COVID-19 vaccination in the United Kingdom

The COVID-19 vaccination programme in the United Kingdom is an ongoing mass immunisation campaign for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom.

COVID-19 vaccination programme in the United Kingdom
Date8 December 2020 (2020-12-08) – present
LocationUnited Kingdom
CauseCOVID-19 pandemic
TargetImmunisation of the public in the United Kingdom against COVID-19
Participants53,710,109 have received one vaccine dose
50,483,527 have received two vaccine doses
40,196,024 have received three vaccine doses,
6,200,537 have received a fourth dose[1]
Outcome92.9% of UK population 12+ have received one vaccine dose
86.8% of UK population 12+ have received two vaccine doses
69% of UK population 12+ have received three vaccine doses[1]

The percentage of the adult population, by nation, reported to have received 1st dose of a vaccine as of 30 May 2021
GP-led vaccination centres were in operation by 15 December 2020

Vaccinations began on 8 December 2020 after Margaret Keenan became the first person in the world (outside trials) to receive her first dose of two of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine.[2] There are three vaccines currently in use; following approval of the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine (Comirnaty), vaccines developed by University of Oxford and AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria), and the United States National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Moderna (Spikevax) have been rolled out. As of 13 September 2021, there were four other COVID-19 vaccines on order for the programme, at varying stages of development.

Phase 1 of the rollout prioritised the most vulnerable, in a schedule primarily based on age. The delivery plan was adjusted on 30 December 2020, delaying second doses so that more people could receive their first dose. A target to give all 15 million people in the top four priority groups their first dose by the middle of February 2021 was announced on 4 January 2021, and achieved on 14 February 2021. The next five groups were offered a vaccine by 15 April, and 32 million doses were administered by that point. In June 2021, all adults aged 18+ were able to get their first dose of a vaccine. The vaccine rollout was expanded to adolescent children and booster doses during the later months of that year.[3] In response to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant, third vaccine doses were made available to all adults in December 2021.[4]

The UK's rollout was among the fastest in the world with among the highest uptake in its first few months,[2] although vaccination rates had slowed down or plateaued by autumn 2021 due to lower uptake in younger age groups.[5][6] Polling suggests the UK's level of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy is among the world's lowest.[7][8]

Vaccination sites include GP practices, care homes and pharmacies, as well as hospitals. As of 21 May 2021, there were 2,057 vaccination sites operating in England.[9] There are over 1,100 vaccination sites operating in Scotland.[10] As of 25 May 2021, there were 462 vaccination sites operating in Wales.[11] Additional sites, including large venues such as sports stadia, entered the programme from 11 January 2021, with seven mass vaccination centres opening in England initially and seven in Wales.[12]

New guidance for allergy sufferers, antibody tests, new variants of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.1.7 and B.1.617) and the use of the AstraZeneca vaccine in younger adults have been issued throughout the programme.

The programme also includes procurement of vaccines for British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies.[13][14]

According to a June 2022 study published in The Lancet, COVID-19 vaccination in the United Kingdom prevented an additional 507,000 deaths from December 8, 2020 to December 8, 2021.[15][16]

Progress, as of 6 October 2021
Home nation Doses administered per 100 people
 United Kingdom
 Northern Ireland

From official vaccination[17] and 2019 ONS[18][19][20][21] data.
(Doses may not equate to no. people if more than one dose received.)


Responsibility for COVID-19 vaccine deploymentEdit

On 28 November 2020 the new role of Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for COVID-19 Vaccine Deployment was set up within the Department of Health and Social Care in the Government of the United Kingdom, with Nadhim Zahawi the first to take office.[22]

Vaccines on orderEdit

There are several COVID-19 vaccines at various stages of development around the world. By February 2021 the British Government had placed orders for a combined total of 457 million doses across 8 different vaccines,[23][24][25][26] and as of 23 August 2021 this had increased to more than 540 million doses.[27] This does not equate to the number of people that can be immunised as most vaccines require more than one dose.

