2016 Peruvian general election

General elections were held in Peru on 10 April 2016 to determine the president, vice-presidents, composition of the Congress of the Republic of Peru and the Peruvian representatives of the Andean Parliament.

2016 Peruvian general election

Presidential election
← 2011 10 April 2016 (first round)
5 June 2016 (second round)
2021 →
Turnout81.80% (first round)
80.09% (second round)
Nominee Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Keiko Fujimori
Party PPK Popular Force
Running mate Martín Vizcarra
Mercedes Aráoz
José Chlimper
Vladimiro Huaroc[a]
Popular vote 8,596,937 8,555,880
Percentage 50.12% 49.88%

Results of the second round by region (left) and province (right). Darker shades indicate a higher vote share.

President before election

Ollanta Humala
Peru Wins

Elected President

Pedro Pablo Kuczynski

Congressional election
← 2011 10 April 2016 2020 →

All 130 seats in the Congress of Peru
66 seats needed for a majority
Party Leader % Seats +/–
Popular Force Keiko Fujimori 36.34 73 +36
PPK Pedro Pablo Kuczynski 16.46 18 New
Broad Front Marco Arana 13.94 20 New
APP César Acuña 9.23 9 +7
Popular Alliance Alan García 8.31 5 +1
Popular Action Mesías Guevara 7.20 5 0
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Results of the Congressional election

In the race for the presidency, incumbent President Ollanta Humala was ineligible for re-election due to constitutional term limits. Popular Force candidate Keiko Fujimori, daughter of former President Alberto Fujimori, was the leading candidate in the first round with almost 40 per cent of the vote, but fell short of the 50 per cent majority required to avoid a second round. Peruvians for Change candidate Pedro Pablo Kuczynski narrowly beat Broad Front candidate Verónika Mendoza to finish in second and earn a place in the second round. The run-off was held on 5 June 2016. With support from those opposing Fujimori, Kuczynski won by a narrow margin of less than half a percentage point. He was sworn in as President on 28 July.

In the Congressional elections, Popular Force won in a landslide, receiving more than a third of the vote and winning an absolute majority of 73 out of 130 seats. Broad Front with 20 seats and Peruvians for Change with 18 seats emerged as the main opposition blocs.

Background edit

On 13 November 2015, incumbent President Ollanta Humala called for a general election to be held on 10 April 2016. He said that he would respect the constitutional term limit restrictions and would not run again.[1]

Electoral system edit

The President was elected using the two-round system. The 130 members of the Congress of the Republic were elected in 25 multi-member constituencies using open list proportional representation.[2]

Presidential nominees edit

Campaign highlights edit

The presidential tickets were to be filed with the National Office of Electoral Processes (ONPE) by 10 January 2016. Congressional lists were to be filed with the ONPE by 10 February 2016.

In March 2016, presidential candidates Julio Guzmán from All for Peru and César Acuña Peralta from Alliance for Progress were barred from the elections; Guzmán due to a violation of party rules in the party's internal election and Acuña Peralta due to monetary giveaways during a campaign rally, a violation of an electoral law enacted by Congress in November 2015.[3]

Keiko Fujimori was a highly polarizing figure during the election. The daughter of the controversial former president Alberto Fujimori, who was serving time in prison at the time, she was popular among the poor and loyalists who credit her father with the defeat of Shining Path. This popularity allowed her to win in the first round of the presidential elections. She was viewed unfavorably by a number of people who oppose Fujimori for human rights abuses and corrupt practices, and who feared that her victory would mark a return of Fujimorismo. Mendoza, who placed third and could not stand in the runoff election, gave her full endorsement to Kuczynski, in order to prevent Fujimori's victory.[4]

