1919 Indianapolis 500

The 7th Liberty 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Saturday, May 31, 1919.

7th Indianapolis 500
Indy500winningcar1919.jpg
Indianapolis Motor Speedway
Indianapolis 500
Sanctioning bodyAAA
DateMay 31, 1919
WinnerHowdy Wilcox
Winning EntrantI.M.S. Corp.
Average speed88.050 mph (141.703 km/h)
Pole positionRené Thomas
Pole speed104.780 mph (168.627 km/h)
Most laps ledHowdy Wilcox (98)
Pre-race
Pace carPackard V12 (Twin Six)
Pace car driverJesse G. Vincent
StarterE. C. Patterson[1]
Honorary refereeEddie Rickenbacker[1]
Estimated attendance120,000[2]
Chronology
Previous Next
1916 1920

After a two-year hiatus due to World War I, the Indianapolis 500 returned to competition in 1919. Howdy Wilcox won, accompanied by riding mechanic Leo Banks. More than half the field (19 of 33 cars) consisted of rookie drivers, tied for the most ever, excluding the inaugural race where all 40 cars were considered "rookies." Ralph DePalma, the 1915 winner, and the driver who suffered a defeat in 1912, again put in a strong performance. DePalma led 93 of the first 102 laps, and drove the first half at record-breaking speed. Tire problems, however, necessitated a long pit stop, and DePalma finished in 6th place.

Rain was a factor during practice, limiting available track time in the days immediately leading up to time trials. Since most teams did not arrive until later in the month, some cars had very limited preparation time. Qualifying was supposed to be held on just one day, but officials decided to add two additional days due to the lost track time.

The first half of the race was marred by three fatalities. Driver Arthur Thurman died in a crash on lap 45. On lap 96, Louis LeCocq and his riding mechanic Robert Bandini wrecked in turn two, and both were burned to death.

Race backgroundEdit

Over two years had gone by since the last competitive events had been held at the Speedway. The 1916 race was followed by the Harvest Auto Racing Classic, at which point the track was closed due to the escalation of World War I. When the Armistice was signed in November 1918, the Speedway management was anxious to begin planning for the resumption of the 500-mile race for 1919. Some early rumors circulated that the race may change dates to July 4, or even expand to 1,000 miles. These rumors were briefly entertained when the AAA Contest Board announced that both May 30 and July 4 were being set aside on the calendar for the event.[3]

On December 6, 1918, Speedway business manager T.E. "Pop" Myers announced that the 1919 Indianapolis 500 would be scheduled for Friday, May 30. It was decided to keep the traditional date, and likewise return the race to a distance of 500 miles. The 1916 race had been scheduled for 300 miles (a decision that management later mostly regretted), the only such time which the race was scheduled for less than 500 miles.[4] AAA would return as the sanctioning body. An editorial the following day in the Indianapolis News, however, sharply criticized the choice of Memorial Day. It was going to be the first "Decoration Day" holiday following the end of the "Great War", and they believed that the holiday should be left alone to properly honor the many thousands of war casualties.[5] About a week later, Speedway management announced that they would change the date to Saturday May 31. The race was deliberately moved off Memorial Day (Friday May 30) and pushed to Saturday so as not to detract from the holiday.[6]

The race was given a new name for 1919, the Liberty Sweepstakes as a gesture to the peacetime brought on by victory and the end of the war. The new title was used for only one year. Without hesitation, Cliff Durant submitted the first entry on December 16.[7]

Race scheduleEdit

Race schedule – May 1919
Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat
1
Practice
2
Practice
3
Practice
4
Practice
5
Practice
6
Practice
7
Practice
8
Practice
9
Practice
10
Practice
11
Practice
12
Practice
13
Practice
14
Practice
15
Practice
16
Practice
17
Practice
18
Practice
19
Practice
20
Practice
21
Practice
22
Practice
23
Practice
24
Practice
25
Practice
26
Practice
27
Time Trials
28
Time Trials
29
Time Trials
30
Memorial Day
31
Indy 500
Color Notes
Green Track Available for Practice
Dark Blue Time trials
Silver Race day
Red Rained out*
Blank No track activity