In September 2021, the UK government cancelled their 190-million-dose Valneva order, citing supply concerns.[28]

The breakdown of the vaccines currently being considered for the vaccination programme is as follows:[29][30]

Vaccine Origin Progress Doses ordered Approval Deployment
Pfizer–BioNTech US/Germany phase III clinical trials 189 million[27]   2 December 2020   8 December 2020
Oxford–AstraZeneca UK/Sweden/India phase III clinical trials 100 million   30 December 2020[31]   4 January 2021[32]
Moderna US phase III clinical trials 77 million[24]   8 January 2021[24]   7 April 2021[33]
Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) US/Belgium/Netherlands phase III clinical trials 20 million   28 May 2021[34] Pending
Novavax US/India phase III clinical trials 60 million   3 February 2022[35] Pending
GSK/Sanofi Pasteur UK/France phase III clinical trials 60 million Pending Pending
CureVac Germany phase III clinical trials 50 million[26] Pending Pending


Regulatory approvalsEdit

On 2 December 2020, the UK became the first country to give approval for use of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine,[36][37] later branded as Comirnaty.[38] This was in the form of a temporary authorisation given by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under Regulation 174 of the Human Medicines Regulations 2012.[39] Regulatory approval is reserved under the devolution settlement. The first batch arrived in the UK the next day and was initially stored at an undisclosed central hub before being distributed to hospital vaccination centres across the country.[40]

On 30 December 2020, the UK also became the first country to approve the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine.[31]

On 8 January 2021, the Moderna vaccine was approved as the third vaccine to enter the programme.[24]

On 28 January 2021, the results of the Novavax vaccine trials, which were undertaken in the UK and in South Africa, showed it was 95.6% effective against the original SARS-CoV-2 strains and 85.6% against the Variant of Concern 202012/01, then prevalent in the UK. The company stated it had begun the process of requesting clearance for use in the UK.[41] The Novavax vaccine was the first to be tested in clinical trials for efficacy against the UK's prevailing Variant of Concern 202012/01.[42] In clinical trial subjects without HIV infections, the vaccine was also 60% effective against the 501.V2 variant, a SARS-CoV-2 strain first detected in South Africa.[42]

On 28 May 2021, the Janssen vaccine was the fourth vaccine to be approved in the UK.[34]

On 3 February 2022, the Novavax vaccine was the fifth vaccine to be approved in the UK.[35]

On 14 April 2022, the UK became the first country to approve the Valneva vaccine. This is the sixth COVID-19 vaccine that the MHRA has approved.[43]

Rollout timelineEdit

This timeline lists the general availability of vaccine appointments in England, by date. The dates differed slightly in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (not listed here).

Availability of vaccine appointments in England, by date
Start date Appointments available for Priority


8 December 2020 Residents in a care home for older adults and their carers; and all aged 80 and over 1 and part of 2 [44][45]
Procedures set out on 9 and 14 January 2021 Frontline health and social care workers Part of 2 [46][47]
18 January 2021 All aged 70 and over, and clinically extremely vulnerable individuals 3 and 4 [48]
15 February 2021 All aged 65 and over; and those aged 16 to 64 with underlying health conditions which put them at higher risk of serious disease and mortality 5 and 6 [49]
1 March 2021 All aged 60 and over 7 [50]
6 March 2021 All aged 56 and over 8 (age adjusted from 55) [51]
17 March 2021 All aged 50 and over 9 [52]
13 April 2021 All aged 45 and over [53]
26 April 2021 All aged 44 and over [54]
27 April 2021 All aged 42 and over [55]
30 April 2021 All aged 40 and over [56]
13 May 2021 All aged 38 and over [57]
18 May 2021 All aged 36 and over [58]
20 May 2021 All aged 34 and over [59]
22 May 2021 All aged 32 and over [60]
26 May 2021 All aged 30 and over [61]
8 June 2021 All aged 25 and over [62]
15 June 2021 All aged 23 and over [63]
16 June 2021 All aged 21 and over [64]
18 June 2021 All adults (ie aged 18 and over) [65]
A vaccination centre in Finchley, north London, March 2021