Main presidential nominees edit

Presidential tickets
Popular Action Popular Force Popular Alliance Peruvians for Change Broad Front
Alfredo Barnechea Keiko Fujimori Alan García Pedro Pablo Kuczynski Verónika Mendoza
Member of Congress
Member of Congress
President of Peru
(1985–1990 / 2006–2011)
President of the Council of Ministers
Member of Congress
Running mates
1st: Víctor A. García Belaúnde
2nd: Edmundo del Águila
1st: José Chlimper
2nd: Vladimiro Huaroc
1st: Lourdes Flores
2nd: David Salazar
1st: Martín Vizcarra
2nd: Mercedes Aráoz
1st: Marco Arana
2nd: Alan Fairlie

Minor presidential nominees edit

Withdrawn nominees edit

Party Ticket Withdrawal
Name for President for First Vice President for Second Vice President Date Motive
Always Together
Siempre Unidos
Felipe Castillo Guillermo Ruiz Isaac Humala 10 February 2016 Internal party disputes.[6]
Peru Secure Homeland
Perú Patria Segura
Renzo Reggiardo Carlos Vicente Marca Miluska Carrasco Nominee claimed lack of credibility in the electoral process.[7]
Peruvian Nationalist Party
Partido Nacionalista Peruano
Daniel Urresti Susana Villarán Maciste Díaz 11 March 2016 Party filed for withdrawal in order to preserve party registration.[8]
Libertarian Perú
Perú Libertario
Vladimir Cerrón Jorge Paredes Terry Jesús Zárate 24 March 2016 In protest of the National Jury of Elections for not disqualifying Keiko Fujimori.[9]
Peruvian Humanist Party
Partido Humanista Peruano
Yehude Simon Rosa Mavila Yorka Gamarra 28 March 2016 Party filed for withdrawal in order to preserve party registration.[10]
Peru Nation
Perú Nación
Francisco Diez Canseco Claudio Zolla Margarita Gamboa 29 March 2016 Party filed for withdrawal in order to preserve party registration.[11]
National Solidarity
Solidaridad Nacional
Hernando Guerra García José Luna Gustavo Rondón Party filed for withdrawal in order to preserve party registration.[12]

Disqualified nominees edit

Party Ticket Disqualification
Name for President for First Vice President for Second Vice President Date Motive
Alliance for the Progress of Peru
Alianza para el Progreso del Perú
César Acuña Anel Townsend Humberto Lay 9 March 2016 Disqualified for attempted vote buying in campaign trail.[3]
All for Peru
Todos por el Perú
Julio Guzmán Juana Umasi Carolina Lizárraga 9 March 2016 Disqualified for irregularities in nomination process.[3]

Opinion polls edit

Results edit

President edit

Leading candidate by region in the second round.
Leading candidate by province in the second round.

The first round was held on 10 April. Exit polls indicated that Keiko Fujimori placed first in the first round of voting with approximately 40% of the vote, with Pedro Pablo Kuczynski and Veronika Mendoza each receiving approximately 20%.[13][14]

The second round was held on 5 June. Exit polls indicated that Pedro Pablo Kuczynski held a slight lead over Keiko Fujimori. As counting continued, the gap narrowed significantly. Preliminary results gave Kuczynski a 0.25 per cent advantage over Fujimori, with less than 50,000 votes between them. Approximately 50,000 votes were challenged during the count.[15] Fujimori conceded the election to Kuczynski on 10 June.[16]

CandidatePartyFirst roundSecond round
Keiko FujimoriPopular Force6,115,07339.868,555,88049.88
Pedro Pablo KuczynskiPeruvians for Change3,228,66121.058,596,93750.12
Verónika MendozaBroad Front2,874,94018.74
Alfredo BarnecheaPopular Action1,069,3606.97
Alan GarcíaPopular Alliance894,2785.83
Gregorio SantosDirect Democracy613,1734.00
Fernando OliveraHope Front203,1031.32
Alejandro ToledoPossible Peru200,0121.30
Miguel HilarioPeru Progressing75,8700.49
Antero Flores AráozOrder65,6730.43
Valid votes15,340,14381.8817,152,81793.51
Invalid/blank votes3,393,98718.121,190,0796.49
Total votes18,734,130100.0018,342,896100.00
Registered voters/turnout22,901,95481.8022,901,95480.09
Source: ONPE, ONPE

