44] Some British nationals in Wuhan had been informed that they could be evacuated but any spouses or children with mainland Chinese passports could not.[45] This was later overturned, but the delay meant that some people missed the flight.[42]

February 2020 – Early spread

On 6 February, a third confirmed case, a man who had recently travelled to Singapore and then France, was reported in Brighton. He had been the source of infection to six of his relatives in France, before returning to the UK on 28 January.[46][47] Following confirmation of his result, the UK's CMOs expanded the number of countries where a history of previous travel associated with flu-like symptoms – such as fever, cough, and difficulty breathing – in the previous 14 days would require self-isolation and calling NHS 111. These countries included China, Hong Kong, Japan, Macau, Malaysia, Republic of Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand.[48]

On 10 February, the total number of cases in the UK reached eight as four further cases were confirmed in people linked to the affected man from Brighton.[49][50] Globally, the virus had spread to 28 countries.[51] That day, the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, Matt Hancock, announced the Health Protection (Coronavirus) Regulations 2020, to give public health professionals "strengthened powers" to keep affected people and those believed to be a possible risk of having the virus, in isolation.[51] The following day, two of the eight confirmed cases in the UK were reported by BBC News to be general practitioners (GPs).[49] A ninth case was confirmed in London on 11 February.[52]

On 23 February, the DHSC confirmed a total of 13 cases in the UK as four new cases in passengers on the cruise ship Diamond Princess were detected. They were transferred to hospitals in the UK.[53]

On 27 February, the total number of confirmed cases in the UK were reported as 16, including the first case in Northern Ireland – a woman who had travelled from the outbreak area in northern Italy, having also stopped in Dublin.[54][55]

On 28 February, the first case in Wales was confirmed in a person who had returned from Northern Italy.[56][57][58] The same day, two further cases were confirmed in England, one of whom was a man who became the 20th case of COVID-19 in the UK and the first case who did not contract the disease from abroad. He was a resident in Surrey and registered at the Haslemere Health Centre, which had previously been closed for "deep cleaning".[5]

On 29 February, three further cases of the virus were confirmed, bringing the total number of confirmed cases to 23, after 10,483 people had been tested.[12] Two of the three affected people had recently returned from Italy while the third had come back from Asia.[59] On the same day, Scottish CMO, Catherine Calderwood announced that surveillance would begin at some hospitals and 41 GP surgeries in Scotland.[60] Around 442,675 calls were made to the non-emergency line 111 in the last week of February.[61]

Early to Mid-March 2020 - From outbreak to epidemic

 
Soap almost sold out, London, 12 March
 
Number of cases (blue) and number of deaths (red) on a logarithmic scale.

On 1 March, a further 13 cases were reported, adding Greater Manchester and Scotland to the list of areas affected and bringing the total to 36, three of which were believed to be contacts of the case in Surrey who had no history of travel abroad.[62][63]

On 2 March, four further people in England tested positive; all four had recently travelled from Italy.[12] The total number of UK cases was reported as being 39.[20] The following day, when the total number of confirmed cases in the UK stood at 51, the UK Government unveiled their Coronavirus Action Plan, which outlined what the UK had done and what it planned to do next.[12]

On 4 March, the total number of confirmed cases increased to 85.[12] On the same day, a case was confirmed in Gibraltar in a person who had travelled from Northern Italy.[7] On 5 March, three further cases in Scotland were announced.[17] That day, the total number of confirmed cases in the UK was reported by officials as 115,[12] and a woman in her 70s with an existing medical condition, was reported to be the first fatality in the UK.[64] A further 48 cases were confirmed on 6 March,[65] with the total being over 200 the next day,[66] and adding a further 64 new cases on 8 March, the biggest increase in cases until that day.[67] On 9 March, the first three cases were discovered in Dorset.[68]

 
Some supermarkets began to limit purchases of items in high demand. 12 March.

On 10 March, it was announced that mental health minister Nadine Dorries MP had tested positive for the virus and was self-isolating.[69][70] On 11 March, 83 more cases were discovered in the UK bringing the total to 456.[71] On the same day, the WHO declared the outbreak a pandemic,[6] and it was discussed in the UK government's annual budget.[70]

On 12 March, the total of cases in the UK was reported to be 590.[12] On the same day, the UK CMOs raised the risk to the UK from moderate to high.[22] The government advised that anyone with a new continuous cough or a fever should self-isolate for seven days. Schools were asked to cancel trips abroad, and people over 70 and those with pre-existing medical conditions were advised to avoid cruises.[72][73]

 
Shopping in rubber gloves and a face mask, London, 15 March 2020

On 13 March, the number of confirmed cases rose by 208 to 798 confirmed cases,[74] with the first death from Coronavirus being reported in Scotland.[75] Many sporting fixtures, including the London Marathon,[76] the Six Nations Wales vs Scotland fixture,[77] and all Premier League and EFL football games[78] were postponed and the 2020 United Kingdom local elections were postponed for a year.[79] Similarly, the Country to Country music festival due to take place in March in London, was also postponed.[80] The UK Government restricted the export of three drugs being administered to COVID-19 patients in clinical trials in China: Kaletra, Chloroquine Phosphate, and Hydroxychloroquine [81]

On 14 March, the number of confirmed cases rose to 1,140 and the total number of people who had died in the UK had increased to 21.[82]

On 15 March, the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, Matt Hancock announced that everyone in Britain over the age of 70 would be told to self-isolate "within the coming weeks".[83] That day, the number of cases rose to 1,372 and the number of deaths increased to 35.[84]

On 16 March, the UK death toll rose to 55, with the number of cases of the illness passing 1,500.[23] The deaths included the first to be reported in Wales.[85] Also on 16 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson advised everyone in the UK against "non-essential" travel and contact with others, as well as suggesting people should avoid pubs, clubs and theatres, and work from home if possible. Pregnant women, people over the age of 70 and those with certain health conditions were urged to consider the advice "particularly important", and would be asked to self-isolate within days.[23] On the same day, a second Member of Parliament, Kate Osborne, tested positive after a period of self-isolation.[86][87][88][89]

 
Supermarkets introduced early shopping hours for the elderly and vulnerable

On 17 March, NHS England announced that all non-urgent operations in England would be postponed from 15 April to free up 30,000 beds.[90] Also on 17 March, Chancellor Rishi Sunak announced that £330bn would be made available in loan guarantees for businesses affected by the pandemic.[91][92] On that day the UK death toll rose to 71, while the number of confirmed cases increased to 1,950.[93][94]

On 17 March, the government provided a £3.2million emergency support package to help rough sleepers into accommodation.[95][96] With complex physical and mental health needs, in general, homeless people are at a significant risk of catching the virus.[95]

On 18 March, MP Lloyd Russell-Moyle announced that he had tested positive for with the virus.[97]. Boris Johnson made a statement on his daily briefing, announcing that all schools in the UK were to close on Friday to everyone except those who have parents with important jobs that they can't do from home. On 19 March, the first death was confirmed in Northern Ireland.[98] The Ministry of Defence also announced the formation of the COVID Support Force, enabling the military to support public services and civilian authorities in tackling the outbreak.[99] Two military operations were also announced: Operation Rescript, which focuses on the outbreak in the United Kingdom; and Operation Broadshare, which focuses on British military activities overseas.[100]

 
Next closed its 700 stores on 23 March, having previously traded with warning notices about the virus

On 20 March, the Driver and Vehicle Standards Agency announced that all pending practical and driving theory tests were to be postponed, for at least 3 months in the case of practical tests, and up to and including 20 April for theory tests. All candidates were to receive notification of when their tests were rescheduled.[101][102]

On 22 March, the UK death toll reached 281, including what was reported to be the virus's youngest British victim so far, an eighteen-year-old with underlying health problems.[103] On 23 March, Next was the latest retailer to announce that it was temporarily closing its 700 stores due to the pandemic. It predicted a £1bn loss in revenue due to the virus.[104][105] On the same day, Downing Street confirmed Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab would act in place of Prime Minister Boris Johnson if he became "incapacitated".[106]

Late March 2020 – Lockdown begins

On 23 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson announced in a television broadcast that measures to mitigate the virus were to be tightened further in order to protect the NHS, with wide-ranging restrictions made on freedom of movement, enforceable in law,[28] for a planned "lockdown" period intended to last for at least three weeks.[107] The government directed people to stay at home throughout this period except for essential purchases, essential work travel (if remote work was not possible), medical needs, one exercise per day (alone or with household members), and providing care for others.[108] Many other non-essential activities, including all public gatherings and social events except funerals, were prohibited, with many categories of retail businesses ordered to be closed.[28][109]

The Scottish Parliament closed on 24 March, with plans to reconvene on 1 April to discuss emergency legislation.[110] The National Assembly for Wales closed to the public on 17 March, it reconvened on 1 April using 'Zoom', for a virtual 'emergency Senedd' meeting.[111] The Northern Ireland Assembly reduced it's workload by suspending all non-essential Assembly business on 18 March, it closed to the public on 19 March.[112] From the 7 April it held Ad-hoc COVID-19 Response Committees.[113] The UK Parliament closed on 25 March, with the Speaker and the Leader of the House hopeful to set up a 'virtual parliament' by 21 April.[114][115]

On 24 March, it was announced that NHS England would establish a temporary critical care hospital, NHS Nightingale Hospital London, in the Excel London conference centre.[116] Also on 24 March, it was reported that NHS Wales were looking at the Principality Stadium in Cardiff for a similar purpose.[117] On 25 March, it was confirmed that NHS Scotland had identified Glasgow's SEC Centre exhibition and conference facility as a potential site for a similar hospital in Scotland.[118] On 26 March it was reported that the Northern Ireland health service was also looking for potential sites to use for temporary hospitals.[119] On 27 March, NHS England announced that they would be establishing more NHS Nightingale Hospitals in major conference centres to help to deal with the large number of cases expected.[120]

According to official data released on 24 March, there had been 87 new coronavirus deaths in the previous 24 hours, bringing the total number of deaths to 422.[121]

On 25 March, British diplomat Steven Dick, deputy ambassador to Hungary, died in Budapest after contracting the virus.[122] On the same day, it was announced the police would be given the power to use "reasonable force" to enforce the regulations.[123] The first two working NHS doctors died from COVID-19 on the same day, one a GP, the other a surgeon.[124]

On 26 March, the number of UK coronavirus deaths jumped by more than 100 in a day for the first time, rising to 578, while a total of 11,568 had tested positive for the virus.[125] At 8pm that day, people from across the UK took part in national applause in appreciation of health workers.[126] This applause was repeated the following week.[127]

 
Electronic display sign normally used for traffic management displays COVID19-related advices on an almost deserted Chichester Street in Belfast City Centre, 24 March.

On 27 March, Boris Johnson and Matt Hancock announced that they had tested positive for the virus.[128][129] On the same day, Labour MP Angela Rayner, the Shadow Secretary of State for Education, confirmed she had been suffering symptoms and was self-isolating.[130] Chief Medical Adviser Chris Whitty also reported suffering from symptoms and would be self-isolating, while continuing to advise the UK government.[131] That day also saw the largest increase in the number of deaths, with the figure rising by 181 from the previous day, bringing the total to 759, while 14,579 cases had been confirmed.[132] On the same day, the Royal Mint announced that it was manufacturing medical visors for medical staff working during the pandemic.[133][134] The National Police Chiefs' Council said police had issued their first fines for people breaking lockdown rules. The fixed penalty notices are £60 but will be reduced to £30 if paid within 14 days.[135]

On 28 March, the Scottish Secretary Alister Jack announced that he was self-isolating after experiencing coronavirus symptoms.[136] A further 260 deaths also took the number of fatalities past 1,000, with a total of 1,019 deaths having occurred so far, and 17,089 people having tested positive.[137] That evening, new regulations came into force in Northern Ireland giving authorities the power to force businesses to close, and impose fines on them if they refused, as well as on people leaving their homes without a "reasonable excuse". The measures, introduced by the Northern Ireland Executive, brought Northern Ireland into line with the rest of the UK.[138][139]

 
Social distancing while queueing to enter a British supermarket 30 March 2020
 
UK Government correspondence sent to every home during the Coronavirus pandemic. The envelope contained a letter from the Prime Minister. As well as a public information leaflet providing citizens with information about the Government's advice.

On 29 March, it was reported that the government would send a letter to 30 million households warning that things would "get worse before they get better" and that tighter restrictions could be implemented if necessary. The letter would also be accompanied by a leaflet setting out the government's lockdown rules along with health information.[140] Speaking at the government's daily briefing later that day, Dr Jenny Harries, England's deputy chief medical officer, suggested it could be six months before life could return to "normal", because social distancing measures would have to be reduced "gradually".[141] The first NHS nurse died of COVID-19.[124]

On 30 March, Dominic Cummings, the Prime Minister's Chief Adviser, was reported to be self-isolating after experiencing coronavirus symptoms.[142] As the number of reported deaths rose to 1,408, Sir Patrick Vallance, the UK's chief scientific adviser said that there were early signs social distancing measures were "making a difference". Transmission of the virus within the community was thought to be decreasing, and hospital admission data suggested cases were not rising as fast as anticipated.[143] At the same briefing, Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab announced an arrangement between the government and major UK airlines to fly home tens of thousands of British nationals who had been stranded abroad by the coronavirus outbreak.[144]

On 31 March the largest UK death toll of the outbreak so far was reported, with 381 deaths taking the total to 1,789.[145] Matthew Gould, chief executive of NHSX, the government body responsible for policy regarding technology in the NHS, said the organisation was looking seriously at a coronavirus app that would alert people if they had recently been in contact with someone testing positive for the virus after scientists advising the government suggested it "could play a critical role" in limiting lockdowns.[146] It was also announced that Harold Pearsall, a 97-year-old D-Day veteran from Tamworth, Staffordshire had died at the Good Hope Hospital in Birmingham after contracting the coronavirus. Pearsall received the Légion d'Honneur in 2015.[147] London's King's College Hospital confirmed that a 13-year-old boy who tested positive for coronavirus had died. On the same day the largest UK death toll of the outbreak was reported, with 381 deaths taking the total to 1,789.[148] Matthew Gould, chief executive of NHSX, the government body responsible for policy regarding technology in the NHS, said the organisation was looking seriously at a coronavirus app that would alert people if they had recently been in contact with someone testing positive for the virus after scientists advising the government suggested it "could play a critical role" in limiting lockdowns.[149]

Early April 2020

On 1 April, the government confirmed that a total of 2,000 NHS staff had been tested for coronavirus since the outbreak began, but Cabinet Office Minister Michael Gove said a shortage of chemical reagents needed for the test meant it was not possible to screen the NHS's 1.2 million workforce.[150] Gove's statement was contradicted by the Chemical Industries Association, which said there was not a shortage of the relevant chemicals and that at a meeting with a business minister the week before the government had not tried to find out about potential supply problems.[151] On 1 April the number of deaths was confirmed to have increased by 563 to 2,362, while a total of 29,474 cases had been diagnosed, 4,324 over the previous 24 hours.[150]

On 2 April, Health Secretary Matt Hancock announced a "five pillar" plan for testing people for the virus, with the aim of conducting 100,000 tests a day by the end of April. Hancock was speaking at the daily government briefing after ending his seven-day period of isolation.[152] At 8pm on 2 April the UK gave another national round of applause for NHS staff and other key workers.[153]

With warm weather forecast for some areas during the upcoming weekend, on 3 April Health Secretary Matt Hancock warned people to stay at home, telling them this was an instruction "not a request".[154] On 4 April it was announced that a five-year-old had died from the virus, believed to be the youngest victim to date.[155] The death total was reported as 4,313, having risen by 708 from the previous day's figure. At the government's daily press briefing, Michael Gove dismissed a growing conspiracy theory that COVID-19 was spread by 5G wireless networks — leading to the vandalism and torching of several cell towers. He argued that this theory was "dangerous nonsense"; mobile operator Vodafone considered the vandalism a matter of national security.[156][155]