On 8 December 2020, Margaret Keenan, 90, became the first person in the world (outside trials) to receive the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine as the rollout of vaccinations began.[44] William Shakespeare, 81, from Warwickshire became the second person, and the first man, to be vaccinated.[66] Both vaccinations took place at University Hospital Coventry. On 4 January 2021, Brian Pinker, 82, became the first person (outside trials) to receive the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine. The vaccination took place at the Churchill Hospital, Oxford.[32] England Health Secretary, Matt Hancock said this was a "pivotal moment" in the programme as this vaccine was easier to transport and store, requiring only ordinary fridge temperatures. Six hospitals in England began the Oxford vaccine rollout using the first batch of around 530,000 doses.[67]

The Queen and Prince Philip, then 94 and 99 respectively, received their vaccinations within their Windsor Castle residence on 9 January 2021.[68] Prince William cited their example, a week later, to encourage everyone to take up the vaccine[69] after hearing that a degree of vaccine hesitancy had set in.

The rollout to the over 70s and clinically extremely vulnerable began on 18 January 2021,[48] representing the fourth priority group and the final group needed to complete the government's initial 15 February target.[70]

Over 20 million first doses were administered by 28 February 2021.[71]

Prime Minister Boris Johnson is given the vaccine by nurse Lily Harrington at St Thomas' Hospital.

On 19 March, Prime Minister Boris Johnson received his first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine at St. Thomas' Hospital. By this point, more than 26 million people had received their first dose of a COVID-19 Vaccine.[72]

On 7 April 2021, Elle Taylor, 24, became the first person in the UK (outside trials) to receive the Moderna vaccine. The vaccine was administered on Miss Taylor, an unpaid carer from Ammanford, at Glangwili General Hospital, Carmarthen.[73]


Queuing for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine in Finchley, North London, March 2021

On 9 December 2020, the MHRA issued updated guidance, after two cases of anaphylaxis and another case of a possible allergic reaction following the vaccination. In the statement, June Raine, MHRA Chief Executive said:[74]

Any person with a history of anaphylaxis to a vaccine, medicine or food should not receive the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. A second dose should not be given to anyone who has experienced anaphylaxis following administration of the first dose of this vaccine.

Raine went on to say that such side effects have been known to happen with any vaccine but are "very rare". She continued to confirm that existing appointments should not be cancelled but people with a history of serious allergies should discuss this beforehand. Furthermore, she expressed confidence in the safety, assessment and monitoring of the vaccine. Guidance was given that vaccine recipients should be monitored for at least 15 minutes after vaccination and centres must be prepared for such events including the availability of an anaphylaxis pack.[74] The two people affected were quickly treated and recovered well.[74]

The Department of Health and Social Care confirm that although the vaccine triggers the creation of antibodies, vaccination does not affect the result of an antibody test to detect whether someone has previously contracted the virus. This is because there are differences between the antibodies triggered and those being tested for.[75]

As of 20 December 2020, Public Health England say there is "no evidence" to suggest that the recently identified Variant of Concern 202012/01 (a new variant of SARS-CoV-2) would be resistant to the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine currently being used in the programme, and people should still be protected.[76] Further laboratory work is still being prioritised to increase current understanding of this.

As of 8 April 2021, the JCVI issued advice to the government stating "that it is preferable for adults aged under 30 with no underlying conditions to be offered an alternative to the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine where available, following reports of extremely rare blood clots in a very small number of people."[77]

As of 7 May 2021, the JCVI issued advice to the government stating "the JCVI has advised a preference for adults aged 30 to 39 without underlying health conditions to receive an alternative to the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine – where available and only if this does not cause substantial delays in being vaccinated, on extremely rare cases of concurrent thrombosis (blood clots) and thrombocytopenia (low platelet count) following the first dose of the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine."[78]

As of 16 June 2021 it is expected that vaccination will become mandatory for those working in aged care (excluding those medically exempt).[64]

Companies and organisations involvedEdit

In the months before approval of the first vaccine, the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (an independent group of experts) gave advice to the Vaccine Taskforce on the groups of people that should be prioritised for vaccination.[79][80] The taskforce was formed in May 2020 to lead efforts to develop, manufacture and procure vaccines for the UK and globally,[81] and was led until the end of 2020 by biotech venture capital manager Kate Bingham.[82]