* Includes days where track activity
was significantly limited due to rain

PracticeEdit

The deadline for entries to be submitted was midnight on Thursday May 1.[8][9] A total of 43 cars were entered, including three entries by the Indianapolis Motor Speedway.[10][11] The AAA Contest Board confirmed that the maximum starting field rule of 33 cars would apply.[12]

  • Friday May 9: As the first full week of track availability was coming to an end, still only two non-local teams had arrived at the Speedway. The Ballot team out of France, and the Sunbeam team out of England. Poised to be spirited rivals, both were at the track with their full complement of drivers.[23] The only Americans at the track thus far were Howdy Wilcox, and Elmer T. Shannon.[24][25]
  • Saturday May 10: Visiting the Speedway was Barney Oldfield, in town for his tire company. Oldfield was planning to return later in the month to start his preparations.[26]
  • Sunday May 11: No track activity on Sunday. The prevailing topics of discussion for the week focused on the number of foreign entries and foreign drivers vying for the field.[27]
  • Monday May 12: Greek driver George Buzane was mentioned as a possible driver for one of the I.M.S. Premier entries.[28] Louis Wagner and Eddie Pullen were among drivers mentioned as possible qualifiers.[29]
  • Tuesday May 13: Dario Resta took practice laps for the first time during the month. Carl G. Fisher and James A. Allison were among those watching in attendance.[30] J. J. McCoy arrived at the track, and was expected to start taking laps as soon as his McCoy Special was unpacked.[31] With the prestigious French Grand Prix still not yet revived after the war, Indianapolis was being ranked as the biggest motor race of the year.[32]
  • Wednesday May 14: Predictions were being made of record speeds during the race.[33]
  • Thursday May 15: Dario Resta was practicing his Ballot entry, but nearly crashed. The shock absorbers were not affixed properly, and when the car hit a bump in turn one, it became airborne. The car jumped a foot off the ground, but Resta was able to slow the car down and keep it from crashing over the embankment. Resta and his crew made repairs, and he was soon back out on the track running several hot laps. Art Klein, Arthur Thurman, and J. M. Reynolds arrived at the Speedway.[34] The expectations were that practice would begin to pick up by Saturday and Sunday.[35]
  • Friday May 16: Of discussion was the budding rivalry between the American and European entries. The 7th 500 would be the "rubber match" between the two factions, each of whom had won the race three times apiece.[36]
  • Saturday May 17: Rene Thomas was clocked with a lap of 1 minute and 32 seconds, for an average speed of 97 mph.[37] Louis Disbrow took the Detroit Special for a few laps around the track.[38]
  • Sunday May 18: More drivers arrived from Europe, including André Boillot, Paul Bablot, and Louis Wagner. Also arriving in town was Ralph DePalma.[39][40] The track was open for practice, but closed to the public on Sunday. About four or five cars took to the track including Dario Resta and Jean Chassagne in the Sunbeam cars. Resta took some hot laps, while Chassagne took his time. Rene Thomas in the Ballot was observed opening up the throttle down the backstretch, but "loafing" in the turns. George Buzane took some hot laps in one of the I.M.S. Premiers late Sunday afternoon, leading some to think he may attempt to qualify.[38]
  • Monday May 19: Howdy Wilcox was officially named to an I.M.S. entry as a teammate to Jules Goux.[41] The Indianapolis Star published a photograph, purported to be the first-ever picture of the track taken from an airplane.[42] Several drivers, including Tommy Milton, were at Uniontown Speedway for another race, and were expected to arrive at Indianapolis soon.[43]
  • Tuesday May 20: The Sunbeam cars for Jean Chassagne and Dario Resta were ruled ineligible after it was discovered their engines were oversized.[44] Chief engineer Louis Coatalen discovered the infraction, and informed speedway officials that the team was withdrawing from the event. Tom Alley and A. E. Cotey arrived at the Speedway on Tuesday.[45]
  • Wednesday May 21: Many drivers and teams were arriving at the Speedway, but rain and foggy weather was limiting available track time.[46] Charles Kirkpatrick was named to the Detroit Special.[47]
  • Thursday May 22: Rain kept cars off the track.[48] After losing his ride with the withdrawn Sunbeam team, Dario Resta joined the Ballot team, possibly to serve as a relief driver on race day.[49]
  • Friday May 23: Jesse G. Vincent was named the driver of the pace car.[50] Two entries were scratched, the Jay-Bee Special for P.W. Monaghan, and the Hudson for C.W. Johnson.[51]
  • Saturday May 24: The fastest practice lap was made by Ralph DePalma at 98 mph. After many days of rainy weather,[51] sunny conditions saw heavy track activity, including many drivers taking their first laps of the month.[52][53]
  • Sunday May 25: George Buzane crashed and flipped over in the south turns. Buzane and his riding mechanic Carl Weinbrecht were not seriously injured.[54] The track was closed to the public on Sunday.[40]
  • Monday May 26: Denny Hickey blew a tire coming out of turn 2, spun the car around three times, and backed into the inside wall on the backstretch. The car suffered only minor damage. During the afternoon, Howdy Wilcox and Jules Goux took to the track together for many laps over the 90 mph range. Ira Hall was also out on the track. Monday was the final full day of practice available before elimination trials began.[55][56][57]