Congress edit

Popular Force won in a landslide, taking more than a third of the vote and an absolute majority of 73 out of 130 seats. Behind them in opposition, Peruvians for Change with 18 seats and Broad Front with 20 seats. Other parties which gained representation in Congress include Alliance for the Progress of Peru (9 seats), Popular Alliance (5 seats) and Popular Action (5 seats).[17]

Popular Force4,431,07736.3473
Peruvians for Change2,007,71016.4618
Broad Front1,700,05213.9420
Alliance for the Progress of Peru1,125,6829.239
Popular Alliance1,013,7358.315
Popular Action877,7347.205
Direct Democracy528,3014.330
Possible Peru286,9802.350
Hope Front139,6341.150
Peru Progressing14,6630.120
Valid votes12,194,04265.03
Invalid/blank votes6,557,22234.97
Total votes18,751,264100.00
Registered voters/turnout22,901,95481.88
Source: JNE

Andean Parliament edit

Only the three main parties obtained representation in the Andean Parliament, with Popular Force obtaining 3 seats (plus six substitutes) each, and Broad Front and Peruvians for Change obtaining only one seat (and two substitutes). Popular Force got the most votes, with 38.1% of the valid ballots. Former congressman Rolando Sousa of Popular Force obtained the most individual votes, with 407,811.

Popular Force3,842,65138.103
Broad Front1,559,02715.461
Peruvians for Change1,505,11814.921
Popular Alliance821,4928.140
Popular Action807,5858.010
Alliance for the Progress of Peru763,7927.570
Direct Democracy506,1085.020
Possible Peru220,7902.190
Valid votes10,085,88153.78
Invalid/blank votes8,666,46746.22
Total votes18,752,348100.00
Registered voters/turnout22,901,95481.88
Source: JNE

Notes edit

  1. ^ Excluded from campaign

References edit

  1. ^ "Ollanta Humala convoca a elecciones generales para el 2016". El Comercio (in Spanish). 13 November 2015.
  2. ^ Peru IFES
  3. ^ a b c "Peru presidential candidates Guzman and Acuna banned from election". BBC. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  4. ^ Dan Collyns (7 June 2016). "Kuczynski ahead in Peru election, but will he be able to govern?". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
  5. ^ Taj, Mitra; 30 September 2016. "AQ Top 5 Politicians Under 40: Verónika Mendoza". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 26 November 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ La República, Plataforma (10 February 2016). "Felipe Castillo renuncia a candidatura presidencial". larepublica.pe. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  7. ^ El Comercio, Redacción (19 February 2016). "Renzo Reggiardo renunció a su candidatura a la presidencia". elcomercio.pe. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  8. ^ El Comercio, Redacción (11 March 2016). "Partido Nacionalista retiró la candidatura de Daniel Urresti". elcomercio.pe. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  9. ^ "Vladimir Cerrón abandonó las Elecciones Generales del 2016". El Comercio (in Spanish). 24 March 2016. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  10. ^ "Yehude Simon anuncia retiro de su candidatura presidencial". La República (in Spanish). 28 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  11. ^ "Francisco Diez-Canseco renunció a su candidatura presidencial". El Comercio (in Spanish). 29 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  12. ^ "Solidaridad Nacional retira candidatura de Nano Guerra García". El Comercio (in Spanish). 29 March 2016. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
  13. ^ "ONPE - Oficina Nacional de Procesos Electorales". www.web.onpe.gob.pe (in Spanish). Retrieved 23 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Peru election: Keiko Fujimori wins first round, say exit polls – BBC News". BBC News. 11 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  15. ^ "Peru election: Kuczynski wins, but Fujimori has yet to concede". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  16. ^ "Peru elections: Keiko Fujimori concedes to Kuczynski". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  17. ^ "ELECTION FOR CONGRESO DE LA REPÚBLICA 2016". Retrieved 1 June 2016.