As with other licensed vaccines, the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (part of the MHRA) reviews the production process and the manufacturer's quality control, and tests each batch of vaccine.[83] Again in common with other vaccines and medicines, the MHRA monitors adverse reactions by collecting details submitted by healthcare workers, carers and the public through the Yellow Card Scheme; the agency set up a web reporting site specific to the COVID-19 vaccines.[84]

The creation of the Vaccines Manufacturing and Innovation Centre was announced in December 2018, to provide the UK with a vaccine development and manufacturing facility, and its building is under construction at Harwell with planned completion brought forward from 2022 to 2021. The academic/industrial consortium assisted with development and early production of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine during 2020.[85]

Services contractor Serco has a role in the deployment, as part of a contract which was extended for six months in June 2021 at a cost of £424 million.[86]

The British Armed Forces have assisted with the vaccine rollout through the COVID Support Force in all parts of the UK. This has involved assistance with planning, the construction of vaccination centres and the contribution of staff to administer vaccines. This support is provided through the provisions of the military aid to the civil authorities (MACA) mechanism and is part of the military's wider contribution under Operation Rescript.[87]


AstraZeneca vaccine vial and a NHS patient COVID-19 vaccination record card at a NHS vaccination centre

Delivery planEdit

During the rollout of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine first doses, the UK government announced on 30 December 2020 that future deployment would focus on that initial dose, rather than giving the required two doses as quickly as possible. The announcement of this plan coincided with the approval of the Oxford–AstraZeneca vaccine, and so represents the strategy to rollout the two vaccines. The government stated that prioritising the first dose was on advice from the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation (JCVI) and further assured that everyone would still receive their second dose within 12 weeks of their first.[31] Despite this, Margaret Keenan, who was the first person outside of trials to receive a dose of the Pfizer–BioNTech vaccine, returned to hospital on 29 December 2020 for her follow-up injection. This was exactly three weeks after her first, in accordance with the original plan until the announcement of the new strategy. By receiving her second dose, Keenan completed the vaccination process.[88]

The new plan to increase the gap between first and second doses from 3 to 12 weeks, was criticised as "unfair" by the British Medical Association (BMA) on 31 December 2020, as appointments booked for 4 January 2021 or later would have to be rescheduled.[89] In response, all four Chief Medical Officers (CMO), plus England's Deputy CMO Jonathan Van-Tam, signed an open letter explaining the policy shift.[90] They said by prioritising first doses, more people would have substantial protection faster, and the second dose adds relatively minor additional protection in the short term. They went on to say that for every 1,000 people given the second 'booster' dose, 1,000 new people would not be able to have up to 70% protection and would instead remain totally unprotected.

Delivery targetsEdit

During his address announcing England's third national lockdown on 4 January 2021, Boris Johnson indicated a preliminary target for the vaccination programme, saying:[70]

By the middle of February, if things go well and with a fair wind in our sails, we expect to have offered the first vaccine dose to everyone in the four top priority groups identified by the Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation.

He went on to confirm this would include all elderly residents of care homes and indeed everyone over the age of 70, as well as all frontline health and social care workers, and all those who are "clinically extremely vulnerable".

Vaughan Gething, Minister for Health and Social Services in the Welsh Government, matched England's targets by announcing that all people in groups 1–4 would be offered a first dose by mid February.[91]

A vaccination plan was published by the Scottish Government on 14 January.[92] Part of this plan, subsequently withdrawn after objections from central government, projected the numbers of doses of vaccines delivered weekly to Scotland from the British Government until May, estimating that by mid-March there would be enough doses there to supply every person in the priority groups with their first doses, and enough doses by July to supply every adult with both doses.[93] Extrapolating from these figures, Sky News estimated that supply for the UK overall would be sufficient to meet the British Government's aim of immunising all 15 million priority individuals in the country by mid-February, and vaccinating all adults in Britain with their first dose by mid-July.[93]

Vaccine priority groupsEdit

A care home in Castleford, West Yorkshire with sign reading "Proud to be Covid(sic) Vaccinated"

Phase 1Edit

The JCVI advised the governments on how to prioritise the rollout. The top priority for the programme was to prevent deaths and to ensure that the National Health Service (NHS) would not be overwhelmed, and as older people are more at risk of hospitalisation or death from COVID-19, prioritisation was primarily based on age.[94]

The table shows the priority groups for the first phase of the roll-out.[94] An estimate of the number of people in each group in the United Kingdom is also shown[95] (but note that some people fall into more than one group).