Time trialsEdit

Time trials were scheduled for three days, May 27–29. Elimination trials consisted of one timed lap. This would be the final time single-lap qualifying runs were used at Indianapolis. In 1920, four-lap time trial runs would be introduced. For the first time, qualifiers would line up in the grid by speed based on the day they qualified. All cars that qualified on the first day would line up by speed rank first, with the fastest qualifier starting on the pole position. The remaining cars that qualified on subsequent days would line up by speed rank behind the first day qualifiers. The cars from the second and third days, however, were merged on the grid. This format was adopted in order to encourage more drivers to qualify early on, instead of waiting until the last minute.

Originally it was planned for all elimination trials to be held on Tuesday, but due to inclement weather, the schedule was expanded to allow Wednesday and Thursday as well.[57] The minimum speed to qualify was set at 80 mph, and the field was set at a maximum of 33 cars. Based on the entries prepared at the track, the expectation was that about six cars would fail to qualify.

In an effort to foil the "bootleg" programs that were being printed and sold in and around the Speedway, car numbers were not assigned until race morning.

Tuesday May 27Edit

The first day of time trials was held Tuesday May 27 starting at 10:00 a.m. Ralph DePalma (98.2 mph) was the first car in the field. Former winner René Thomas shattered the track record with a lap of 104.7 mph to secure the pole position. Thomas went out late in the afternoon, deciding to wait out windy conditions. A total of eleven cars completed runs, all over 90 mph. Howdy Wilcox went out after Thomas, and qualified second with a speed of 100.0 mph.

Pos Name Average Speed
(mph)
1   René Thomas  W  104.7
2   Howdy Wilcox 100.0
3   Albert Guyot 98.3
4   Ralph DePalma  W  98.2
5   Eddie O'Donnell 97.3
6   Paul Bablot  R  94.9
7   Art Klein 94.9
8   Eddie Hearne 94.5
9   Earl Cooper 94.2
10   Ira Vail  R  94.1
11   Charles Kirkpatrick  R  90.0
  • Note: Car numbers not assigned until race morning.

Sources: The Indianapolis Star,[58][59] The Indianapolis News[60]

Wednesday May 28Edit

The second day of time trials was held Wednesday May 28. The qualifiers on the second and third day would line up behind the qualifiers from the first day. Louis Chevrolet drove a Frontenac at a speed of 103.1 mph to be the fastest car of the day. Tommy Milton was on his was to qualifying over 101 mph, but his car slowed, and he managed a lap of only 89.9 mph.

During a practice run, Omar Toft spun in the south turns, but avoided contact and was able to continue around. Two cars, Al Cotey and Dave Lewis, made an attempt but failed to qualify. Cotey was too slow (below the 80 mph minimum) and Lewis suffered engine failure. Both drivers were eligible to try again on Thursday.

A total of 13 cars completed qualifying runs Wednesday, filling the field to 24 cars. The final starting positions, however, for those 13 cars would not be finalized until qualifying was completed on Thursday.