On 5 April, Queen Elizabeth II made a rare, royal address to the UK and the wider Commonwealth, something she has done (outside of the Royal Christmas Message and her Diamond jubilee) on only four previous occasions. In the address she thanked people for following the government's social distancing rules and paid tribute to key workers, and said the UK "will succeed" in its fight against coronavirus but may have "more still to endure".[157] Later that evening it was announced that the Prime Minister, Boris Johnson, had been admitted to hospital as a "precautionary measure" after suffering from symptoms for more than a week with no improvement.[158] Footballer Kyle Walker was reported to have gone against efforts with respect to social distancing when he hosted a party involving two sex workers.[159] Catherine Calderwood, Scotland's chief medical officer, resigned from her post after it emerged she had been spoken to by police for visiting her second home during lockdown.[160]

On 6 April, Prime Minister Boris Johnson was moved to the intensive care unit at St Thomas' Hospital in London as his symptoms worsened. Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab will assume Johnson's duties while he remains in the ICU.[161]

On 7 April the number of reported deaths increased by 786 taking the total to 6,159. The figure compared with 439 deaths for the previous day. Sir Patrick Vallance, the government's chief scientific adviser, told the Downing Street daily briefing that the figures were not accelerating as had been predicted but that it was too early to tell whether the outbreak was peaking.[162][163]

Testing and surveillance

 
Warning notices at a London doctor's surgery, 13 March 2020

Shortly after confirming that the cause of the cluster of pneumonia in Wuhan was a new coronavirus, Chinese authorities had shared its genetic sequence for international developments of diagnostic kits.[37] The UK subsequently developed a prototype specific laboratory test for the new disease, performed on a sample from the nose, throat, and respiratory tract and tested at PHE's Colindale laboratories in London.[51] By 3 February 326 tests had been performed in the UK.[13] Over the following few weeks, PHE made the test available to 12 other laboratories in the UK, making it possible to test 1,000 people a day.[51]

Following 300 staff being asked to work from home on 26 February 2020 in London, while a suspected person was awaiting a test result for the virus, PHE announced it was to increase surveillance by widening testing around the UK to include people with flu-like symptoms at 100 GP surgeries and eight hospitals: the Royal Brompton and Harefield, Guy's and St Thomas' and Addenbrookes Hospital, as well as hospitals at Brighton and Sussex, Nottingham, South Manchester, Sheffield, Leicester.[164][165] Surveillance was shortly extended to some hospitals and GP surgeries in Scotland.[60]

Drive-through screening centres were set up by Central London Community Healthcare NHS Trust at Parsons Green Health Centre on 24 February 2020,[14] and by NHS Lothian at the Western General Hospital in Edinburgh.[15] A further drive-through testing station was set up by the Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust at a site just off the A57 Sheffield Parkway dual-carriageway on 10 March; in this case, patients ringing NHS 111 with coronavirus-like symptoms in the Sheffield area will be told to drive, if possible, to the testing centre at an allotted time.[166]

On 11 March NHS England announced that testing in NHS laboratories would increase from testing 1,500 to 10,000 per day.[70] The test consists of taking a sample from the nose, throat, deeper lung samples, blood or stool, and transporting the packed samples to the listed PHE regional laboratory designated for the referring laboratory region.[167][168] As of 12/13 March 2020, 29,764 tests had been conducted in the UK, corresponding to 450.8 tests per million people.[169] On 24 March, Matt Hancock said the government had bought 3.5m kits that would test if a person has already had COVID-19; no date was given for their arrival. These tests would allow people to know if they were immune and therefore able to "go back to work".[170] Hancock announced on 28 March that 10,000 tests a day were now being processed; the actual figure was 5,000.[171][172] As of 31 March, 143,186 people had been tested.[173]

The government and Public Health England were criticised for what some saw as a failure to organise mass testing. On 28 March the editor-in-chief of The Lancet published a condemnation of what he saw as government inaction and ignoring of WHO advice.[174] On 31 March former WHO director Anthony Costello, following WHO advice that countries should "test, test, test", said the key to the UK transitioning out of lockdown was mass testing, and that the UK had the capacity to reach the level of testing being carried out by Germany (70,000 tests a day, compared to the UK's 5,000), but that the government and Public Health England (PHE) had been too slow and controlling to organise.[175] The day after, Conservative MP Jeremy Hunt, chair of the Health and Social Care Select Committee and former Health Secretary, said it was "very worrying" that the government had not introduced mass testing because doing so had been "internationally proven as the most effective way of breaking the chain of transmission".[176]

Forecasting

 
Social distancing at a London pharmacy, 23 March 2020

Reports from the Medical Research Council's Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis at Imperial College, London have been providing mathematically calculated estimates of cases and case fatality rates.[51][177] In February, the team at Imperial, led by epidemiologist Neil Ferguson, estimated about two-thirds of cases in travellers from China were not detected and that some of these may have begun "chains of transmission within the countries they entered."[178][179][180] They forecast that the new coronavirus could infect up to 60% of the UK's population, in the worst-case scenario.[181]

In a paper, the Imperial team provided detailed forecasts of the potential impacts of the epidemic in the UK and US.[25][182] It details the potential outcomes of an array of 'non-pharmaceutical interventions'. Two potential overall strategies outlined were: mitigation, in which the aim is to reduce the health impact of the epidemic but not to stop transmission completely; and suppression, where the aim is to reduce transmission rates to a point where case numbers fall. Until this point government actions had been based on a strategy of mitigation, but the modelling predicted that while this would reduce deaths by approximately 2/3, it would still lead to approximately 250,000 deaths from the disease and the health systems becoming overwhelmed.[25] On the same day as the report was released, the Prime Minister announced in a press conference significant changes to the government advice, extending self isolation to whole households, advising social distancing particularly for vulnerable groups, and indicating that further measures were likely to be required in the future.[23][182] A paper on 30 March by Imperial estimated that the lockdown would reduce the number of dead from 510,000 to less than 20,000.[183]

In April, biostatistician Professor Sheila Bird said that delays in the reporting of deaths from the virus mean that there is a risk of underestimating the steepness of the rising epidemic trend.[184]

Response by sector

Arts and entertainment

Music

 
The "Wee Annie" statue in Gourock with a face mask, on 22 March.

On 13 March, BBC Radio 1 cancelled its Big Weekend music festival, scheduled to take place at the end of May.[185] Other music events to be cancelled included the C2C: Country to Country festival,[186] the 2020 Glastonbury Festival,[187] the Isle of Wight and Download music festivals[188] and the Cambridge Folk Festival.[189]

Among the artists and bands to postpone or cancel UK gigs or tours were Avril Lavigne and The Who.[186][190] Other, including Chris Martin of Coldplay, Yungblud, Keith Urban and Christine And The Queens responded to the situation by live-streaming gigs through social media.[191] On 25 March, the former Beautiful South members Paul Heaton and Jacqui Abbott announced they would play a free show for NHS staff working on the frontline of the pandemic, giving away 9,000 free tickets for the event in October.[192] On 31 March, Rick Astley announced that he would play a free gig for NHS frontline, primary care and emergency staff at the Manchester Arena on 28 October.[193]

Theatre and cinema

On 15 March, London's Old Vic became the first West End theatre to cancel a performance when it ended its run of Samuel Beckett's Endgame two weeks early.[194] On 16 March, other theatres in London, as well as elsewhere around the UK, closed following Boris Johnson's advice that people should avoid such venues.[195] On 17 March, cinema chains Odeon, Cineworld, Vue and Picturehouse announced they would be closing all of their UK outlets.[196] On 1 April it was announced that the annual Edinburgh festivals held in August would not take place in 2020.[197]

Television and radio

Television programmes to be affected included forthcoming series of Peaky Blinders and Line of Duty, which had their filming schedules delayed.[198] On 13 March, ITV announced that the 2020 series finale of Ant & Dec's Saturday Night Takeaway, scheduled to be broadcast from Walt Disney World in Florida would no longer go ahead after the resort announced its intention to close as a precautionary measure.[199] On 16 March, ITV announced that the filming schedule for its two soaps, Coronation Street and Emmerdale had not been affected by the pandemic, but said the programmes would "remind people of important public health issues" like hand-washing.[198] Two days later ITV said that the filming schedule for Coronation Street would change, and the number of weekly episodes be reduced,[200] This was followed on 22 March by the announcement that filming would completely cease from the following day.[201] On 18 March ITV announced the semi-final of the ninth series of The Voice UK, scheduled for Saturday 28 March, would be postponed until later in the year.[202]

On 16 March, the BBC delayed the implementation of its planned changes to TV licences for those aged over 75 from June to August.[203] On 25 March the BBC also announced that it would delay its plans to cut 450 news jobs due to the pressure of covering the pandemic.[204]

On 17 March, the BBC announced major changes to the schedule across the network. While programmes such as Politics Live, Victoria Derbyshire, The Andrew Neil Show, Newswatch, The Travel Show and HARDtalk were suspended, others such as Newsnight and The Andrew Marr Show would continue with a smaller number of production staff. Question Time would be moved to an earlier timeslot and be broadcast without an audience from a fixed location. Podcast programmes Americast, Beyond Today and The Next Episode were also suspended.[205] On 18 March it was announced that filming on the sets of Casualty, Doctors, EastEnders, Holby City, Pobol y Cwm and River City would be suspended. The broadcaster additionally announced that the number of weekly episodes of EastEnders would be reduced to ensure that it remained on screen for as long as possible.[200] The BBC also said that it would show more educational programmes to cater for children not attending school, and that it was in talks with the Department for Education and schools to support GCSE and A Level curriculums with extra programmes on BBC Four and the BBC Red Button service.[206] The BBC would also broadcast more programmes focused on health, fitness, education, religion and food recipes, while both the BBC and ITV would produce a weekly prime-time programme giving the public information about the coronavirus pandemic.[202] On the same day the 2020 Eurovision Song Contest, scheduled to be held in Rotterdam in May, was also cancelled.[207] On 22 March, ITV announced that its daytime programmes Lorraine and Loose Women would cease live broadcasting from the following day.[201]

On radio the BBC World Service programmes The World This Week, World Update and Weekend were all suspended. Radio news summaries on Radio 2, Radio 3, Radio 4 and Radio 5 Live were merged into a single output, with BBC 6 Music using the same script. The BBC Asian Network and Newsbeat worked together to maintain production of stories. Week in Westminster which broadcasts on Radio 4 was also suspended.[205] On 18 March, the BBC announced that its local radio stations in England would broadcast a virtual church service, led initially by the Archbishop of Canterbury, but with plans to expand religious services to cover other faiths.[202] On the same day Radio News Hub, a radio news bulletin provider based in Leeds announced that it would produce a daily ten-minute programme giving a round-up of information about the pandemic and that would be made available free of charge to radio stations.[208] On 28 March, BBC Local Radio announced that it had teamed up with manufacturers, retailers and the social isolation charity WaveLength to give away free DAB radios to vulnerable people over the age of 70.[209]

Construction

Many construction sites initially remained operational following the introduction of social distancing rules. Following criticism, housebuilders including Barratt and Taylor Wimpey, and contractors including Mace paused work on 24 March,[210] though Mace later reopened some sites.[211] Meanwhile, confusion about what constituted essential work, along with contractors' enforcement of subcontractors' contractual obligations, meant some projects remained operational, and many site workers experienced highly variable application of social distancing precautions.[212] In Scotland, work was ordered to be suspended on all non-essential construction projects from 6 April.[213]

Consumers

 
The almost empty pasta section in a London Tesco, 7 March 2020

It was reported in The Guardian that British supermarkets and their suppliers had developed a plan to ensure a consistent supply of a range of basic goods if there was panic-buying by consumers. Tesco, the country's largest supermarket chain, was said to have carried out simulation exercises to plan for events such as a pandemic flu outbreak which could be used to deal with the coronavirus pandemic.[21] There were reports of hand sanitiser and anti-bacterial products selling out at some supermarkets.[214] Online retailers reported consumers placing unusually large orders while the managing director of the frozen food chain Iceland reported increased sales of "multibuy deals and larger packs".[21]

 
People in London were buying more canned foods and toilet paper, 18 March 2020

Some supermarkets and other shops responded by limiting the quantity of popular items that each customer could buy, while others had a limit across their entire range.[215][216] Sainsbury's announced on 18 March that they would introduce a dedicated shopping hour for elderly and disabled customers, as well as giving them priority for online deliveries.[217] Other supermarkets, such as Iceland and Morrisons, also introduced measures.[218] Sainsbury's further announced on 21 March that they would give healthcare workers allocated shopping hours on three mornings a week.[219]

Amazon stopped sellers from sending non-essential products to their warehouses.[220] Selfridges closed all its stores and sold only online.[220]

In response to the panic buying of food, Professor Stephen Powis, medical director at NHS England, said on 21 March that NHS staff were being deprived of food supplies because of the activities of some consumers, and urged people to shop responsibly. Helen Dickinson, head of the British Retail Consortium said that there was enough food in the supply chain, but that the issue was getting it to retailers quick enough, suggesting the food industry was experiencing "a peak in demand" like at Christmas, but "without the four-month build-up period." She added that that an extra £1bn had been spent on food in the preceding three weeks.[221] Environment Secretary George Eustice also urged shoppers to stop panic buying.[222] On the same day it was reported that Tesco, Asda, Aldi, and Lidl had begun a recruitment drive for up to 30,000 new staff.[223]

On 21 March, the government announced that the 5p charge for carrier bags would be waived for online food deliveries.[224]

Sainsbury's announced that it would remove purchasing limits on most items from 5 April.[225]

Defence

In March 2020, the Ministry of Defence announced the formation of the COVID Support Force, a 20,000 strong military support force to support public services and civil authorities in tackling the virus.[99] Two military operations; Operation Rescript, based in the UK, and Operation Broadshare, focused on overseas defence activities, were launched.[100] 150 military personnel began receiving training to drive oxygen tankers for the NHS.[99] The Telegraph reported Chief of the Defence Staff Nick Carter had ordered the military to prepare for a "six month" operation.[226] The armed forces had already been used to assist the government in bringing British citizens home from affected areas, including China and Japan.[227] On 22 March, the Royal Air Force reportedly assisted repatriation flights of British and EU citizens from Cuba.[228] The Guardian reported that training exercises, including those overseas in Canada and Kenya, had been cancelled to free up personnel for the COVID Support Force.[229] Several air shows, including the Royal International Air Tattoo at RAF Fairford, were also cancelled.[230]

The Royal Air Force began using Birmingham Airport to practise transferring Coronavirus patients to local hospitals via helicopter.[231][232] A critically ill patient was also transported from the Gilbert Bain Hospital in Shetland to an intensive care ward in Aberdeen by an RAF Airbus A400M Atlas aircraft.[233]

On 24 March 2020, it was announced that military planners helped plan a temporary hospital to be opened in the ExCeL London conference centre, to be named the NHS Nightingale Hospital, which would be staffed by military medics, alongside the NHS.[234]

The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst had to adapt its passing out parade for only the third time since the Second World War. The cadets involved were made to stand two meters apart in combat dress and there were no spectators in the grandstands.[235]

Economics

The governor of the Bank of England called on the British government to provide support to businesses affected by the virus[236] and was reported to be working with the Treasury to provide a stimulus package to prevent the British economy falling into recession.[237] Companies listed on the London stock markets have fallen in value with commentators citing worries about the virus.[238] To stimulate the economy, the Bank of England cut interest rates from 0.75 to 0.25 percent.[239] On 19 March, the interest rate was again cut this time to 0.10% – the lowest rate in the bank's 325-year existence.[240] On 28 March, Fitch downgraded the UK's government debt rating from AA to AA-, because of coronavirus borrowing, economic decline, and lingering uncertainty over Brexit. The ratings agency believes that the UK's government deficit for 2020 might equal 9% of GDP, compared to 2% the previous year.[241]

Education

Following cases in Italy, the Cransley School in Northwich, Cheshire, and Trinity Catholic College in Middlesbrough closed, as some of their pupils had returned with symptoms from Italy. Fourteen schools in England had closed by 28 February.[19] Loughborough University reported a student confirmed to have the virus after recent travel to Italy, and indicated that several staff members and students began self-isolation.[242]