Order Priority group Number eligible (estimated)[95]
1 residents in a care home for older adults and their carers 0.8M
2 all those aged 80 years and over, and frontline health and social care workers 7.1M
3 all those aged 75 years and over 2.3M
4 all those aged 70 years and over, and clinically extremely vulnerable individuals 4.4M
5 all those aged 65 years and over 2.9M
6 all those aged 16 years to 64 years with underlying health conditions which put them at higher risk of serious disease and mortality 7.3M
7 all those aged 60 years and over 1.8M
8 all those aged 55 years and over 2.4M
9 all those aged 50 years and over 2.8M
Breakdown of sizes of high-priority groups for COVID-19 vaccination in the UK[96]

"Clinically extremely vulnerable" is defined as:[97]

Women who are pregnant and children under 16 are not defined as clinically extremely vulnerable for the purpose of the vaccination programme.[94]

Polish group Omni Calculator developed a tool which estimates when individuals will receive the vaccine, based on age, employment, and health status.[98][99]

"People with underlying health conditions which put them at higher risk of serious disease and mortality" is defined as:[100]


Phase 2Edit

The JCVI released an interim statement on 26 February 2021 regarding the rollout of the vaccine in Phase 2. It was decided that Phase 2 would not rollout by occupation or ethnicity but instead solely on age. The order therefore in Phase 2 is as follows:[101]

Order Priority group Number eligible (estimated)
10 all those aged 40 to 49 years ~21 million[102]
11 all those aged 30 to 39 years
12 all those aged 18 to 29 years

The JCVI also noted that males from BAME backgrounds and those with a BMI over 30 were at an increased risk, and therefore stated that it "strongly advises that individuals in these groups promptly take up the offer of vaccination when they are offered", with local officials advised to "promote vaccination in these groups".[101] Poorer neighbourhoods should also be subject to an outreach programme by local officials. The UK government said it aimed to offer all adults over the age of 18 a vaccine before 31 July 2021.[102]

The decision not to prioritise people in high-risk public-facing occupations such as teachers, police officers and bus drivers was criticised by the Association of School and College Leaders, NASUWT and the Metropolitan Police Federation. Asthma UK also criticised the lack of prioritisation of those with mild or moderate asthma in either Phase 1 or Phase 2.[102] JCVI chair Wei Shen Lim defended the rollout plan, stating "speed of deployment is the most important factor" and that rollout by occupation would slow down vaccinations.[102]

Juvenile and booster vaccinationsEdit

Healthy individuals under the age of 18, and all under 16s, were not part of the initial vaccine rollout, on the grounds of their relatively low risk from the virus and the then limited availability of evidence relating to COVID-19 vaccines' effects on young people.[94][101] On 19 July 2021, the vaccine rollout was expanded to vulnerable adolescents from the age of 12 and young people in the three months prior to their 18th birthday.[103] They were joined by all 16- and 17-year-olds on 4 August.[104] The Vaccinations Committee did not endorse vaccines for healthy 12- to 15-year-olds on the grounds of only 'marginal gain' to the health of individual children.[105] However, the UK's chief medical officers agreed to the rollout of a single dose of the Pfizer vaccine to this age group on 13 September in order to reduce disruption to education.[106] Second doses, three months or more after their first, were expanded to this age range on 29 November.[107] On 15 and 16 February 2022, plans were announced across the UK to expand the Pfizer vaccine rollout to children from the age of five;[108] the Vaccinations Committee approved this taking into account an estimate that over 85% of all children aged 5 to 11 had experienced COVID-19 infection by the end of the previous month.[109]

In September 2021, booster doses began to be given to members of the following groups, six months after their second vaccine dose:

  • people over the age of 50
  • vulnerable people over 16
  • health and social care workers
  • adult members of the households of immune-suppressed individuals[110]