Pos Name Average Speed
(mph)
Notes
12   Louis Chevrolet 103.1
13   Louis Wagner  R  101.7
14   Joe Boyer  R  100.9
15   Ralph Mulford 100.5
16   Gaston Chevrolet  R  100.4
18   Arthur Thurman  R  98.0
20   Cliff Durant  R  96.5
23   Wilbur D'Alene 94.2
25   Louis LeCocq  R  92.9
27   Denny Hickey  R  92.5
29   Elmer T. Shannon  R  91.7
31   Tommy Milton  R  89.9
32   André Boillot  R  89.5
 —    Al Cotey  R  74.6 Below 80 mph minimum
 —    Dave Lewis Incomplete Engine failure
  • Note: Car numbers not assigned until race morning.

Sources: The Indianapolis Star,[61] The Indianapolis News[62]

Thursday May 29Edit

The third and final day of time trials was held Thursday May 29. The day opened with nine spots available in the field.

The 1913 winner Jules Goux was the final car to qualify. During a practice run on Thursday, he suffered a broken piston and broken connecting rod, which blew a hole in the Peugeot's engine block. The Premier team offered him a spare engine, and Goux spent the entire day working to install it. Late in the day, just minutes before sundown, Goux took the car to the track. After one single warm-up lap, he signaled to officials to start the run. His lap of 95 mph bumped James Reynolds, and Goux surprisingly made the field. Not as lucky was Dave Lewis. A day after suffering engine problems, Evans was on his qualifying lap, running over 100 mph. Two-thirds of the way through the lap, the bearings in the engine burned out, and broke the crankcase.

During an exhibition run, Ralph DePalma attempted to set track records in a 950-c.i.d. car, the same car he set records in at Daytona. He failed to break René Thomas's one-lap record from Tuesday, but he did set 5-mile and 10-mile distance speed records.

Pos Name Average Speed
(mph)
Notes
17   W. W. Brown  R  99.8
19   Roscoe Sarles  R  97.75
21   Ray Howard  R  95.0
22   Jules Goux  W  95.0
24   Kurt Hitke  R  93.5
26   Ora Haibe 92.8
28   Tom Alley 92.2
30   Omar Toft  R  91.5
33   J. J. McCoy  R  86.5
 —    James M. Reynolds  R  83.5 Bumped by Goux
 —    Al Cotey  R  82.9 Too slow
 —    Dave Lewis Incomplete Connecting rod
  • Note: Car numbers not assigned until race morning.

Sources: The Indianapolis Star,[63][64] The Indianapolis News[65]

Starting gridEdit

Row Inside Inside Center Outside Center Outside
1   René Thomas  W    Howdy Wilcox   Albert Guyot   Ralph DePalma  W 
2   Eddie O'Donnell   Paul Bablot   Art Klein   Eddie Hearne
3   Earl Cooper   Ira Vail  R    Charles Kirkpatrick  R    Louis Chevrolet
4   Louis Wagner  R    Joe Boyer  R    Ralph Mulford   Gaston Chevrolet  R 
5   William Wayne Brown  R    Arthur Thurman  R    Roscoe Sarles  R    Cliff Durant  R 
6   Ray Howard  R    Jules Goux  W    Wilbur D'Alene   Kurt Hitke  R 
7   Louis LeCocq  R    Ora Haibe   Denny Hickey  R    Tom Alley
8   Elmer T. Shannon  R    Omar Toft  R    Tommy Milton  R    André Boillot  R 
9   J. J. McCoy  R       

AlternatesEdit

  • First alternate: James M. Reynolds[66]

Failed to qualifyEdit


Race recapEdit

The start of the race was scheduled for Saturday May 31 at 11:00 a.m. local time.[67] The facility was closed to the public on Friday, but participants were allowed a brief period of practice time on Friday morning for last-minute preparations. The rest of the day was spent prepping the track by scrubbing the brick surface of oil and debris.[68]

Maurice Becker, the riding mechanic for Howdy Wilcox during the month, was disallowed by his family from participating in the race. He was replaced for the race by Leo Banks just hours before the start.[69]

A crowd estimated at 120,000 arrived at the Speedway, on a hot sunny, Saturday morning. At 8 a.m., the Purdue Band entertained fans.[70] Pace car driver Jesse G. Vincent, with passenger Eddie Rickenbacker, took the field around for one unscored warm-up lap. At a speed of about 80 mph, the field was released for the start. André Boillot's car initially failed to pull away, but eventually got started, and sprinted to catch up to the rest of the field.