Cambridge University was heavily criticised for their incoherent response to the pandemic which forced international students and staff to scramble to make arrangements to return home with only two days' notice. On 13 March, students and staff were advised that international travel was discouraged and university facilities would stay open at reduced capacity. On 18 March, Vice Chancellor Stephen Toope announced a sudden U-turn and all university buildings would be indefinitely shut from all staff and students from the afternoon of Friday 20 March onwards, and all students are strongly encouraged to leave Cambridge.[243] The president of Cambridge UCU criticised that this sudden shutdown will exacerbate the pandemic as students from countries with weaker healthcare provisions are forced to return home.[243] Over a thousand Cambridge students signed an open letter requesting to have multiple assessment options in lieu of the cancelled examinations in Cambridge, including the option to retake part or all of the academic year in 2020–21.[244]

Coventry University first suspended all graduation ceremonies due to be held in March and April,[245] and from 20 March, suspended all face-to-face teaching, in favour of on-line delivery.[246] Many other higher education institutions took similar steps at around the same time.[247]

On 18 March, the Welsh government announced that all schools in Wales would be closing by 20 March.[248] On the same day, the First Minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon announced that Scottish schools would also be closing from 20 March, and may not reopen before the summer.[249] Later that day, it was announced that schools in Northern Ireland would close to pupils immediately and to staff on 20 March.[250] Shortly thereafter, the Secretary of State for Education, Gavin Williamson announced that schools in England would close from 20 March for an unspecified length of time.[251] Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that schools will still look after the children of key workers, and vulnerable children.[252] The UK government also announced that GCSE and A Level exams were to be cancelled, an unprecedented action in UK educational history, and that grades were to be given out based on predicted grades and teacher assessment.[252][253][254]

Engineering

The seven Formula One motor racing based in the UK - McLaren, Mercedes, Racing Point, Red Bull, Renault and Williams - and Haas with its European headquarters there, are collaborating, in an initiative called "Project Pitlane", to develop and manufacture ventilators for hospitals to use for Covid-19 patients.[255][256]

Heavy equipment manufacturer JCB have created prototypes of housings for ventilators to be produced by technology company Dyson, and is planning to start producing them to help Dyson fulfil a government order placed with them for 10,000 machines.[257]

On 2 April, it was announced that Ineos, the UK chemical company, had set up a factory capable of producing 1 million bottles of hand sanitiser per month. The factory in Newton Aycliffe, which usually produces PVC products for windows, is operating on three shifts per day and is distributing free bottles of sanitiser to the UK's national health services.[258]

On 31 March, Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) put a re-usable protective visor into production in Warwickshire. Their target is to produce 5,000 units per week in Warwickshire and distribute them to NHS Trusts around the country. The manufacturing data for the visor, designed by JLR's engineers in Gaydon, is to be made open-source, so that other manufacturers can also produce the visors.[259]

Events

LGBT pride

On 23 March, Pride in London, the UK's largest LGBT Pride festival, scheduled for 27 June, was postponed. It was one of a hundred pride events to be postponed or cancelled in the UK.[260] On 3 April, Brighton Pride, scheduled for Saturday 1 August, was cancelled.[261]

Northern Ireland parades

On 6 April the Orange Lodge of Ireland announced that the traditional Twelfth of July parades in Northern Ireland had been cancelled.[262]

Food and hospitality

Fast food and drink outlets Pret a Manger and McDonald's[263] (among others) at first announced that they would not permit customers to sit and eat in stores, but customers could still order products to take away and consume off the premises. On 22 March McDonald's announced it would close all outlets in the UK and Ireland by 7pm on 23 March.[264] Nando's announced later the same day they would also close their outlets.[264]

Initially, the pub chain J D Wetherspoon remained open, despite government advice for the public to avoid places of social activity, including pubs. The chain announced that it would keep all pubs open "unless the government states otherwise". Wetherspoons put rules into place for the duration of the crisis to promote social distancing (as recommended by the government), including spacing out tables more and encouraging customers to use the Wetherspoons mobile app to order food and drink.[265] On 20 March, all Wetherspoon pubs were closed in line with instructions from the government.[266]

Government

 
English NHS coronavirus poster, February 2020[267]

Guidance has altered in line with the number of cases detected and changes in where affected people have contracted the virus, as well as with what has been happening in other countries.[46] In February, Chief Medical Adviser to the UK Government, Chris Whitty explained "we basically have a strategy which depends upon four tactical aims: the first one is to contain; the second of these is to delay; the third of these is to do the science and the research; and the fourth is to mitigate so we can brace the NHS."[16] These aims equate to four phases; specific actions involved in each of these phases are:

  • Contain: detect early cases, follow up close contacts, and prevent the disease taking hold in this country for as long as is reasonably possible
  • Delay: slow the spread within the UK, and (if it does take hold) lower the peak impact and push it away from the winter season
  • Research: better understand the virus and the actions that will lessen its effect on the UK population; innovate responses including diagnostics, drugs and vaccines; use the evidence to inform the development of the most effective models of care
  • Mitigate: provide the best care possible for people who become ill, support hospitals to maintain essential services and ensure ongoing support for people ill in the community, to minimise the overall impact of the disease on society, public services and on the economy.[268]

The four UK CMOs raised the UK risk level from low to moderate on 30 January 2020, upon the World Health Organization's announcement of the disease as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.[12][13] As soon as cases appeared in the UK on 31 January 2020, a public health information campaign, similar to the previous "Catch it, Bin it, Kill it" campaign, was launched in the UK, to advise people how to lessen the risk of spreading the virus.[13] Travellers from Hubei province in China, including the capital Wuhan were advised to self-isolate, "stay at home, not go to work, school or public places, not use public transport or taxis, ask friends, family members or delivery services to do errands",[269] and call NHS 111 if they had arrived in the UK in previous 14 days, regardless of whether they were unwell or not.[13] Further cases in early February prompted the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care, Matt Hancock, to announce the Health Protection (Coronavirus) Regulations 2020.[12] Daily updates have been published by the DHSC.[12] NHS Digital in the meanwhile, have been collecting data.[270]

 
Poster for the "Catch it, Bin it, Kill it" slogan which has been revived in the fight against coronavirus

On 25 February 2020, the UK's CMOs advice for all travellers (unwell or not) who had returned to the UK from Hubei province in the previous 14 days, Iran, specific areas designated by the Italian government as quarantine areas in northern Italy and special care zones in South Korea since 19 February, to self-isolate and call NHS 111.[48] This advice was also advocated for any person who has flu-like symptoms with a history of travelling from Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and areas in Italy north of Pisa, Florence and Rimini, returning to the UK since 19 February. Later, self-isolation was recommended for anyone returning from any part of Italy from 9 March.[12][48]

Initially Prime Minister Boris Johnson largely kept Britain open, resisting the kind of lockdowns seen elsewhere in Europe. On Friday 13 March, UK chief scientific adviser Sir Patrick Vallance told BBC Radio 4 that one of "the key things we need to do" is to "build up some kind of herd immunity so more people are immune to this disease and we reduce the transmission".[271] This involves enough people getting infected, upon which they develop immunity to the disease.[272][273] Vallance said that 60% of the UK's population will need to become infected for herd immunity to be achieved.[274][273] This stance was criticised by experts who said that it would lead to hundreds of thousands deaths and overwhelm the NHS. Over 200 scientists urged the government to rethink the approach in an open letter.[275] Subsequently, Health Secretary Matt Hancock denied that herd immunity was a plan for the UK, although the Department of Health and Social Care said that "herd immunity is a natural byproduct of an epidemic".[276] There was also criticism over a lack of transparency around the scientific evidence being used to inform the government response, with a letter published in the Lancet on 17 March calling on the government to openly share its data and models as a matter of urgency.[277]

On 2 March, Boris Johnson said in an interview with BBC News: "The most important thing now is that we prepare against a possible very significant expansion of coronavirus in the UK population". This came after the 39th case in the UK was confirmed and over a month after the first confirmed case in the UK.[278] The same day, a BBC One programme Coronavirus: Everything You Need to Know addressed questions from the public on the outbreak.[279] The following day, the Coronavirus Action Plan was unveiled.[12] The next day, as the total number of cases in the UK stood at 51, the government declared the coronavirus pandemic as a "level 4 incident",[18] permitting NHS England to take command of all NHS resources.[18][280] Planning has been made for behaviour changing publicity including good hygiene and respiratory hygiene ("catch it, bin it, kill it"),[281] a simple measure which helps in delaying the peak of the infection and buys time for the testing of drugs and initial development of vaccines.[268] Primary care has been issued guidance.[282]

Controversy over apparent errors that the Government had made continued. For example, Dr. Richard Horton, editor of The Lancet told BBC's Question Time that "We knew in the last week of January that this was coming. The message from China was absolutely clear that a new virus with pandemic potential was hitting cities. ... We knew that 11 weeks ago and then we wasted February when we could have acted."[283]

Public Health England has also been involved with efforts to support the British Overseas Territories against the outbreak.[284][285]

On 27 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that he had contracted coronavirus and was self-isolating and that he would continue to lead the Government's response to coronavirus through video conference.[128] On the evening of 5 April the Prime Minister was admitted to hospital for tests.[286] The next day he was moved to the intensive care unit at St Thomas' Hospital, and the Foreign Secretary and First Secretary of State Dominic Raab was asked to deputise for him.[29]

Regulations and legislation

The government published the Health Protection (Coronavirus) Regulations 2020[287] on 10 February 2020, a statutory instrument covering the legal framework behind the government's initial containment and isolation strategies and its organisation of the national reaction to the virus. Other published regulations include changes to Statutory Sick Pay (into force on 13 March),[288] and changes to Employment and Support Allowance and Universal Credit (also 13 March).[289]

On 19 March, the government introduced the Coronavirus Act 2020, which grants the government discretionary emergency powers in the areas of the NHS, social care, schools, police, the Border Force, local councils, funerals and courts.[290] The act received royal assent on 25 March 2020.[291]

Closures to pubs, restaurants and indoor sports and leisure facilities were imposed via the Health Protection (Coronavirus, Business Closure) (England) Regulations 2020.[292]

The restrictions on movements, except for allowed purposes are:

Communications

 
UK Government advisory SMS message, 24 March 2020

The government has held daily evening press conferences since the 17 March. These were mostly hosted by Boris Johnson with cabinet ministers (often Matt Hancock) and senior scientific advisors.[297]

On 24 March, all major mobile telephony providers, acting upon a government request, sent out an SMS message to each of their customers, with advice on staying isolated.[298] This was the first ever use of the facility.[298] Although the government in 2013 endorsed the use of Cell Broadcast to send official emergency messages to all mobile phones, and has tested such a system, it has never actually been implemented. Backer Toby Harris said that the government had not yet agreed upon who would fund and govern such a system.[299][300]

Law and order

On 17 March, trials lasting longer than three days were postponed until May in England and Wales, while Scottish courts were not starting any new trial indefinitely. In England and Wales those cases already running would continue in the hope of reaching a conclusion.[301][302] A poll published on 20 March claimed that only 23% of British adults were strictly following the government's coronavirus advice.[303]

Personal attacks

There have been reports of hate incidents against Italian and Chinese persons[304] and a Singaporean student was assaulted in London in an attack that police linked to coronavirus fears.[305]

Prisons

The government released specific guidance to prisons in the event of coronavirus symptoms or cases, specifically the rule that "any prisoner or detainee with a new, continuous cough or a high temperature should be placed in protective isolation for 7 days".[306] There are around 83,000 prisoners in England and Wales.[307]

On 14 March, a prison officer in HMP High Down in Surrey tested positive for the virus and was sent home to self-isolate. Four officers who had contact with him were placed in isolation as a precaution.[308] On 18 March, the first coronavirus case was reported within the UK prison population. The prisoner, who had been serving time in HMP Manchester (commonly referred to as Strangeways), was moved to a hospital. While no other prisoners or staff tested positive for the virus, thirteen prisoners and four members of staff were put into isolation as a precaution.[309] Prison visits remained open, but the situation is being monitored.[310] On 19 March, it was revealed that around 75 officers at HMP Berwyn in Wales were off work due to sickness or self-isolation, and 22 prisoners showing symptoms of coronavirus were being isolated by the prison. However, the prison had enough staff members to remain fully operational.[311] Another prison officer tested positive on 20 March at HMP Whitemoor near March, Cambridgeshire.[312]

Following the case in HMP Manchester, public services think tank Reform called for the release of 2,305 "low-risk" offenders on short sentences to reduce the risk of coronavirus on the prison population.[313] Their report argues that prison are "overcrowded [with] insanitary conditions and poor-quality healthcare".[314] Similar actions have been taken in Iran and the United States.[315] Former justice secretary David Gauke echoed similar sentiments, citing the "churn" of prisoners going in and out of prison as a risk.[316]

On 23 March, a prisoner tested positive for the virus at HMP Birmingham and was placed into isolation. The prison was not placed into full lockdown, but made the decision to restrict access.[317] On the same day, a prisoner at HMP Oakwood near Wolverhampton tested positive for the virus and was placed into isolation. Visits to the prison were not stopped, but it is believed they were reduced.[318]

On 24 March, the Ministry of Justice announced that prison visits would be suspended and that inmates would be confined to their cells.[319] In order to maintain communication between prisoners and their families, the government promised 900 secure phones to 55 prisons, with calls being monitored and time-limited.[320] In a committee meeting on the same day, Justice Secretary Robert Buckland suggested that 50 pregnant inmates might be given early release, and another 9,000 inmates awaiting trial could be transferred to bail hostels.[321]

On 26 March, it was reported that 84-year-old convicted paedophile Edwin Hillier had died from COVID-19 on 22 March at HMP Littlehey in Cambridgeshire,[322] becoming the first inmate in the UK to die from the virus. Another 66-year-old male inmate died from COVID-19 on 26 March at HMP Manchester.[323] As of 1pm the previous day, there were 19 confirmed cases in the prison population across 10 prisons.[307]

Immigration centres

During mid-March, 300 people were released from immigration detention centres because of the pandemic following a campaign by charities concerned with an outbreak of COVID-19 in the centres.[324] On 25 March, it was reported that three immigration detention centres had reported cases of people with coronavirus.[325] On 2 April, a letter leaked from G4S, a company running immigration detention centres for the Home Office, revealed that detainees who were at high risk from COVID-19 were being put in solitary confinement.[326]

Policing

On 26 March, in an attempt to emphasise the importance of following the social distancing instructions given by the government, the police were given powers to impose fines on individuals gathered in groups or who refuse to return home when asked to.[327] By 31 March, some police forces, and individual officers, were being criticised by a variety of people - citizens,[328] former Supreme Court judge Lord Sumption,[327][329] former justice secretary David Gauke,[328] former chancellor George Osborne,[330] privacy and civil liberties group Big Brother Watch[328] - for over-zealous and incorrect application of the new powers. Police had stopped people from buying Easter eggs, put black dye into Harpur Hill Quarry, and, using a drone, filmed people before posting the images on social media.[330] New guidance was released by the National Police Chiefs Council.[331]

National health services

Appointments and self-isolation

 
A Coronavirus 'pod' at Hull Royal Infirmary.