It was decided in November that healthy people in their forties would also be eligible for a booster vaccination.[111] Later that month, booster vaccinations were expanded to everyone over the age of 18 who had received their second dose more than three months earlier, whilst some people with severe immunosuppression became eligible for a fourth dose in response to the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.[107] In December, the booster programme was further expanded to offer all adults a booster dose by the end of 2021.[4]

Progress to dateEdit

Data is from GOV.UK.[112] There are around 53 million adults age 18+ in the UK, and a further 4.5 million teenagers aged 12-17 who are eligible for the vaccine.


Number of first doses of vaccination administered weekly by home nation.
  Wales   Scotland   Northern Ireland   England

By the end of the first full week of the programme, up to 15 December 2020, 137,897 people had been vaccinated with the first dose in the two-dose regimen: 108,000 in England, 7,897 in Wales, 4,000 in Northern Ireland and 18,000 in Scotland.[113][114]

By 5 January 2021, 1.3 million people across the UK had received their first dose of either the Pfizer or Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, which included more than 650,000 people over 80, representing around 23% of that age band in England.[115]

As of 13 October 2021, a cumulative total of 49,252,939 people had received the first dose: 41,263,377 in England; 1,316,225 in Northern Ireland; 4,270,126 in Scotland and 2,403,211 in Wales. In addition, a cumulative total of 45,239,759 people had received the second dose: 37,918,254 in England; 1,221,045 in Northern Ireland; 3,868,656 in Scotland and 2,231,804 in Wales.[116]

As at 3 August 2022, a cumulative total of 53,710,109 people (80.07% of the entire UK population) had received the first dose, a cumulative total of 50,483,527 people (75.26%) had received the second dose, a cumulative total of 40,196,024 people (59.92%) had received the booster or third dose, and a cumulative total of 6,200,537 people (9.29%) had received a fourth dose; the total number of vaccinations given (first, second, third and fourth doses) were 150,590,197.[117]

Government vaccination updates increased from weekly to daily, from 11 January 2021.[115]