First halfEdit

The first half of the race belonged to 1915 winner Ralph DePalma. Depalma led the first 65 laps, and raced at a record pace. With an average speed of over 92 mph, DePalma was shattering existing track records. Though the pace was incredible, his lead was not large. His closest contenders stayed within reach. Louis Chevrolet took the lead for lap 66-74, before giving it back to DePalma. Also in the top five were Earl Cooper, Howdy Wilcox, and René Thomas.[71][72]

Two fatal accidents, taking the lives of three competitors, marred the first half of the race. On lap 45, Arthur Thurman lost control at about 90 mph, swerved to the inside wall on the backstretch, then flipped over three times. Thurman was thrown from the car, and landed about twenty-five feet away. He died about ten minutes later as he was being taken to the hospital.[73][74] His riding mechanic Nicholas Molinaro suffered a fractured skull, but survived.[75]

On the 96th lap, Louis LeCocq and his riding mechanic Robert Bandini lost control and turned over in the exit of turn two. The fuel tank ruptured and burst into flames. Both LeCocq and Bandini were pinned underneath the car, doused with gasoline, and burned to death at the scene.[73][74] With other cars whizzing by, flaming gasoline was spread in all directions, as crews attempted to extinguish the flames.

Second halfEdit

After dominating most of the first half, Ralph DePalma gave up the lead on lap 103 to make a pit stop. DePalma was experiencing tire trouble, and was forced to make long stop to make repairs. DePalma lost about ten laps in the pits, and fell out of contention.

Howdy Wilcox took the lead on lap 103, and led the rest of the way. After major crashes and high attrition in the first half, the second half of the race settled down into a steady pace. Only three cars dropped out in the second half, leaving 14 cars running to complete 500 miles. Wilcox made a pit stop for tires and fuel at some point after the 400 mile mark. He came out of the pits with a two-lap lead over Eddie Hearne, and cruised the rest of the way.

Late in the race, Louis Chevrolet reportedly came into the pits on three wheels. He made repairs, and finished in 7th place. After losing much time in the pits, Ralph DePalma worked his way back up to finish 6th. DePalma nipped Chevrolet at the scoring line by a fraction of a second in the battle for 6th-7th. DePalma led 93 laps, bringing his career total so far to 425 laps led - by far the most of any driver during that era. (DePalma would lead 613 laps in his career).

Box scoreEdit

Finish Start No Name Qual Rank Laps Status
1 2 3   Howdy Wilcox 100.010 7 200 Running
2 8 14   Eddie Hearne 94.500 19 200 Running
3 22 6   Jules Goux  W  95.000 15 200 Running
4 3 32   Albert Guyot 98.300 9 200 Running
5 28 26   Tom Alley 92.200 27 200 Running
6 4 4   Ralph DePalma  W  98.200 10 200 Running
7 12 7   Louis Chevrolet 103.100 2 200 Running
8 10 27   Ira Vail  R  94.100 22 200 Running
9 27 21   Denny Hickey  R  92.500 26 200 Running
10 16 41   Gaston Chevrolet  R  100.400 6 200 Running
11 1 31   René Thomas  W  104.700 1 200 Running
12 9 8   Earl Cooper 94.250 20 200 Running
13 29 23   Elmer T. Shannon  R  91.700 28 200 Running
14 26 17   Ora Haibe 92.800 25 200 Running
15 32 37   André Boillot  R  89.500 32 195 Crash BS
16 21 48   Ray Howard  R  95.000 16 130 Oil pressure
17 23 22   Wilbur D'Alene 94.200 21 120 Axle
18 25 15   Louis LeCocq  R  92.900 24 96 Died in crash at T2
19 7 29   Art Klein 94.900 18 70 Oil line
20 11 19   Charles Kirkpatrick  R  90.000 30 69 Rod
21 6 33   Paul Bablot  R  94.900 17 63 Crash
22 5 10   Eddie O'Donnell 97.300 13 60 Piston
23 24 12   Kurt Hitke  R  93.500 23 56 Rod bearing
24 20 1   Cliff Durant  R  96.500 14 54 Steering
25 31 9   Tommy Milton  R  89.900 31 50 Rod
26 13 34   Louis Wagner  R  101.700 3 44 Broken wheel
27 18 18   Arthur Thurman  R  98.000 11 44 Died in crash at T3
28 30 43   Omar Toft  R  91.500 29 44 Rod
29 15 2   Ralph Mulford 100.500 5 37 Driveshaft
30 33 36   J. J. McCoy  R  86.500 33 36 Oil line
31 14 39   Joe Boyer  R  100.900 4 30 Rear axle
32 17 5   William Wayne Brown  R  99.800 8 14 Rod
33 19 28   Roscoe Sarles  R  97.700 12 8 Rocker arm
[76]