In March, hospitals in England begin to prepare for the cancellation of all non-urgent elective procedures.[332] On 22 March, the government announced that it would be asking about 1.5 million people (everyone in England with certain health conditions that carry serious risk if infected) to self-isolate for 12 weeks. They were to be notified by mail or text messaged by their NHS general practitioners, and provided deliveries of medication, food, and household essentials, delivered by pharmacists and local governments, and at least initially paid for by the UK government.[333] Members of the public were told to stay at home, should they suspect they have symptoms of covid-19, and not visit a GP, pharmacy, or hospital.[334] For advice, the public were told to use a dedicated online self-assessment form before calling NHS 111, the non-emergency medical helpline.[335]

Equipment

 
Face masks given to NHS staff March 2020

On 16 March, Boris Johnson met with business leaders via conference call and set them the target of delivering 30,000 ventilators in a fortnight; the government also declined to join an emergency European Union scheme to procure ventilators and other emergency equipment like personal protective equipment (PPE) for hospital staff, stating that the UK was no longer part of the EU and that this was area in which it was making its own efforts.[336] On 21 March, it was announced that NHS England had negotiated a deal to use, at cost price, almost the entire private health system, bringing 8,000 beds and 1,100 ventilators into the project.[337] Existing ventilator stocks stood at 5,900 at the beginning of the outbreak.[338]

On 16 March, primary care magazine Pulse reported doctors were receiving out of date PPE that had had its 2016 use-by date covered with a sticker saying "2021".[339] In response, the government offered reassurance that this was safe.[340] Earlier in the month, in response to a survey of Pulse's readership, two of five GPs reported they still did not have PPE to protect them from coronavirus.[339] Some of these concerns were raised with Johnson during Prime Minister's Questions, to which the Prime Minister replied the UK had "stockpiles" of PPE.[341] The same day, the Doctors' Association reported NHS staff felt they were being put at risk due to lack of PPE.[342] On 22 March, in a letter with 3,963 signatures published in The Times, NHS staff asked Johnson to "protect the lives of the life-savers" and resolve the what they saw as the "unacceptable" shortage of protective equipment.[343][344] On 23 March, in an effort to meet demand and due to concerns about the rising number of medics becoming ill after exposure to the virus, the NHS asked DIY stores to donate PPE for use by NHS staff.[345] Hancock admitted there were "challenges" with supplying PPE to NHS staff and said a million masks had been bought that weekend.[346] The following day, the government said there was enough PPE for everyone in the NHS who needed it; this was contradicted by the Royal College of Nursing,[347] and the British Medical Association (BMA), which said some of the PPE doctors had received were inadequate[348] and medics were resorting to wearing DIY PPE they had purchased themselves.[349] The BMA warned that without enough PPE doctors would die.[350]

 
People in London wear masks on 19 March 2020

On March 31, 10,000 health workers wrote to the prime minister demanding better safeguards, including the right PPE.[351] On 1 April, the government said 390 million pieces of PPE had been distributed to the health service in the past fortnight. The Royal College of Midwives[352] and the BMA said that the supplies had yet to reach medical staff.[353] The RCM, in a joint statement with unions, including Unite, Unison and the GMB, said the lack of PPE was now 'a crisis within a crisis'.[352]

On 29 March the government issued specification for the "minimally clinically acceptable" manufacturer and use of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) machines.[354]

Staffing

On 1 March, Hancock said retired NHS staff might be asked to return to work to help with the crisis.[355] The request was issued on 19 March and included final year medical students.[356] On 29 March, Boris Johnson announced that more than 20,000 former NHS staff were returning to work in response to the pandemic.[357]

On 21 March, it was announced that the NHS had negotiated a deal to use, at cost price, almost the entire private health system, bringing 20,000 medical staff into the national effort.[337]

On 24 March, Matt Hancock announced the start of a scheme to recruit 250,000 volunteers to support the NHS through the pandemic.[358] The volunteers would carry out jobs like collecting and deliver shopping, medication or "other essential supplies" for people in isolation; transporting equipment and medication between NHS services; transporting medically fit patients and providing telephone support to people at risk of loneliness because of self-isolation.[359] The target was surpassed in 24 hours and was raised to 750,000.[360] The scheme was paused on 29 March after the new target was reached.[359]

Beds

The National Health Service freed up 30,000 beds by discharging patients who were well enough and delaying non-emergency treatment,[361] and acquired use of 20,000 beds in private sector facilities.[361] Emergency building work was undertaken to add capacity to existing hospitals, 52 beds in Wigan, for example.[362]

NHS COVID-19 critical care hospitals

On 24 March, it was announced that NHS England would establish a temporary critical care hospital, NHS Nightingale Hospital London, in the Excel London conference centre.[116] The field hospital would have 4,000 beds in two wards.[363][364] Also on 24 March, it was reported that NHS Wales were looking at the Principality Stadium in Cardiff for a similar purpose.[117] On 25 March, it was confirmed that NHS Scotland had identified Glasgow's SEC Centre exhibition and conference facility as a potential site for a similar hospital in Scotland.[118] On 26 March it was reported that the Northern Ireland health service was also looking for potential sites to use for temporary hospitals.[119] On 27 March, NHS England announced that they would be establishing more NHS Nightingale Hospitals in other major UK conference centres to help to deal with the large number of cases expected,[120] at the National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham and at Manchester Central Convention Complex.[365] The London hospital opened 3 April.[366]

Religion

 
Notice at Episcopal Church in Gourock; No public services until further notice.

The Church of England and other Anglican churches in the British Isles suspended in-person worship during the 2020 coronavirus pandemic.[367][368][369] The Archbishop of Canterbury led a virtual service that was broadcast on 39 local BBC stations.[370] The Catholic Church, Methodist Church in Great Britain and the Society of Friends also put a temporary moratorium on public worship.[371][372]

The chief rabbi in the United Kingdom advised the suspension of Jewish worship in synagogues and the Muslim Council of Britain has ordered the closure of mosques in the country.[371]

Research and Innovation

Existing research[373] by the Medical Research Council (United Kingdom) Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis informs understanding of the COVID-19 outbreak and Diamond Light Source allows scientists to design and develop compounds that may lead to clinical drugs to tackle it.[374]

In March 2020, UK Research and Innovation announced [375] the launch of a website to explain the scientific evidence and the facts about the virus, the disease, the epidemic, and its control, in a bid to dispel misinformation. The editorial team come from University of Oxford, European Bioinformatics Institute, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Imperial College London, University of Glasgow and King’s College London.

UK Research and Innovation also announced[376] £20 million for rapid response R&D projects such as a project to develop a vaccine and another to test the viability of existing drugs to treat the virus. A COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium has been established to deliver large-scale, rapid sequencing of the cause of the disease[377] , and £260 million to the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations to support its vaccine development work against COVID-19 and other emerging infectious diseases[378] .

Innovate UK announced £20 million funding for innovative businesses[379] and is also working closely with Formula 1 and a collective of UK-based teams, engine manufacturers and their respective technology arms as part of Project Pitlane to co-ordinate its work.[380]

Sport

On 5 March, the England–Italy fixtures in the men's and women's' Six Nations Championship tournaments, set to be played in Rome on 14 and 15 March, were postponed by tournament organisers after the Italian government introduced restrictions on attendances to sporting events.[381] Scotland's Women's Six Nations home fixture against France on 7 March was also postponed after one Scotland player tested positive for the virus.[382]

To contain the spread of the virus the Premier League announced on 6 March an end to pre-match fair play handshakes between players and officials.[383] On 10 March, the Premier League match between Manchester City and Arsenal was postponed in light of confirmation that Nottingham Forest and Olympiacos owner Evangelos Marinakis had contracted the virus. Marinakis had met with several Arsenal players when the London side hosted Olympiacos in a Europa League round of 32 match.[384] On 10 March the four-day Cheltenham Festival continued as planned with enhanced hygiene measures in place,[385] as did the All England Open Badminton Championships in Birmingham the next day.[386]

On 12 March, it was announced that Arsenal manager Mikel Arteta had tested positive to COVID-19,[387] and the next day Chelsea midfielder Callum Hudson-Odoi became the first Premier League player to test positive for coronavirus.[388] Professional football was later suspended across the United Kingdom on 13 March, with the Premier League, English Football League, Women's Super League, and Welsh and Northern Irish football leagues delaying matches until the beginning of April[389] and the Scottish Professional Football League suspending matches indefinitely.[390] Professional football in England was later postponed until the end of April.[391] The day also saw the cancellation of the Wales–Scotland Six Nations match scheduled for 14 March[392] and the postponement of the London, Manchester and Brighton Marathons from their April dates until the autumn.[393]

The next five days saw a flurry of further sporting cancellations. Five fixtures set to be played on Saturday 14 March in the National League were postponed,[394] with all matches across both the National League and the Northern Premier League suspended two days later and the Football Association recommending the postponement of grassroots level football "for the foreseeable future".[395] The Welsh Rugby Union discontinued all rugby matches across Wales from Saturday evening until the end of the month.[396] On Sunday 15 March the Netball Superleague was postponed.[397] Premiership Rugby was suspended for five weeks on Monday 16 March, with all rugby activities in England being delayed until 14 April.[398] Monday additionally saw the cancellation of the Grand National,[399] the postponement of the Edinburgh Marathon from May to September,[400] and the first peacetime cancellation of the Boat Race.[401] On Tuesday 17 March all motor racing events sanctioned by the national governing body Motorsport UK were suspended until May.[402] All horse racing events were similarly suspended the following day,[399] as were all boxing tournaments until further notice subject to a British Boxing Board of Control review in April.[403]

Royal family

On 4 March, the 93-year-old Queen Elizabeth II wore long gloves while awarding honours at a public investiture ceremony, prompting some to speculate the measure as a precaution against COVID-19.[404][405] On 19 March the Queen left London for Windsor Castle.[406] On the same day she issued a message to the nation noting that the country and the world was entering a period of great concern and uncertainty.[407] Her grandsons Princes William and Harry both sent messages out via social media.[408] Princess Beatrice cancelled her wedding reception at Buckingham Palace and took further advice on whether to carry on with a private wedding ceremony.[409]

On 9 March, Prince Charles greeted people with the Namaste hand gesture instead of a handshake at the Commonwealth Service at Westminster Abbey to avoid the spread of the virus, and did the same for the Prince's Trust Awards on 11 March.[410] On 10 March, Charles met Prince Albert of Monaco, who later came down with the infection.[411] On 25 March, it was announced that he had received a positive test result for COVID-19 and was suffering mild symptoms. He self-isolated at Birkhall on the Balmoral Castle estate.[412][413] Concerns were raised for the health of the entire Royal Family, as well as concerns that he may have unwittingly become a super-spreader of the disease due to the vast number of people he regularly meets. Charles last saw the Queen on 12 March, just one day before the earliest date medical experts believe he would have been contagious.[411] The Duchess of Cornwall tested negative, but self-isolated.[412][413] On 30 March Clarence House, the Prince's official residence, confirmed that he had come out of self-isolation after seven days having recovered from the illness.[414][415] On 6 April, the Duchess came out of self-isolation after showing no symptoms for 14 days.[416]

On 29 March, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge gave their support to a Public Health England campaign to protect people's mental health during the outbreak. The campaign encourages people to stay in touch with family and friends via telephone and social media.[417]

Transport

 
An empty M4 motorway in Cardiff on the afternoon of Saturday 28 March 2020 due to the coronavirus pandemic

Aviation

From the latter half of January, Heathrow Airport received additional clinical support and tightened surveillance of the three direct flights that it receives from Wuhan every week; each were to be met by a Port Health team.[37] Later, airlines including British Airways and Ryanair announced a number of flight cancellations for March.[20]

Regional airline Flybe had been brought to the brink of collapse following prior financial trouble earlier in the year. This, combined with decreased ticket sales as a result of the outbreak, caused the airline to stop ticket sales on 4 March 2020.[418][419] The company entered administration and ceased operations the following day.[420]

Despite some calls for a bailout, led mainly by Virgin Atlantic, the Chancellor, Rishi Sunak, said that the government would only come into the picture as "a last resort".[421][422]

Public transport

On 20 March, Southeastern became the first train operating company to announce a reduced timetable, which would come into use from 23 March.[423] On that day the government announced emergency measures to safeguard the nation's rail network, with season ticket holders given refunds if working from home, and rail franchise agreements nationalised for at least six months to prevent train operating companies from collapsing.[424][425] From 30 March, open-access operator Hull Trains suspended all services.[426]

On 19 March, the Stagecoach Supertram light rail network in Sheffield announced that they would be switching to a modified Sunday service from 23 March until further notice.[427] Local bus operators First South Yorkshire and Stagecoach Yorkshire, which operate across the same area, announced that they would also be switching to a reduced timetable from 23 March.[428]

Transport for London (TfL) services were reduced in stages. All Night Overground and Night Tube services, as well as all services on the Waterloo & City line, were suspended from 20 March, and 40 tube stations were closed on the same day.[429] The Mayor of London and TfL urged people to only use public transport if absolutely essential, so that it could be used by critical workers.[430] The London Underground brought in new measures on 25 March to combat the spread of the virus, by slowing the flow of passengers onto platforms. Measures included the imposition of queuing at ticket gates and turning off some escalators.[431]

National Express suspended all its long-distance coach services from 6 April.[432]

Spread to other countries and territories

Sophie Grégoire Trudeau, the wife of Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, tested positive for COVID-19 upon her return from WE Day events in the UK; on 12 March 2020 the Trudeau family entered two weeks of self-isolation.[433] The first patient in Mauritius was a 59-year-old man who returned from the United Kingdom on 7 March 2020. When he arrived in Mauritius, the Mauritian had no symptoms.[434] Other cases of the novel coronavirus resulting from travel to the UK were subsequently reported in India,[435][436] and Nigeria.[437]

Statistics

The figures in the table below represent laboratory confirmed cases only; and as indicated by the UK Government's Chief Scientific Adviser Sir Patrick Vallance, it is likely that other cases in the UK are not reflected in these figures (on 12 March 2020 there were 596 confirmed cases, but the total number of cases was estimated at 5,000–10,000).[72] Death statistics are presented daily, but there may be a delay between death and it entering official statistics so families can be informed first. The delay is usually just a few days, but can be over a week.[438][184]

Known locations of death are shown in brackets.


Confirmed new COVID-19 cases in the United Kingdom by area ()