Weekly new and cumulative doses, by dose type, as at each week-ending date[116]
Previous WEEKLY figures   England  Northern Ireland   Scotland   Wales UK TOTAL
Date Dose New Cumulative New Cumulative New Cumulative New Cumulative New Cumulative
13 December 2020 1st 55,389[i] 55,389 3,623 3,623 18,996 18,996 8,207 8,207 86,215 86,215
20 December 2020 1st 518,469 573,858 12,445 16,068 41,110 60,106 15,559 23,766 587,583 673,798
27 December 2020 1st 267,347 841,205 14,948 31,016 34,404 94,510 12,433 36,199 392,132 1,002,930
3 January 2021 1st 328,980 1,170,185 9,669 40,685 21,321 115,831 14,094 50,293 374,064 1,376,994
2nd 20,565 20,565 1,271 1,271 43 43 26 26 21,905 21,905
Total 349,545 1,190,750 10,940 41,956 21,364 115,874 14,120 50,319 395,969 1,398,899
10 January 2021 1st 951,951 2,122,136 38,395 79,080 51,109 166,940 41,212 91,505 1,082,667 2,459,661
2nd 384,998 405,563 12,287 13,558 2,794 2,837 59 85 400,138 422,043
Total 1,336,949 2,527,699 50,682 92,638 53,903 169,777 41,271 91,590 1,482,805 2,881,704
17 January 2021 1st 1,606,125 3,728,261 46,637 125,717 104,469 271,409 67,237 158,742 1,824,468 4,284,129
2nd 40,372 445935 8,768 22,326 1,102 3,939 113 198 50,355 472,398
Total 1,646,497 4,174,196 55,405 148,043 105,571 275,348 67,350 158,940 1,874,823 4,756,527
24 January 2021 1st 2,238,615 5,966,876 33,925 159,642 153,238 424,647 124,251 282,993 2,550,029 6,834,158
2nd 6,480 452,415 387 22,713 2,049 5,988 370 568 9,286 481,684
Total 2,245,095 6,419,291 34,312 182,355 155,287 430,635 124,621 283,561 2,559,315 7,315,842
31 January 2021 1st 2,189,803 8,156,679 62,167 221,809 164,922 589,569 160,504 443,497 2,577,396 9,411,554
2nd 8,349 460,764 1,899 24,612 2,492 8,480 381 949 13,121 494,805
Total 2,198,152 8,617,443 64,066 246,421 167,414 598,049 160,885 444,446 2,590,517 9,906,359
7 February 2021 1st 2,367,095 10,523,774 81,669 303,478 277,254 866,823 167,361 610,858 2,893,379 12,304,933
2nd 8,395 469,159 2,851 27,463 3,038 11,518 1,872 2,821 16,156 510,961
Total 2,375,490 10,992,933 84,520 330,941 280,292 878,431 169,233 613,679 2,909,535 12,815,894
14 February 2021 1st 2,343,180 12,862,909 93,765 397,243 388,367 1,255,190 180,833 784,809 3,006,145 15,300,151
2nd 19,086 490,722 1,542 29,005 3,811 14,501 2,610 5,402 27,049 539,630
Total 2,362,266 13,353,631 95,307 426,248 392,178 1,269,691 183,443 790,211 3,033,194 15,839,781
21 February 2021 1st 2,095,165 14,958,074 60,787 458,030 190,298 1,445,488 77,439 862,248 2,423,689 17,723,840
2nd 22,713 513,435 1,791 30,796 22,841 37,342 37,350 42,752 84,695 624,325
Total 2,117,878 15,471,509 62,578 488,826 213,139 1,482,830 114,789 905,000 2,508,384 18,348,165
28 February 2021 1st 2,254,730 17,212,804 67,370 525,400 166,090 1,611,578 63,421 925,669 2,551,611 20,275,451
2nd 86,500 599,935 2,401 33,197 41,523 78,865 61,067 103,819 191,491 815,816
Total 2,341,230 17,812,739 69,771 558,597 207,613 1,690,443 124,488 1,029,488 2,743,102 21,091,267
7 March 2021 1st 1,802,693 19,015,497 63,403 588,803 163,081 1,774,659 72,627 998,296 2,101,804 22,377,255
2nd 197,386 797,321 9,654 42,851 39,867 118,732 79,920 183,739 326,827 1,142,643
Total 2,000,079 19,812,818 73,057 631,654 202,948 1,893,391 152,547 1,182,035 2,428,631 23,519,898
14 March 2021 1st 1,776,341 20,791,838 40,658 629,461 134,332 1,908,991 124,635 1,122,931 2,075,966 24,453,221
2nd 332,123 1,129,444 11,785 54,636 43,213 161,945 80,516 264,255 467,637 1,610,280
Total 2,108,464 21,921,282 52,443 684,097 177,545 2,070,936 205,151 1,387,186 2,543,603 26,063,501
21 March 2021 1st 3,063,024 23,854,862 58,067 687,528 273,409 2,182,400 150,255 1,273,186 3,544,755 27,997,976
2nd 492,103 1,621,547 34,047 88,683 63,151 225,096 81,803 346,058 671,104 2,281,384
Total 3,555,127 25,476,409 92,114 776,211 336,560 2,407,496 232,058 1,619,244 4,215,859 30,279,360

Vaccination centresEdit

Marshalling for COVID-19 vaccines at a medical centre in Wetherby, West Yorkshire.
A sign for a vaccination centre.

More than 70 sites across the UK were in operation at the end of the programme's first full week (15 December 2020). Whilst hospitals formed the centres initially, GP-led centres also started later in that week.[118]

Care home locations in England entered the programme on Wednesday 16 December. "Hundreds" of residents received the first dose in seven care homes in Slough, Aintree, Herne Bay, Thanet, Chalfont St Peter, Droitwich and Cheltenham.[119] Larger care homes (50 to 70 beds) were to be prioritised.[119]

The Chelsea Pensioners received their first dose at the Royal Hospital Chelsea on 23 December.[120]