Date England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales Confirmed cases Deaths (UK Government)a[439] Deaths in England and Wales (ONS)b[440][441] Tested Sources
East London Midlands North East and Yorkshire North West South East South West As yet unclassified New Total New Total New Total New Total
31 Jan 2 2 2 [442] [443]
1 Feb 2
2 Feb 2
3 Feb 2
4 Feb 2
5 Feb 2
6 Feb 1 1 3
7 Feb 3
8 Feb 3
9 Feb 3
10 Feb 4 4 7
11 Feb 7
12 Feb 1 1 8 [444]
13 Feb 8
14 Feb 8
15 Feb 8
16 Feb 8
17 Feb 8
18 Feb 8
19 Feb 8
20 Feb 8
21 Feb 8
22 Feb 8
23 Feb 4 4 12
24 Feb 12
25 Feb 12
26 Feb 12
27 Feb 1 1 1 3 15 7,690 [445] [446]
28 Feb 2 1 1 1 5 20 1,296 8,986 [447] [448]
29 Feb 1 1 1 3 23 1,497 10,483 [449]
1 Mar 2 1 1 1 3 1 3 12 35 1,267 11,750 [450] [451] [452] [453]
2 Mar 1 1 1 1 4 39 1,775 13,525 [454] [453] [455] [456] [457]
3 Mar 12 12 51 386 13,911 [458]
4 Mar 32 2 2 36 87 2,748 16,659 [459] [460] [461]
5 Mar (1) 25 3 1 29 116 1 1 3 3 1,424 18,083 [462] [463] [464] [465] [466] [467]
6 Mar 3 4 3 3 4 7 7 11 1 5 48 164 1 2 3 2,255 20,338 [468] [469] [470] [471]
7 Mar 5 9 5 5 5 6 3 −1 3 5 45 209 2 3 1,122 21,460 [472] [473] [474]
8 Mar 7 13 8 5 (1) 11 10 6 5 2 2 69 280 1 3 2 5 2,053 23,513 [475] [476] [477] [478] [479] [480]
9 Mar 1 10 6 4 4 2 3 6 5 2 43 321 2 5 3 8 1,447 24,960 [481] [482] [483] [484] [485] [486]
10 Mar 5 30 5 2 2 8 3 −11 4 4 9 61 384 1 6 1 9 1,301 26,261 [487] [488] [489] [490] [491] [487]
11 Mar 3 13 6 (2) 8 6 9 3 15 2 9 4 78 460 2 8 5 14 1,215 27,476 [492] [493] [494]
12 Mar 32 2 12 10 23 −2 27 2 24 6 136 586 2 10 7 21 1,698 29,174 [495]
13 Mar 7 31 15 5 9 27 7 55 9 25 (1) 12 202 798 1 11 12 33 3,597 32,771 [496] [497]
14 Mar 4 146 16 18 7 34 4 49 5 36 23 342 1,140 10 21 15 48 4,975 37,746 [498]
15 Mar 28 94 19 24 7 31 8 −37 11 32 34 251 1,391 14 35 29 77 2,533 40,279
16 Mar 10 73 35 −5 7 −2 16 −37 7 18 30 (1) 152 1,543 20 55 38 115 3,826 44,105 [499]
17 Mar 12 141 11 −12 74 68 18 49 10 24 (1) 12 (1) 407 1,950 16 71 44 159 6,337 50,442 [500]
18 Mar 35 332 94 94 23 44 22 −19 6 32 (1) 13 676 2,626 32 103 59 218 5,779 56,221 [501] [502] [503]
19 Mar 19 268 (2) 48 26 40 55 23 95 9 39 (3) 21 643 3,269 41 144 62 280 8,400 64,621 [504] [505]
20 Mar 16 367 107 39 54 70 29 −54 9 56 21 714 3,983 33 177 91 371 2,355 66,976
21 Mar 58 377 102 65 38 82 47 104 18 51 (1) 89 (3) 1,035 5,018 56 233 108 479 5,824 72,818
22 Mar 53 224 133 70 78 44 26 65 24 (1) 43 (3) 67 (7) 665 5,683 48 281 139 618 5,522 78,340 [506] [507]
23 Mar 77 244 184 78 106 54 36 14 20 (2) 83 (4) 71 (4) 967 6,650 54 335 148 766 5,605 83,945 [508] [509] [510] [511]
24 Mar 78 439 266 96 97 161 67 54 24 (1) 85 (2) 60 (1) 1,427 8,077 87 422 182 948 6,491 90,436 [512] [513] [514] [515]
25 Mar 51 375 222 156 110 125 52 39 37 (2) 135 (6) 150 (5) 1,452 9,529 156c 578c 216 1,164 6,583‬ 97,019 [516] [517]
26 Mar 112 672 340 193 134 253 56 49 32 175 (3) 113 (6) 2,129 11,568 181 759 247 1,411 7,847 104,866 [516]
27 Mar 204 718 454 331 183 477 81 58 34 165 (15) 180 (6) 2,885 14,543 260 1,019 228 1,639 8,911 113,777 [516]
28 Mar 205 662 348 275 233 121 115 180 49 (2) 186 (7) 172 (4) 2,546 17,089 209 1,228 6,999 120,776 [518]
29 Mar 138 658 386 295 283 160 84 56 86 139 148 (10) 2,433 19,522 180 1,408 6,961 127,737
30 Mar 200 564 364 295 311 214 85 74 123 (6) 179 (1) 210 (14) 2,619 22,141 381 1,789 7,209 134,946
31 Mar 293 600 382 261 285 324 148 121 53 (1) 430 (6) 112 (7) 3,009 25,150 563 2,352 8,240 143,186
1 Apr 209 1,220 569 481 281 683 119 68 103 (6) 317 (13) 274 (29) 4,324 29,474 569 2,921 9,793 152,979
2 Apr 392 950 555 440 653 284 169 140 85 (2) 292 (16) 284 (19) 4,244 33,718 684 3,605 10,215 163,194 [518]
3 Apr 151 956 843 554 471 340 132 129 130 (6) 399 (50) 345 (24) 4,450 38,168 708 4,313 10,590 173,784
4 Apr 229 517 590 269 556 445 150 154 94 (12) 344 (46) 387 (13) 3,735 41,903 621 4,934 9,406 183,190
5 Apr 537 1,214 786 877 733 399 291 270 91 (8) 361 (46) 344 (12) 5,903 47,806 439 5,373 12,334‬ 195,524
6 Apr 252 658 472 453 723 321 149 148 69 (7) 255 (2) 302 (27) 3,802 51,608 786 6,159 13,313‬ 208,837
7 Apr 3,634 55,242 9,740‬d 213,181d
Total 3,402 12,636 7,385 5,422 3,066 4,897 1,976 1,723 1,158 (63) 3,961 (220) 3,499 (193) 55,242 N/A 6,159 N/A 1,639 N/A 213,181d N/A
Date East London Midlands North East and Yorkshire North West South East South West As yet unclassified Northern Ireland Scotland Wales New Total New Total New Total New Total Sources
England Confirmed cases Deaths (UK Government)a[439] Deaths in England and Wales (ONS)b[440][441] Tested
  • Great Britain and Northern Ireland only.
  • Totals for England are not the sum of the row above since detailed information about all locations of cases has not been published.
  • a ^ Number of deaths occurring in hospitals in the UK among patients who have tested positive for coronavirus, based on reports sent to the UK government by hospitals.
  • b ^ Number of deaths by date of occurrence where COVID-19 was mentioned on the death certificate, including suspected cases of COVID-19.
  • c ^ The total number of deaths was 463 as of 0900 BST (0800 UTC) 25 March, an increase of 41 from 0900 BST 24 March. As of 1700 BST (1600 UTC) 25 March, the total number of deaths was 578, an increase of 115 from 0900 BST 25 March.
  • d ^ The data for the number of people tested between 0900 BST (0800 UTC) 6 April and 0900 BST 7 April does not include the number of people tested in Manchester and Leeds due to a data processing delay.[519]

Graphs

 
 
 

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Not included in this data is the death of one British citizen on board the Diamond Princess cruise ship on 28 February – see the 2020 coronavirus pandemic on cruise ships article for more information on this case. Also not included is the death of one British citizen in the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands – see the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in the Cayman Islands article for more information on this case.
  2. ^ Daily updates occur around 2 pm UTC.
  3. ^ In addition to this figure, there have been eight confirmed cases in the British Overseas Territories (including in Gibraltar,[7] Akrotiri and Dhekelia,[8] Bermuda,[9] the Cayman Islands,[10] and Montserrat).[11]

References

  1. ^ "UK Countries". ArcGis Feature Service. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  2. ^ "NHS Regions". Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  3. ^ a b c d "Total UK cases COVID-19 Cases Update". gisanddata.maps.arcgis.com. Public Health England. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  4. ^ a b Ball, Tom; Wace, Charlotte (31 January 2020). "Hunt for contacts of coronavirus-stricken pair in York". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 4 February 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  5. ^ a b c "Coronavirus: Latest patient was first to be infected in UK". BBC News. 28 February 2020. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  6. ^ a b c "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 – 11 March 2020". World Health Organization. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  7. ^ a b Thomas, Diexter (4 March 2020). "COVID-19: Politicians respond to Coronavirus case in Gibraltar". Olive Press News Spain. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  8. ^ Sabbagh, Dan (16 March 2020). "Army likely to embed medics in NHS hospitals to help fight coronavirus". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  9. ^ A time to work together Archived 20 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine 20 March 2020 www.royalgazette.com, accessed 20 March 2020
  10. ^ Two new coronavirus cases confirmed Archived 20 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine 20 March 2020 www.caymancompass.com, accessed 20 March 2020
  11. ^ Montserrat registers first case of coronavirus Archived 18 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine www.jamaicaobserver.com, accessed 20 March 2020
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Coronavirus (COVID-19): latest information and advice". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Russell, Peter (3 February 2020). "New Coronavirus: UK Public Health Campaign Launched". Medscape. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  14. ^ a b "Central London Community Healthcare NHS Trust :: Parsons Green drive through swabbing hub for Covid-19". clch.nhs.uk. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  15. ^ a b "Drive-through coronavirus tests begin in Scotland". BBC News. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  16. ^ a b Kobie, Nicole (15 February 2020). "This is how the UK is strengthening its coronavirus defences". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  17. ^ a b "Coronavirusin Scotland - gov.scot". www.gov.scot. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  18. ^ a b c Discombe, Matt (3 March 2020). "National incident over coronavirus allows NHSE to command local resources". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  19. ^ a b Bedingfield, Will (28 February 2020). "Will shutting down UK schools stop coronavirus? It's complicated". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  20. ^ a b c "Coronavirus could spread 'significantly' – PM". BBC News. 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  21. ^ a b c Jolly, Jasper; Smith, Rebecca (2 March 2020). "UK supermarkets draw up plan to 'feed the nation' as coronavirus spreads". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  22. ^ a b "COVID-19: government announces moving out of contain phase and into delay". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  23. ^ a b c d e "Coronavirus: PM says everyone should avoid office, pubs and travelling". BBC News. BBC. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  24. ^ Remuzzi, Andrea; Remuzzi, Giuseppe (13 March 2020). "COVID-19 and Italy: what next?". The Lancet. 0. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30627-9. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 32178769.
  25. ^ a b c Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team (16 March 2020). "Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand" (PDF). Imperial College London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  26. ^ "Coronavirus: UK schools to close from Friday". BBC News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020.
  27. ^ "The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Business Closure) (England) Regulations 2020" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2020.
  28. ^ a b c "PM announces strict new curbs on life in UK". BBC News. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  29. ^ a b "Statement from Downing Street: 6 April 2020". Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  30. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  31. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  32. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  33. ^ a b "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  34. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  35. ^ Public Health England data, updated for whole UK daily: COVID19 Information for the Public
    Cumulative charts: Total UK cases COVID-19 Cases Update
  36. ^ "Coronavirus: UK deaths rise by more than 100 in a day". BBC News. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  37. ^ a b c Mahase, Elisabeth (22 January 2020). "Coronavirus: UK screens direct flights from Wuhan after US case". British Medical Journal. 368: m265. doi:10.1136/bmj.m265. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 31969317. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  38. ^ "Wuhan novel coronavirus and avian flu: advice for travel to China". Government of the United Kingdom. 23 January 2020. Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
  39. ^ "China coronavirus: UK tracing up to 2,000 Wuhan visitors". BBC News. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 24 January 2020. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  40. ^ Moss, Peter; Barlow, Gavin; Easom, Nicholas; Lillie, Patrick; Samson, Anda (14 March 2020). "Lessons for managing high-consequence infections from first COVID-19 cases in the UK". The Lancet. 395 (10227): e46. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30463-3. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 32113507.
  41. ^ Lillie, Patrick J.; Samson, Anda; Li, Ang; Adams, Kate; Capstick, Richard; Barlow, Gavin D.; Easom, Nicholas; Hamilton, Eve; Moss, Peter J.; Evans, Adam; Ivan, Monica (28 February 2020). "Novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19): The first two patients in the UK with person to person transmission". Journal of Infection. 0 (0). doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.020. ISSN 0163-4453. PMID 32119884.
  42. ^ a b "Britons in Wuhan to return home on Friday". BBC News. 31 January 2020. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2020.
  43. ^ "Ministers came under growing pressure today to evacuate Britons from the Chinese region shut down by the killer coronavirus". London Evening Standard. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  44. ^ McHutchon, David (25 January 2020). "Too Weak, Too Slow: The UK Government's Dithering Response to the Wuhan Coronavirus Increases the Risk of Major Loss of Life". Technical Politics. Archived from the original on 22 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  45. ^ "British mum told to leave son behind in Wuhan". BBC News. 30 January 2020. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  46. ^ a b Boseley, Sarah; Campbell, Denis; Murphy, Simon (6 February 2020). "First British national to contract coronavirus had been in Singapore". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 February 2020. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  47. ^ Mohdin, Kim Willsher Aamna; Madrid, and Sam Jones in (8 February 2020). "Coronavirus: British nine-year-old in hospital in France". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  48. ^ a b c "COVID-19: guidance for staff in the transport sector". Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 20 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  49. ^ a b "Coronavirus closes Brighton GP practice". BBC News. 11 February 2020. Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  50. ^ "Chief Medical Officer for England announces four further coronavirus cases". Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 10 February 2020. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  51. ^ a b c d e Mahase, Elisabeth (10 February 2020). "Coronavirus: NHS staff get power to keep patients in isolation as UK declares "serious threat"". British Medical Journal. 368: m550. doi:10.1136/bmj.m550. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 32041792. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  52. ^ "Ninth coronavirus case found in UK". BBC News. 12 February 2020. Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
  53. ^ "Four new UK coronavirus cases among ship evacuees". BBC News. 23 February 2020. Archived from the original on 23 February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  54. ^ "Coronavirus news LIVE: Number of UK patients hits 16 as Northern Ireland confirms first case". standard.co.uk. 27 February 2020. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  55. ^ "Coronavirus Ireland: Passengers who travelled with Northern Irish patient traced in bid to prevent outbreak". independent.ie. 27 February 2020. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  56. ^ "First case confirmed in Wales". BBC. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  57. ^ Shankar, Giri. "Public Health Wales statement on Novel coronavirus pandemic in China – Public Health Wales". phw.nhs.wales. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  58. ^ "Latest information on Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) – Public Health Wales". phw.nhs.wales. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  59. ^ "Three more cases of coronavirus in England". BBC News. 29 February 2020. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  60. ^ a b "Surveillance testing system for Covid-19 begins". BBC News. 1 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  61. ^ Discombe, Matt. "Medical students and new doctors could be drafted in to fight coronavirus". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  62. ^ "Twelve more people test positive for coronavirus bringing UK Covid-19 total to 35". ITV News. 1 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  63. ^ "Coronavirus: Twelve more cases confirmed in England". bbc.co.uk/news. 1 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  64. ^ "Coronavirus: Woman in 70s becomes first virus fatality in UK'". BBC News. 5 March 2020. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  65. ^ "Coronavirus: 48 new cases confirmed in UK's biggest daily jump – taking total to 164". Sky News. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  66. ^ "Coronavirus cases in UK rise to 206 today". The Independent. 7 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  67. ^ Bowman, Verity; Kelly-Linden, Jordan (8 March 2020). "Coronavirus latest news: UK case count rises by 64 as 273 test positive for the disease". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  68. ^ "Coronavirus updates: three cases confirmed in Dorset and surgery closes". Bournemouth Echo. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  69. ^ "Coronavirus: Health minister Nadine Dorries tests positive". BBC News. 10 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  70. ^ a b c "Daily Insight: Budget day maths". Health Service Journal. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  71. ^ "Four new coronavirus cases confirmed in Wales bringing the total to 19". ITV News. 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  72. ^ a b "Coronavirus: People with fever or 'continuous' cough told to self-isolate". BBC News. BBC. 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  73. ^ Mahase, Elisabeth (13 March 2020). "Covid-19: UK holds off closing schools and restricts testing to people in hospital". British Medical Journal. 368: m1060. doi:10.1136/bmj.m1060. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 32169967. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  74. ^ Roberts, Lizzie; Davies, Gareth; Gartner, Annelies; Team, Global Health Security (12 March 2020). "Coronavirus latest news: UK cases rise to 798, as Foreign Office tells Britons not to travel to Spain unless it is essential". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  75. ^ "Coronavirus: Death of first Scottish patient with Covid-19 confirmed", BBC News, 13 March 2020, archived from the original on 14 March 2020, retrieved 13 March 2020
  76. ^ "Coronavirus: London Marathon postponed until October". BBC Sport. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  77. ^ "Six Nations: Wales v Scotland off because of coronavirus". BBC Sport. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  78. ^ "Coronavirus: Premier League and EFL suspended in England – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland halt games". BBC Sport. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  79. ^ "English local elections postponed over coronavirus". BBC News. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  80. ^ Freeman, Jon (12 March 2020). "C2C Festival Postponed Over Coronavirus Pandemic". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  81. ^ GlobalData, Healthcare (13 March 2020). "UK bans parallel export and hoarding of three Covid-19 drugs". Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  82. ^ "Coronavirus: UK deaths double in 24 hours". BBC News. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  83. ^ "Coronavirus: Isolation for over-70s 'within weeks'". BBC News. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  84. ^ "UK coronavirus death toll rises to 35 and cases of Covid-19 hits 1,372 as elderly face four months of self-isolation". ITV News. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 15 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  85. ^ "Coronavirus in Wales: First Covid-19 death confirmed". BBC News. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  86. ^ "Second MP diagnosed with coronavirus". BBC News. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  87. ^ "Labour MP is second to test positive for coronavirus". The Independent. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  88. ^ "Coronavirus: Labour MP Kate Osborne reveals she is infected with call to 'band together'". Sky News. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  89. ^ "Labour's Kate Osborne becomes second MP to test positive for coronavirus". Politics Home. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  90. ^ "Coronavirus: All non-urgent operations in England postponed". BBC News. BBC. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  91. ^ "Sunak says he will make £330bn available in lending to keep firms in business". The Guardian. The Guardian. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  92. ^ "Coronavirus: Chancellor unveils £330bn lifeline for economy". BBC News. BBC. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  93. ^ Dalton, Jane (17 March 2020). "UK coronavirus death toll rises to 71". The Independent. Independent Print Limited. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  94. ^ "Coronavirus: 14 more deaths in England – UK total now 71". Sky News. Sky UK. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  95. ^ a b Faleiro, Sonia (22 March 2020). "How do you self-isolate when you live on the street?". politico.eu. United Kingdom: politico. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  96. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19): guidance for local government". gov.co.uk. 17 March 2020.
  97. ^ "Coronavirus: MP Lloyd Russell-Moyle tests positive for Covid-19". BBC News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  98. ^ "First coronavirus death in Northern Ireland". ITV News. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  99. ^ a b c "Military stands up COVID Support Force". GOV.UK. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  100. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Up to 20,000 troops on standby to help deal with COVID-19 outbreak". Sky News. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  101. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19): driving tests and theory tests". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  102. ^ Braithwaite-Smith, Gavin (20 March 2020). "Driving tests CANCELLED due to coronavirus". Motoring Research. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  103. ^ "Coronavirus: Follow virus advice or 'tougher measures' likely, says PM". BBC News. BBC. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  104. ^ Morrisons, Next, coronavirus: 5 things that mattered this week and why www.marketingweek.com accessed 25 March 2020
  105. ^ "Next warns of unprecedented high street crisis over coronavirus". The Guardian.
  106. ^ "Dominic Raab to become acting PM if Boris Johnson incapacitated due to coronavirus". The Independent. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  107. ^ "Boris Johnson orders three-week lockdown of UK to tackle coronavirus spread". ITV News. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  108. ^ "Boris Johnson's address to the nation in full". The Guardian. 23 March 2020. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  109. ^ "Further businesses and premises to close". GOV.UK. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  110. ^ "FMQs cancelled as Holyrood chamber shuts for a week". BBC News. 24 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  111. ^ "Plenary meetings continue, but Senedd buildings will stay closed until June". National Assembly for Wales. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  112. ^ "Assembly Business and Covid-19". www.niassembly.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  113. ^ "Speaker Announces New Ad-Hoc COVID-19 Response Committee Meeting". www.niassembly.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  114. ^ "Parliament expected to close on Wednesday evening". BBC News. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  115. ^ Syal, Rajeev (1 April 2020). "UK to set up virtual parliament during coronavirus shutdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  116. ^ a b "Coronavirus: ExCeL Centre planned as NHS field hospital". BBC News. 24 March 2010.
  117. ^ a b "Principality Stadium could be used by NHS Wales to tackle coronavirus outbreak". ITV News. 25 March 2020.
  118. ^ a b "Coronavirus: NHS field hospital plans for Scotland". BBC News. 25 March 2020.
  119. ^ a b Young, David; Black, Rebecca. "Plans for field hospitals for coronavirus patients in NI". Belfast Telegraph.
  120. ^ a b "Two more UK facilities to be converted into 'NHS Nightingale' coronavirus hospitals". ITV News. 27 March 2020.
  121. ^ "UK coronavirus death toll jumps to 422 after biggest daily increase". ITV News. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  122. ^ Walker, Shaun (25 March 2020). "British diplomat dies of coronavirus in Hungary". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  123. ^ Police, Vikram Dodd; correspondent, crime (25 March 2020). "England: police to get power to use force to impose coronavirus lockdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  124. ^ a b Ward, Victoria; Lyons, Izzy (4 April 2020). "These are the NHS workers who have died from coronavirus". Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  125. ^ "UK virus deaths rise by more than 100 in a day". BBC News. 26 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  126. ^ Bowman, Verity (26 March 2020). "Clap For Our Carers: How thousands of Britons thanked the NHS with a national round of applause". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  127. ^ "Coronavirus: Applause for key workers rings out across the UK". BBC News. 2 April 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  128. ^ a b "PM Boris Johnson tests positive for coronavirus". BBC News. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  129. ^ "Coronavirus strikes heart of Government as PM and health secretary test positive". Metro. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  130. ^ "North West MP Angela Rayner says she is self-isolating". ITV News. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  131. ^ "Coronavirus: Chief medical officer Chris Whitty self-isolates with symptoms". Sky News. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  132. ^ "UK coronavirus death toll rises to 759". The Independent. 27 March 2020.
  133. ^ "UK's Royal Mint making coronavirus protective gear for health staff". Reuters. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  134. ^ "Royal Mint makes medical visors to help protect NHS staff from coronavirus". ITV News. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  135. ^ "Police issue first fines for breach of coronavirus lockdown rules as visitors warned off tourist hotspots". ITV News.
  136. ^ "Coronavirus: Scottish Secretary Alister Jack self-isolating after showing symptoms". Sky News.
  137. ^ "Number of UK coronavirus deaths rises above 1,000". BBC News. 28 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  138. ^ "New NI Covid-19 regulations come into force". BBC News. 28 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  139. ^ "Northern Ireland imposes fines up to £5,000 for those breaching social distancing rules". ITV News.
  140. ^ "Things to get worse, PM says in letter to Britons". BBC News. 29 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  141. ^ "Six months before UK life 'returns to normal'". 29 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  142. ^ Rajeev Syal. "Dominic Cummings self-isolates after experiencing coronavirus symptoms | Politics". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  143. ^ Roberts, Michelle (30 March 2020). "Coronavirus: UK measures 'making a difference'" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  144. ^ "Rescue flights for stranded Britons". 30 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  145. ^ "13-year-old boy dies with coronavirus". 31 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  146. ^ Kelion, Leo (31 March 2020). "UK considers virus-tracing app to ease lockdown" – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  147. ^ "D-Day veteran dies after contracting coronavirus". BBC News. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  148. ^ "13-year-old boy dies with coronavirus". BBC News. 31 March 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  149. ^ Kelion, Leo (31 March 2020). "UK considers virus-tracing app to ease lockdown". BBC News. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  150. ^ a b "PM vows more virus tests as UK deaths exceed 2,000". BBC News. 1 April 2020.
  151. ^ Preston, Robert (31 March 2020). "Robert Peston: Is Michael Gove right that there is a shortage of coronavirus test kit ingredients?". ITV News. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  152. ^ "Hancock aims for 100,000 tests a day by May". BBC News. 2 April 2020.
  153. ^ "Clap for Carers: UK applauds key workers". BBC News. 2 April 2020.
  154. ^ "Coronavirus: Staying home this weekend 'not a request', UK told". BBC News. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  155. ^ a b "Five-year-old child becomes youngest known coronavirus victim as people are urged to stay home". ITV News. 4 April 2020. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  156. ^ Faulconbridge, Guy; Holton, Kate (4 April 2020). "5G coronavirus conspiracy theory is dangerous fake nonsense, UK says". Reuters.
  157. ^ "Coronavirus: Queen tells UK 'we will succeed' in fight". BBC News. BBC. 5 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  158. ^ "Coronavirus: PM admitted to hospital over virus symptoms". BBC News. BBC. 5 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  159. ^ "Kyle Walker: Manchester City defender faces investigation over lockdown breach". BBC Sport. 5 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  160. ^ "Coronavirus: Scotland's chief medical officer resigns over lockdown trip". BBC News. BBC. 5 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  161. ^ "Prime Minister Boris Johnson moved to intensive care after being admitted to hospital with coronavirus". ITV News. ITV. 6 April 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  162. ^ "UK cases 'could be moving in the right direction'". 7 April 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  163. ^ "UK coronavirus cases not accelerating but too early to call a peak - chief science adviser". 7 April 2020 – via www.reuters.com.
  164. ^ "Hundreds of flu patients to get coronavirus tests". BBC News. 26 February 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  165. ^ "New surveillance system for early detection of COVID-19". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 27 February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  166. ^ "Drive through centre set up to test for coronavirus in Sheffield". www.itv.com. 10 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  167. ^ "COVID-19: how to arrange laboratory testing". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  168. ^ "Common questions about coronavirus (COVID-19)". nhs.uk. 24 February 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  169. ^ Esteban Ortiz-Ospina (13 March 2020). "How many tests for COVID-19 are being performed around the world?". ourworldindata.org. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  170. ^ Boseley, Sarah (24 March 2020). "Matt Hancock: 3.5m coronavirus test kits on way to NHS". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  171. ^ Merrick, Rob (31 March 2020). "Coronavirus: UK's failure to carry out mass testing condemned by former WHO director". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  172. ^ Woodcock, Andrew (31 March 2020). "Coronavirus testing still below daily target despite government claim milestone passed". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  173. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK.