Large venues such as sports stadia and exhibition centres started to be used as mass vaccination centres from 11 January 2021,[115] with seven such centres opening in England at Millennium Point, Birmingham; Ashton Gate Stadium, Bristol; ExCeL London; Manchester Tennis and Football Centre; Centre for Life, Newcastle; Robertson House, Stevenage; and Epsom Downs Racecourse, Surrey.[121] Seven mass vaccination centres were initially opened in Wales with that number increasing to 34 by February alongside 17 acute and community hospital sites.[12][122]

Over 400 GP-led centres were rolling out the vaccination in Wales by the start of February.[122]

High street pharmacies in England started to administer the vaccine from 14 January 2021, with 6 chosen for the roll out initially.[123]

Places of worship also started to be used as large vaccination centres, with Salisbury Cathedral[124] and Lichfield Cathedral[125] among the first to make provisions from 15 January 2021; with the Al-Abbas Islamic Centre in Balsall Heath, Birmingham becoming the first mosque to offer the service on 21 January 2021.[126]


As of 28 May 2021, there were a total of 1,992 vaccination sites operating in England,[ii] These were made up as follows:[127]

Number of vaccination sites in England, by region and type, as of 28 May 2021[127]
Region Hospital hubs GP-Led vaccination services Mass vaccination centres Pharmacies Totals
East of England 31 134 50 40 255
London 51 103 35 109 298
Midlands 40 189 20 96 345
North East and Yorkshire 46 173 17 96 332
North West 49 137 11 63 260
South East 39 180 18 66 303
South West 21 111 13 54 199
Grand Total 277 1,027 164 524 1992

Public opinionEdit

Vaccine hesitancyEdit

A protest against COVID-19 vaccination in London during September 2021

Polling suggested that levels of vaccine hesitancy were fairly low in the UK compared to other parts of the world. YouGov's first survey on the subject in the middle of November 2020 suggested that 15% of British adults would refuse to get a COVID-19 vaccine which had fallen to just 6% (the lowest of any country polled) by April 2021.[7] Research by Ipsos MORI in May suggested that 99% of people who had received their first dose intended to take their second and 95% were certain they would. Whilst, indicating that 94% of the wider public had either had their first dose or intended to do when offered.[128] Research by the Office for National Statistics suggested that 96% of people over 16 had a positive attitude to the COVID-19 vaccine in early summer 2021.[129]

Though a large majority of people in all social groups were willing to take the vaccine, polling suggested that some demographics were more likely to display reluctance than others. Younger individuals were more likely to be uncertain than their elders.[7] Whilst, members of ethnic minority groups were more likely to be reluctant than white responders.[128] The November 2020 YouGov poll suggested that "leave" voters in the 2016 EU referendum were less likely to want the vaccine than "Remain" voters though this gap had closed by the spring.[7] Areas which showed higher levels of hesitancy towards the start of vaccine process included Inner East London, Outer West London, North East England, West Wales and the Valleys though reluctance fell significantly in these areas as the months went by.[129] Though the previously cited survey sampled public opinion in Great Britain (England, Scotland and Wales) one poll conducted in September 2021 suggested that the level of vaccine hesitancy in Northern Ireland was fairly high in comparison.[130]

Impact on political attitudesEdit

It was suggested by commentators that the vaccine rollout strengthened support for the government with the Conservative Party enjoying an uptick in support in polls of voting intentions around spring 2021.[131] The so called "vaccine bounce" was widely cited by observers as one of the reasons for the party's gains at local elections in May 2021.[132] Polling at around this time suggested that 85% of British voters felt their government had handled the vaccine rollout well in comparison to less than a fifth of their French and German counterparts.[133] Analysts also suggested that this phenomenon may have contributed to a waning in support for Scottish independence in the run up to the 2021 Scottish parliament election.[134] The 'Mood of the Nation 2021' report by the consultancy firm BritainThinks based on research conducted in October and November 2021 found that whilst the optimistic mood around COVID-19 of the summer had rebaited the successful vaccine rollout remained one of few present day subjects which the general public in the UK cited as providing a sense of national pride.[135]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ England vaccination uptake data not published until 15 December 2020, so carried forward to next week ending
  2. ^ As of the stated date, location data for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland has not been published by the respective devolved authorities.


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External linksEdit