  174. ^ Horton, Richard (March 2020). "Offline: COVID-19 and the NHS—"a national scandal"". The Lancet. 395 (10229): 1022. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30727-3. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  175. ^ Smith, Oli (31 March 2020). "Coronavirus testing crisis: Ex-WHO chief exposes UK failure as 44 testing labs sit unused". Daily Express. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  176. ^ "Coronavirus: Hospitals urged to use lab space to test NHS staff". BBC News. 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  177. ^ "COVID-19 reports | Faculty of Medicine | Imperial College London". www.imperial.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  178. ^ "Two thirds of COVID-19 cases exported from mainland China may be undetected | Imperial News | Imperial College London". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  179. ^ MacKenzie, Debora. "Covid-19: Our chance to contain the coronavirus may already be over". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  180. ^ "COVID-19 strains global monitoring systems to the extreme". The Japan Times. 26 February 2020. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  181. ^ Petter, Olivia (13 February 2020). "Prevent spread of coronavirus on with 'less hugging and kissing', says virologist". The Independent. Archived from the original on 14 February 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  182. ^ a b Lintern, Shaun (17 March 2020). "World holds its breath and looks to China for clues on what coronavirus pandemic does next". The Independent. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  183. ^ COVID19 Europe estimates and NPI impact Neil Ferguson, Imperial College London
  184. ^ a b Caelainn Barr, Pamela Duncan and Niamh McIntyre. "Why what we think we know about the UK's coronavirus death toll is wrong | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  185. ^ "Coronavirus: Coachella, Radio 1's Big Weekend, BTS and other music events affected". CBBC Newsround. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  186. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Gigs and events cancelled so far". 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  187. ^ Savage, Mark (18 March 2020). "Glastonbury festival cancelled due to coronavirus". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  188. ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (26 March 2020). "Download and Isle of Wight festivals cancelled due to coronavirus" – via www.theguardian.com.
  189. ^ Ryder, Alistair (27 March 2020). "Another summer festival has been cancelled this year in Cambridge". cambridgenews.
  190. ^ "Billie Eilish, the Who and BTS among tours and festivals cancelled over coronavirus". 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  191. ^ Savage, Mark (17 March 2020). "Pop stars live-stream concerts to combat isolation". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  192. ^ Savage, Mark (25 March 2020). "Paul Heaton and Jacqui Abbott to play free NHS gig". BBC News – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  193. ^ "Rick Astley announces free concert for NHS, Primary Care and emergency service workers". 31 March 2020.
  194. ^ "Endgame as Old Vic becomes first London theatre to cancel performances". 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  195. ^ "West End shuts down after PM's coronavirus advice". BBC News. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  196. ^ "Most UK cinemas shut after virus advice". BBC News. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  197. ^ "Edinburgh festivals cancelled due to coronavirus". 1 April 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  198. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Coronation Street and Emmerdale 'to remind about hand-washing'". BBC News. BBC. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  199. ^ "Saturday Night Takeaway Walt Disney World finale in Florida cancelled". Metro. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  200. ^ a b "Coronavirus: EastEnders, Casualty, Doctors and Holby City suspend filming". BBC News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  201. ^ a b "Lorraine and Loose Women to stop live broadcasting as Coronation Street and Emmerdale suspend filming". ITV News. ITV. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  202. ^ a b c "Coronavirus: BBC and ITV revamp broadcast plans amid outbreak". BBC News. BBC. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  203. ^ "Coronavirus: BBC delays over-75 TV licence fee changes". BBC News. BBC. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  204. ^ "BBC News suspends 450 job cuts to ensure Covid-19 coverage". BBC News. BBC. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  205. ^ a b "BBC News sets out plans to keep audiences receiving trusted and accurate information" (Press release). BBC. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  206. ^ Speck, Dave (18 March 2020). "Coronavirus: BBC works with schools to offer TV lessons". Times Educational Supplement. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  207. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 2020 cancelled over coronavirus". BBC News. BBC. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  208. ^ "Free daily coronavirus news round-up available". Radio Today. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  209. ^ "BBC to give away DAB radios to some over 70s". Radio Today. 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  210. ^ Barratt and Taylor Wimpey shut all sites 24 March 2020 www.constructionnews.co.uk, accessed 26 March 2020
  211. ^ "Mace starts reopening sites". The Construction Index. 7 April 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  212. ^ Garner-Purkis, Zak (2 April 2020). "Construction: coronavirus villain or saviour of the economy". Construction News. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  213. ^ Prior, Grant (6 April 2020). "Scottish sites ordered to close unless on essential list". Construction Enquirer. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  214. ^ Perkins, Carina; Hawthorne, Ellis (4 March 2020). "Supermarkets sell out of hand sanitiser amid coronavirus panic-buying". The Grocer. William Reed Business Media. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  215. ^ Roberts, Lizzie (21 March 2020). "UK supermarket restrictions: how local grocery shops are introducing rationing to fight food shortages". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  216. ^ "Supermarkets place buying limits on items and bring in OAP-only shopping hours". Sutton & Croydon Guardian. Press Association. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  217. ^ Shaw, Neil (18 March 2020). "Elderly-only shopping as Sainsbury's brings in tough new rules". Wales Online. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  218. ^ Muncaster, Michael; Rice, Elle May (20 March 2020). "Supermarket opening time changes and new rules on what you can buy". Chronicle Live. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  219. ^ Walker, Joe (22 March 2020). "Coronavirus Kent: Sainsbury's offers NHS staff allocated shopping hours and extends dedicated slots for elderly". Kent Online. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  220. ^ a b "Sainsbury's limits sales of all food items amid stockpiling". BBC News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  221. ^ "Buy responsibly and think of others, shoppers told". BBC News. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  222. ^ "Coronavirus: Shoppers told to buy responsibly". BBC News. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  223. ^ "Supermarkets Tesco, Asda, Aldi and Lidl go on hiring spree". BBC News. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  224. ^ Hockaday, James (21 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Plastic bag charge waived for online deliveries to speed up service". Metro. DMG Media. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  225. ^ "British supermarket Sainsbury's to remove most customer purchasing limits". CNA. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  226. ^ "Defence Chief tells military to prepare for six-month operation whilst warning of threats from 'those who wish to undermine our way of life'". The Telegraph. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  227. ^ "Military Aid to Civil Authorities: The COVID Support Force". medium.com. Ministry of Defence. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  228. ^ "RAF assist repatriation flight of British and EU citizens from Cuba". UK Defence Jorunal. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  229. ^ "10,000 extra troops to join British army's Covid support force". The Guardian. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  230. ^ "Coronavirus: Farnborough and RAF Fairford air shows cancelled". BBC News. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  231. ^ Irwin, David (20 March 2020). "Military helicopters training over airport amid Covid-19 crisis". Birmingham Mail. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  232. ^ "Military on more manoeuvres around Birmingham Airport to transport coronavirus patients". Solihull Observer. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  233. ^ "Military called in to fly Covid-19 patient to intensive care". shetnews.co.uk. 22 March 2020.
  234. ^ "Coronavirus: ExCeL Centre planned as NHS field hospital". BBC News. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  235. ^ "New-Look Parade As Officer Cadets Pass Through Sandhurst During Pandemic". forces.net. 4 April 2020.
  236. ^ "Next Bank of England governor calls for funds for coronavirus-hit firms". Guardian. 4 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  237. ^ Jolly, Jasper; Kollewe, Julia (5 March 2020). "Bank of England drafts action plan to head off coronavirus recession". Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  238. ^ "Coronavirus fears wipe £200bn off UK firms' value". BBC News. 28 February 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  239. ^ Inman, Phillip; Partington, Richard; Sweney, Mark (11 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Bank of England makes emergency interest rate cut". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  240. ^ "Coronavirus: UK interest rates slashed again in emergency move". BBC News. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  241. ^ Henderson, Richard (28 March 2020). "Fitch downgrades UK debt citing coronavirus impact". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  242. ^ Fagan, Ciaran. "Leicestershire's first Coronavirus case is confirmed as a university student". Leicester Mercury. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020.
  243. ^ a b "Cambridge colleges criticised for asking students to leave over coronavirus". The Guardian. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  244. ^ Batty, David (18 March 2020). "Cambridge students urge university to let them retake the final year". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  245. ^ Layton, Josh (11 March 2020). "Coventry University suspends graduation ceremonies to guard against coronavirus". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  246. ^ "Our response to COVID-19". Coventry University. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  247. ^ "More universities halt teaching and exams". BBC News. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  248. ^ "All schools in Wales to close by Friday". BBC News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  249. ^ "Coronavirus: Schools 'may be shut until summer'". BBC News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  250. ^ "Schools in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to close by the end of the week". ITV News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  251. ^ "Coronavirus: Schools in England follow Scotland and Wales in closing". BBC News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  252. ^ a b Adams, Richard; Stewart, Heather (18 March 2020). "UK schools to be closed indefinitely and exams cancelled". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  253. ^ "Coronavirus: GCSE and A-Level results to be based on teachers predicted grades". ITV News. 20 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  254. ^ Weale, Sally; Batty, David (19 March 2020). "Fears that cancelling exams will hit BAME and poor pupils worst". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
  255. ^ Searles, Michael (22 March 2020). "F1 teams to help produce 20,000 ventilators for NHS in fight against coronavirus". City A.M.
  256. ^ Slot, Owen (30 March 2020). "Formula One rivals join forces in race to build enough ventilators". The Times.
  257. ^ "JCB set to help with ventilator production". BBC News. 30 March 2020.
  258. ^ "INEOS hand sanitiser factory up and running". The Engineer. 2 April 2020.
  259. ^ "JLR produces protective face visors for frontline NHS staff". The Engineer. 3 April 2020.
  260. ^ Hunte, Ben (23 March 2020). "Coronavirus postpones London Pride". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  261. ^ "Coronavirus: Brighton Pride 2020 cancelled - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  262. ^ {{cite news|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-52184743 |title=Coronavirus: Twelfth of July parades cancelled due to outbreak|date= 6 April 2020 |work=BBC News |publisher=BBC |accessdate=7 April 2020]]
  263. ^ "McDonald's closing all seating areas due to coronavirus to become takeaway only – and Monopoly promotion is scrapped". inews. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  264. ^ a b "McDonald's to close restaurants in UK and Ireland on Monday". The Guardian. 22 March 2020. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  265. ^ "Wetherspoon is to continue operating its pubs across the UK – J D Wetherspoon". Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  266. ^ Coronavirus (COVID-19) in the UK Archived 19 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine 20 March 2020 www.jdwetherspoon.com accessed 21 March 2020
  267. ^ "Coronavirus public information campaign launched across the UK". NHS England. 3 February 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  268. ^ a b Department of Health and Social Care, Emergency and Health Protection Directorate, Coronavirus: action plan: A guide to what you can expect across the UK Archived 4 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine, published 3 March, accessed 7 March 2020
  269. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19)". nhs.uk. 24 January 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  270. ^ Rapson, Jasmine. "NHS collecting coronavirus data from 111 calls". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  271. ^ Booth, William (15 March 2020). "U.K. resists coronavirus lockdowns, goes its own way on response". Washington Post. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  272. ^ "The U.K. is aiming for deliberate 'herd immunity'". Fortune. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  273. ^ a b "60% of UK population need to get coronavirus so country can build 'herd immunity', chief scientist says". The Independent. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  274. ^ Mueller, Benjamin (13 March 2020). "As Europe Shuts Down, Britain Takes a Different, and Contentious, Approach". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  275. ^ Boyle, Christina (19 March 2020). "On coronavirus containment, Britain's Johnson is less restrictive than other European leaders". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  276. ^ "What is herd immunity and is it an option for dealing with the UK coronavirus pandemic?". The Independent. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  277. ^ Alwan, Nisreen A; Bhopal, Raj; Burgess, Rochelle A; Colburn, Tim; Cuevas, Luis E; Smith, George Davey; Egger, Matthias; Eldridge, Sandra; Gallo, Valentina; Gilthorpe, Mark S; Greenhalgh, Trish (17 March 2020). "Evidence informing the UK's COVID-19 public health response must be transparent". The Lancet. 395 (10229): 1036–1037. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30667-x. ISSN 0140-6736.
  278. ^ "Coronavirus could spread 'significantly' – PM". BBC News. 2 March 2020. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  279. ^ BBC News Special – Coronavirus: Everything You Need to Know, 2 March 2020, archived from the original on 3 March 2020, retrieved 3 March 2020
  280. ^ Warnick, Mark S.; Sr, Louis N. Molino (2020). Emergency Incident Management Systems: Fundamentals and Applications (Second ed.). Wiley. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-1-119-26711-9.
  281. ^ Campbell, Denis; Siddique, Haroon; Weaver, Matthew (3 March 2020). "Explained: UK's coronavirus action plan". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  282. ^ Razai, Mohammad S.; Doerholt, Katja; Ladhani, Shamez; Oakeshott, Pippa (6 March 2020). "Coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19): a guide for UK GPs". BMJ. 368: m800. doi:10.1136/bmj.m800. ISSN 1756-1833. PMID 32144127. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  283. ^ 'Question Time: Medical expert Richard Horton says UK "wasted February" when it should have been preparing NHS for coronavirus cases', INews, 27/3/20. See also: 'COVID-19 and the NHS "a national scandal"', The Lancet, Editorial, 28/3/20.
  284. ^ Ragoonath, Reshma (7 March 2020). "Public Health England joins Cayman in coronavirus response efforts". Cayman Compass. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  285. ^ "Government Statement on COVID-19 – 141/2020". Government of Gibraltar. Archived from the original on 9 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  286. ^ "Boris Johnson in hospital over virus symptoms". 6 April 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  287. ^ The Health Protection (Coronavirus) Regulations 2020 Archived 3 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine Legislation.gov.uk
  288. ^ The Statutory Sick Pay (General) (Coronavirus Amendment) Regulations 2020 Leglisation.gov.uk
  289. ^ The Employment and Support Allowance and Universal Credit (Coronavirus Disease) Regulations 2020 Leglisation.gov.uk
  290. ^ Heffer, Greg (19 March 2020). "Coronavirus Bill: Emergency laws to contain spread of COVID-19 published". Sky News. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  291. ^ Carmichael, Hannah (19 March 2020). "Jacob Rees-Mogg says Parliament will return after Easter recess". The National. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  292. ^ The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Business Closure) (England) Regulations 2020 UK Statutory Instruments 2020 No. 327 Table of contents www.legislation.gov.uk, accessed 26 March 2020
  293. ^ The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) (England) Regulations 2020 UK Statutory Instruments 2020 No. 350 Table of contents www.legislation.gov.uk, accessed 26 March 2020
  294. ^ "The Health Protection (Coronavirus) (Restrictions) (Scotland) Regulations 2020". www.legislation.gov.uk.
  295. ^ "The Health Protection (Coronavirus Restrictions) (Wales) Regulations 2020". www.legislation.gov.uk.
  296. ^ "The Health Protection (Coronavirus, Restrictions) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2020" (PDF). Department of Health (Northern Ireland).
  297. ^ Manchester Evening News RECAP: Matt Hancock holds daily press conference on UK's coronavirus response www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk, accessed 25 March 2020
  298. ^ a b Cellan-Jones, Rory (24 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Mobile networks send 'stay at home' text". BBC News. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  299. ^ Waterson, Jim (23 March 2020). "Government ignored advice to set up UK emergency alert system". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  300. ^ Sweney, Mark (24 March 2020). "UK mobile firms asked to alert Britons to heed coronavirus lockdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  301. ^ Bowcott, Owen (18 March 2020). "Longer criminal trials in England and Wales to be delayed due to Covid-19". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  302. ^ Stubley, Peter (18 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Criminal trials longer than three days to be put on hold". The Independent. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  303. ^ "Only a quarter of UK adults are strictly following government's coronavirus advice, poll finds". The Daily Telegraph. 20 March 2020.
  304. ^ Campbell, Lucy (9 February 2020). "Chinese in UK report 'shocking' levels of racism after coronavirus pandemic". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  305. ^ "Coronavirus: Men wanted over racist Oxford Street attack on student". BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  306. ^ "COVID-19: prisons and other prescribed places of detention guidance". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  307. ^ a b Grierson, Jamie (26 March 2020). "Man, 84, becomes first UK prisoner to die with coronavirus". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  308. ^ "Prison officer tests positive for coronavirus". BBC News. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  309. ^ Bulman, May (18 March 2020). "First UK prisoner infected with coronavirus". The Independent. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  310. ^ Slater, Chris (18 March 2020). "Strangeways prisoner tests positive for coronavirus". Manchester Evening News. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  311. ^ Rees, Jenny (19 March 2020). "Seventy-five prison officers off sick or isolating". BBC News. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  312. ^ Elworthy, John (21 March 2020). "Ministry of Justice confirm an officer at top security Whitemoor Prison, March, tests positive for coronavirus". Cambs Times. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  313. ^ Cowburn, Ashley (20 March 2020). "Ministers urged to release hundreds of prisoners on short sentences to combat coronavirus". The Independent. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  314. ^ "Reducing the prison population: Extending Home Detention Curfew and scrapping short sentences | Reform". reform.uk. March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  315. ^ "US jails begin releasing prisoners amid pandemic". BBC News. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  316. ^ Townsend, Mark; Savage, Mark; Doward, Jamie (21 March 2020). "Prisons 'could see 800 deaths' from coronavirus without protective measures". The Observer. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  317. ^ Jackson, Carl (23 March 2020). "Prisoner at HMP Birmingham tests positive for coronavirus". Birmingham Mail. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  318. ^ Guttridge, Richard (23 March 2020). "Prisons 'ready to act' but visits allowed as HMP Oakwood coronavirus case confirmed". www.expressandstar.com. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  319. ^ Pegg, David; Allison, Eric (25 March 2020). "Release inmates or face jail pandemic, say prison governors". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  320. ^ "Prison visits cancelled". GOV.UK. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  321. ^ "Inmates could be freed to ease virus jail pressures". BBC News. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  322. ^ "School caretaker jailed for child abuse". BBC News. 22 February 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  323. ^ "Man, 84, is first UK prison coronavirus death". BBC News. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  324. ^ Taylor, Diane (21 March 2020). "Home Office releases 300 from detention centres amid Covid-19 pandemic". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  325. ^ Titheradge, Dr Faye Kirkland and Noel (25 March 2020). "Coronavirus 'symptoms' at three detention centres". BBC News. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  326. ^ Taylor, Diane (2 April 2020). "Revealed: at-risk immigration detainees 'to be put in solitary confinement'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 April 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  327. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Police told to be 'consistent' with lockdown approach". BBC News. 31 March 2020.
  328. ^ a b c "Coronavirus: Peak District drone police criticised for 'lockdown shaming'". BBC News. 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  329. ^ "Coronavirus: Lord Sumption brands Derbyshire Police 'disgraceful'". BBC News. 30 March 2020. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  330. ^ a b Slatter, Nigel (31 March 2020). "Derbyshire police issue defiant response after heavy criticism from ex-chancellor". Derby Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  331. ^ Vikram Dodd Police and crime correspondent. "UK coronavirus lockdown: police reissued with guidance on enforcement | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  332. ^ Illman, James (12 March 2020). "Exclusive: NHS prepares to cancel elective ops in readiness for covid-19 surge". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  333. ^ "Who are the 1.5m vulnerable people self-isolating for 12 weeks?". Evening Standard. 23 March 2020.
  334. ^ Roberts, Michelle (1 April 2020). "Coronavirus: What is shielding?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  335. ^ Roberts, Michelle (1 April 2020). "Coronavirus: NHS 111 has 1.7 million queries in 15 days". BBC News. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  336. ^ Elliott, Francis; O'Neill, Sean; Waterfield, Bruno; Courea, Eleni (27 March 2020). "Ventilator crunch looms after snubbing EU action". The Times. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  337. ^ a b "NHS deal will provide thousands of extra beds". BBC News. 21 March 2020. Archived from the original on 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  338. ^ Davies, Rob (16 March 2020). "UK government sends ventilator blueprints to major manufacturers". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  339. ^ a b Legraien, Lea (16 March 2020). "GPs being sent 'out-of-date' face masks with 'concealed' best before dates". Pulse. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  340. ^ Legraien, Lea (17 March 2020). "Out-of-date face masks distributed to GPs 'safe' to use, says Government". Pulse Today. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  341. ^ "PM issues assurances over protective gear for NHS staff". Evening Express. Press Association. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  342. ^ "Coronavirus: NHS staff 'at risk' over lack of protective gear". BBC News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  343. ^ "Coronavirus letter to the editor: Without protection, NHS staff are cannon fodder". The Times. 22 March 2020. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  344. ^ "Hancock admits 'challenges' in supplying medics with protective equipment". Thurrock Gazette. Press Association . Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  345. ^ Donnelly, Laura; Gardner, Bill (23 March 2020). "NHS asks DIY stores to donate protective equipment to staff on the coronavirus frontline". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  346. ^ "Coronavirus: Hancock admits 'challenges' over NHS equipment". BBC News. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  347. ^ "Coronavirus: Drakeford claims enough protective kit for NHS despite concerns". BBC News. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  348. ^ "Coronavirus: Minister admits PPE 'challenges and problems'". BBC News. 29 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  349. ^ "Coronavirus: Continuing issues with protective kit for NHS, says minister". BBC News. 25 March 2020. Archived from the original on 27 March 2020.
  350. ^ Gibbons, Katie; Bennett, Rosemary (26 March 2020). "Doctors forced to buy safety gear from DIY stores". The Times. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  351. ^ Gibbons, Katie; Lay, Kat (31 March 2020). "NHS staff beg Boris Johnson: Give us the right protective coronavirus gear". The Times. Archived from the original on 4 April 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  352. ^ a b Milmo, Cahal (1 April 2020). "Coronavirus: Unions declare PPE shortage is 'crisis within a crisis' despite Downing Street insistence that vital supplies are being delivered". i. Archived from the original on 2 April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  353. ^ "Coronavirus: Councils appeal for protective equipment". BBC News. 1 April 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  354. ^ "Specification for Rapidly Manufactured CPAP System to be used during the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak". GOV.UK. 29 March 2020. Archived from the original on 1 April 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  355. ^ Bosotti, Aurora (1 March 2020). "Coronavirus outbreak: Matt Hancock confirms retired NHS staff may be called back into work". Daily Express. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  356. ^ "Coronavirus: 'Your NHS needs you' - Thousands of retired doctors and nurses urged to return". Sky News. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  357. ^ Milne, Oliver (29 March 2020). "More than 20,000 retired NHS staff will re-join service for coronavirus fight". Daily Mirror. Archived from the original on 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  358. ^ "Coronavirus: 250,000 people urged to become volunteers to help NHS and fight Covid-19". ITV News. 24 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  359. ^ a b Caulfield, Chris (29 March 2020). "Call for NHS volunteers paused as 750,000 sign up". Metro. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  360. ^ "Volunteer target raised to 750,000 after more than half a million people sign up to help NHS". ITV News. 26 March 2020. Archived from the original on 29 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  361. ^ a b Illman, James (21 March 2020). "NHS block books almost all private hospital sector capacity to fight covid-19". Health Service Journal.
  362. ^ "Large crane to block Wigan Lane partially as Covid-19 emergency ward work escalates". www.wigantoday.net.
  363. ^ Campbell, Denis; Dodd, Vikram (23 March 2020). "NHS plans to turn ExCeL centre into coronavirus hospital". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  364. ^ Goodall, Lewis (24 March 2020). "NEW: Matt Hancock announces a new temporary hospital - the ExCel centre in London is being converted into the "Nightingale Hospital"". @lewis_goodall. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  365. ^ Campbell, Lucy (27 March 2020). "UK coronavirus live: rate of infection doubling every three to four days, says Gove". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  366. ^ "First coronavirus field hospital opens in London". BBC News. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
  367. ^ "Church of England suspends public worship over coronavirus". Reuters. 17 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  368. ^ "Coronavirus: Church and religious services off across Wales". BBC. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  369. ^ Walker, Donald (17 March 2020). "Coronavirus – Suspension of Church Services". The Scottish Episcopal Church. Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  370. ^ "Coronavirus: Archbishop of Canterbury to lead first virtual Church of England service". Sky News. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  371. ^ a b Sherwood, Harriet (17 March 2020). "Church of England suspends all services over coronavirus". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  372. ^ "Coronavirus: Catholic churches preparing to suspend Mass". BBC. 14 March 2020.
  373. ^ "COVID-19 reports". Imperial College London. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  374. ^ "Shining our expertise on Coronavirus". Diamond. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  375. ^ "Launch of new website explaining the science behind coronavirus". UK Research and Innovation. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  376. ^ "COVID-19 vaccine & therapy research boosted by six new projects in rapid response". UK Research and Innovation. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  377. ^ "UK launches whole genome sequence alliance to map spread of coronavirus". Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  378. ^ "UK boosts support for CEPI to spur COVID-19 vaccine development". Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  379. ^ "Help find new ways to ease global disruption: apply for funding". GOV.UK. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  380. ^ "Formula 1's Project Pitlane will support the manufacture of medical devices to help treat Covid-19 patients". UK Research and Innovation. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  381. ^ "Coronavirus: England's Six Nations games against Italy postponed". BBC Sport. 5 March 2020. Archived from the original on 6 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  382. ^ "Women's Six Nations: Scotland v France postponed after home player tests positive for coronavirus". BBC Sport. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  383. ^ "Coronavirus: Premier League & EFL ditch pre-match fair-play handshakes". BBC Sport. 6 March 2020. Archived from the original on 7 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  384. ^ "Manchester City v Arsenal postponed over coronavirus fears". BBC Sport. 11 March 2020. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  385. ^ Morris, Steven (10 March 2020). "Cheltenham Festival: key race meeting goes ahead despite coronavirus". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  386. ^ Ingle, Sean (11 March 2020). "Service as normal: badminton's finest cock-a-hoop to get back to business". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  387. ^ "Mikel Arteta: Arsenal manager tests positive for coronavirus". 12 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  388. ^ "Coronavirus: Chelsea's Callum Hudson-Odoi and Arsenal boss Mikel Arteta test positive". BBC Sport. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 13 March 2020. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  389. ^ "Coronavirus: Premier League and EFL suspended in England – Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland halt games". BBC Sport. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  390. ^ "Coronavirus: Scottish football suspended until further notice". BBC Sport. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  391. ^ "Coronavirus: English football suspension extended until at least 30 April". BBC Sport. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  392. ^ Rees, Paul (13 March 2020). "Wales v Scotland Six Nations match called off 24 hours before kick-off". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  393. ^ "Coronavirus: London Marathon postponed until October". BBC Sport. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 14 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  394. ^ "Coronavirus: Five National League games on Saturday called off following outbreak". BBC Sport. 14 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  395. ^ "National League shuts down as FA puts all English grassroots football on hold". The Guardian. PA Media. 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  396. ^ "Welsh rugby: WRU announce suspension until end of March". BBC Sport. 13 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  397. ^ "Coronavirus: Vitality Netball Superleague postponed with immediate effect". Sky Sports. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  398. ^ Rees, Paul (16 March 2020). "Premiership Rugby suspended for five weeks over coronavirus pandemic". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  399. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Horse racing in Great Britain suspended until end of April". BBC Sport. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  400. ^ Shennan, Rhona (16 March 2020). "Edinburgh Marathon Festival 2020: confirmed date for postponed race, marathon route and how to enter". Edinburgh Evening News. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  401. ^ Quarrell, Rachel (16 March 2020). "Coronavirus forces first Boat Race cancellation outside of a world war". The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  402. ^ Lickorish, Stephen (17 March 2020). "No Motorsport UK-sanctioned events until May due to coronavirus". Autosport. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  403. ^ "Coronavirus: British Boxing Board of Control cancels all events due to pandemic". Sky Sports. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  404. ^ Foster, Max; Wilkinson, David; Guy, Jack (4 March 2020). "Queen Elizabeth wears gloves, sparking coronavirus speculation". CNN. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  405. ^ "Queen's long gloves at palace ceremony 'sensible precaution'". Sky News. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  406. ^ "Coronavirus: Queen leaves London and moves to Windsor Castle amid outbreak". The Independent. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  407. ^ "A message from Her Majesty The Queen, 19th March 2020" (Press release). The Royal Household. 19 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  408. ^ Heffer, Greg (19 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Prince William and Prince Harry pay tribute to 'awe-inspiring' public response". Sky News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  409. ^ "Coronavirus: Princess Beatrice cancels Buckingham Palace wedding reception". Sky News. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  410. ^ "Prince Charles greets investiture recipients with namaste amid coronavirus fears". ITV News. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  411. ^ a b Ross, Jamie; Sykes, Tom (25 March 2020). "Fears for the Queen as Prince Charles Contracts COVID-19". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  412. ^ a b "Prince Charles tests positive for coronavirus". BBC News. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  413. ^ a b Reynolds, Emma; Foster, Max; Wilkinson, David (25 March 2020). "Prince Charles tests positive for novel coronavirus". CNN. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  414. ^ "Prince Charles out of virus self-isolation". BBC News. 30 March 2020.
  415. ^ "Prince Charles has recovered from coronavirus". The Independent. 30 March 2020.
  416. ^ Barr, Sabrina (6 April 2020). "Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall out of self-isolation after Prince Charles recovers from coronavirus". The Independent. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  417. ^ "Royals back coronavirus mental health campaign". 29 March 2020 – via www.bbc.co.uk.
  418. ^ "Collapsed Flybe tells passengers not to travel to airports". BBC News. 5 March 2020. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  419. ^ Calder, Simon (5 March 2020). "Flybe collapses as coronavirus pandemic takes toll". The Independent. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  420. ^ Baldwin, Richard; Weder di Mauro, Beatrice (2020). "Introduction" (PDF). In Baldwin, Richard; Weder di Mauro, Beatrice (eds.). Economics in the time of COVID-19. London: CEPR Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-912179-28-2.
  421. ^ "Virgin Atlantic boss urges Boris Johnson to sanction £7.5bn airline bailout". Sky News. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  422. ^ "No extra help for airlines, chancellor says". BBC News. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  423. ^ Kent Coronavirus southeastern makes major Archived 20 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine www.kentlive.news
  424. ^ "Commuters to get refund on rail season tickets". BBC News. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  425. ^ "Coronavirus: Rail franchise agreements suspended to avoid company collapses". Sky News. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  426. ^ Xie, Qin (30 March 2020). "Hull Trains becomes the first UK rail operator to suspend all services amid coronavirus pandemic". The Independent. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  427. ^ "Coronavirus: changes made to the Supertram service in Sheffield". www.thestar.co.uk. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  428. ^ Coronavirus bus timetables change Sheffield Doncaster and South Yorkshire Archived 20 March 2020 at the Wayback Machine www.doncasterfreepress.co.uk, accessed 20 March 2020
  429. ^ "Coronavirus: London cuts Tube trains and warns 'don't travel unless you really have to'". Sky News. Archived from the original on 21 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  430. ^ Matters, Transport for London | Every Journey. "Planned services to support London's critical workers". Transport for London. Archived from the original on 20 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  431. ^ "New Tube restrictions to stop non-essential trips". BBC News. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  432. ^ Xie, Qin (2 April 2020). "National Express to suspend all coach services". The Independent. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  433. ^ Tasker, John Paul (12 March 2020). "Sophie Grégoire Trudeau's coronavirus infection comes after attending U.K. event". CBC News. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  434. ^ Momplé, Stéphanie (19 March 2020). "Covid-19 : trois Mauriciens testés positifs ; "zot pe gayn tou tretman ki bizin", rassure le PM". Le Défi Media Group. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  435. ^ "Kolkata on Covid-19 map, teen back from UK tests positive". The Times of India. Television News Network. 18 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  436. ^ "COVID-19 LIVE | Telangana confirms 3 new cases, Andhra 1; PM calls for Janta curfew on Mar 22". The New Indian Express. Express Publications. 19 March 2020. 08:09am; 10:58am; 04:16pm. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  437. ^ "Coronavirus - Virus: Nigeria don confam new Covid-19 outbreak - See wetin we know so far". BBC News (in Nigerian Pidgin). 17 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  438. ^ "What do the statistics really tell us about UK coronavirus deaths?". ITV News. 30 March 2020. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  439. ^ a b "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  440. ^ a b "Deaths registered weekly in England and Wales, provisional - Office for National Statistics". www.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  441. ^ a b "Counting deaths involving the coronavirus (COVID-19) | National Statistical". blog.ons.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  442. ^ Shaw, Neil (31 January 2020). "Coronavirus in the UK – everything we know so far". hulldailymail. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  443. ^ Dresch, Matthew (31 January 2020). "Hotel in York confirms two UK coronavirus victims were guests". mirror. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  444. ^ "Coronavirus: London COVID-19 patient took Uber to A&E". Sky News. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  445. ^ "NI Coronavirus patient believed to have used public transport to travel from Dublin to Northern Ireland". www.newsletter.co.uk. Retrieved 1 March 2020.
  446. ^ "The UK's coronavirus stats, day-by-day". The Independent. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  447. ^ "Surrey coronavirus: First death in UK is patient from Berkshire". getsurrey. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  448. ^ "First case of coronavirus in Wales confirmed". BBC News. 28 February 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  449. ^ Lane, Ellis (1 March 2020). "Tetbury primary teacher has Coronavirus, school confirms". gloucestershirelive. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  450. ^ "CMO for England announces 12 new cases of novel coronavirus: 01 March 2020". GOV.UK. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  451. ^ "Two cases of coronavirus confirmed in West Sussex". www.chichester.co.uk. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  452. ^ "Surrey coronavirus: First death in UK is patient from Berkshire". getsurrey. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  453. ^ a b "Coronavirus: Pupil diagnosed with COVID-19 as number of UK cases rises to 39". Sky News. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  454. ^ "Businesses deep cleaned and pupils isolate after Kent coronavirus case – live". kentlive. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  455. ^ "Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 update to Scottish Parliament – gov.scot". www.gov.scot. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  456. ^ "CMO for England announces 4 new cases of novel coronavirus: 2 March 2020". GOV.UK. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  457. ^ Campbell, Lucy (2 March 2020). "Coronavirus: three more people in England test positive". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  458. ^ "Coronavirus action plan: Health Secretary's statement to Parliament". GOV.UK. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  459. ^ "Two more cases of coronavirus confirmed in NI". BBC News. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  460. ^ "Two new cases of coronavirus (COVID-19) – gov.scot". www.gov.scot. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  461. ^ "Coronavirus: Cases in UK jump to 87". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  462. ^ "CMO for England announces 25 new cases of coronavirus (COVID-19): 5 March 2020". GOV.UK. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  463. ^ "Three new cases of coronavirus (COVID-19) – gov.scot". www.gov.scot. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  464. ^ "Wales has second coronavirus case confirmed". BBC News. 5 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  465. ^ "CMO for England announces first death of patient with COVID-19". GOV.UK. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  466. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19): latest information and advice". GOV.UK. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  467. ^ "Coronavirus' first UK fatality aged over 70 but CMO warns against isolating old 'from society'". www.homecare.co.uk. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  468. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19): latest information and advice". GOV.UK. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  469. ^ "Fourth case of coronavirus diagnosed in NI". BBC News. 6 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  470. ^ "Number of Scottish coronavirus cases rises to 11". BBC News. 6 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  471. ^ "Coronavirus: Second person in UK dies from infection". Sky News. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  472. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19): latest information and advice". GOV.UK. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  473. ^ "Three more coronavirus cases confirmed in NI". BBC News. 7 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  474. ^ "Five more positive coronavirus tests in Scotland". BBC News. 7 March 2020. Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  475. ^ "Keep 'common sense approach' to coronavirus". BBC News. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  476. ^ "Number of Scottish coronavirus cases rises to 18". BBC News. 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  477. ^ "UK virus toll hits 211 after two cases diagnosed in Wales – live". Evening Standard. 8 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  478. ^ "Coronavirus: Man in his 60s becomes third UK death".
  479. ^ "Coronavirus (COVID-19): latest information and advice". GOV.UK. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  480. ^ Quinn, Ben; Davidson, Helen; Wahlquist, Calla; Walawalkar (earlier), Aaron; Gelder (now), Sam; Tondo, Lorenzo (8 March 2020). "Man in 60s becomes third to die from Covid-19 in UK – as it happened". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  481. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  482. ^ "No current plan to close schools over coronavirus". BBC News. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  483. ^ "Two more coronavirus cases in Wales". BBC News. 9 March 2020. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  484. ^ Phillips, Jamie (9 March 2020). "Epsom and St Helier says patient in 70s has died from coronavirus". getsurrey. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  485. ^ Leather, Harry. "Wolverhampton coronavirus patient dies as number of UK cases rises". www.expressandstar.com. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  486. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  487. ^ a b "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  488. ^ "Four more coronavirus cases confirmed in NI". BBC News. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  489. ^ "Coronavirus in Scotland – gov.scot". www.gov.scot. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  490. ^ "Nine new cases of coronavirus confirmed in Wales". BBC News. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  491. ^ "Coronavirus: Sixth person dies in UK as confirmed cases rise to 373". Sky News. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  492. ^ "Coronavirus: First community transmission detected in Wales", BBC News, 11 March 2020
  493. ^ Bowman, Verity; Roberts, Lizzie; Boycott-Owen, Mason; Team, Global Health Security (11 March 2020). "Coronavirus: Eighth UK patient dies as WHO labels outbreak a 'pandemic' and laments 'global inaction'". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  494. ^ Weaver, Matthew; Syal, Rajeev (11 March 2020). "UK coronavirus cases jump to 456 and eighth Briton dies". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
  495. ^ "Coronavirus: First case in north Wales confirmed", BBC News, 12 March 2020
  496. ^ "Coronavirus: Schools eye GCSE and A-level preparation", BBC News, 13 March 2020
  497. ^ "Coronavirus: Death of first Scottish patient with Covid-19 confirmed", BBC News, 13 March 2020, retrieved 13 March 2020
  498. ^ "Coronavirus: Public's role 'crucial' in containing pandemic", BBC News, 14 March 2020
  499. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  500. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  501. ^ "Coronavirus cases in Wales: Where are the confirmed cases?", BBC News, 18 March 2020
  502. ^ "Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS". www.arcgis.com. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  503. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  504. ^ "Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS". www.arcgis.com. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  505. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  506. ^ "Seven more deaths in Wales due to coronavirus". Western Telegraph. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  507. ^ "Coronavirus: 18-year-old 'youngest' to die in UK as fatalities rise by 48 to 281". Sky News. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  508. ^ "Second coronavirus-related death in NI confirmed". BBC News. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  509. ^ "Public Health Wales – Latest Statement". covid19-phwstatement.nhs.wales. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  510. ^ "Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS". www.arcgis.com. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  511. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  512. ^ "Coronavirus in Scotland - gov.scot". www.gov.scot. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  513. ^ Weaver, Matthew (23 March 2020). "'So much living to do': stories of UK's latest named coronavirus victims". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  514. ^ "Public Health Wales – Latest Statement". covid19-phwstatement.nhs.wales. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  515. ^ "Number of coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and risk in the UK". GOV.UK. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
  516. ^ a b c Doughty, Emma. "COVID19_by_area.csv". GitHub. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  517. ^ "Seven coronavirus deaths in NI confirmed". BBC News. 25 March 2020. Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  518. ^ a b "Covid Dashboard Data".
  519. ^ @DHSCgovuk (7 April 2020). "As of 9am 7 April, 266,694 tests have concluded, with 14,006 tests on 6 April" (Tweet). Retrieved 7 April 2020 – via Twitter.

External links