StatisticsEdit

Race detailsEdit

NotesEdit

See alsoEdit

Works citedEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Fox, Jack C. (1994). The Illustrated History of the Indianapolis 500 1911-1994 (4th ed.). Carl Hungness Publishing. p. 22. ISBN 0-915088-05-3.
  2. ^ "120,000 See The Speedway Race". The Indianapolis News. May 31, 1919. p. 1. Retrieved June 3, 2017 – via Newspapers.com. 
  3. ^ "Racing Dates for Local Speedway". The Indianapolis News. December 4, 1918. p. 18. Retrieved May 3, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  4. ^ "Sixth 500 Mile Race Here May 30". The Indianapolis News. December 7, 1919. p. 10. Retrieved May 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  5. ^ "Memorial Day (Editorial)". The Indianapolis News. December 9, 1918. p. 6. Retrieved May 3, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  6. ^ Sturm, William F. (December 16, 1918). "Speedway Race Date is Changed to May 31". The Indianapolis News. p. 17. Retrieved May 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  7. ^ "Cliff Durant First Speedway Race Entry". The Indianapolis News. December 19, 1918. p. 28. Retrieved May 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  8. ^ "Entries Close For Big Race At 12 Tonight (part 1)". The Indianapolis Star. May 1, 1919. p. 14. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  9. ^ "Entries Close For Big Race At 12 Tonight (part 2)". The Indianapolis Star. May 1, 1919. p. 15. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
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  11. ^ "Entries Close For 500-Mile Liberty Event". The Indianapolis Star. May 2, 1919. p. 15. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  12. ^ "Three Trials To Be Given For Position". The Indianapolis Star. May 3, 1919. p. 13. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  13. ^ "Liberty Entries No Number Thirty-Six". The Indianapolis News. May 1, 1919. p. 28. Retrieved May 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  14. ^ "Forty-Two Cars Are Entered in Liberty". The Indianapolis News. May 2, 1919. p. 32. Retrieved May 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
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  23. ^ "Sunbeam and Ballot Cars Real Rivals in Big Classic". The Indianapolis Star. May 10, 1919. p. 12. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  24. ^ "Famous French Pilots Arrive for Big Race". The Indianapolis News. May 9, 1919. p. 30. Retrieved May 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
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  29. ^ "Six Road Racing Kings To Start in Liberty". The Indianapolis News. May 13, 1919. p. 18. Retrieved June 23, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  30. ^ "Resta Tunes Up for Race at Indianapolis Speedway". The Indianapolis Star. May 14, 1919. p. 15. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
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  34. ^ "Thomas Narrowly Escapes Disaster While Tuning Up". The Indianapolis Star. May 16, 1919. p. 12. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
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  36. ^ "500-Mile Classic To be Rubber Contest". The Indianapolis News. May 17, 1919. p. 10. Retrieved July 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  37. ^ "Thomas Sets Speedy Clip at Speedway". The Indianapolis Star. May 18, 1919. p. 25. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
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  39. ^ "Three Foreign Pilots Arrive (part 1)". The Indianapolis Star. May 19, 1919. p. 12. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  40. ^ a b "Three Foreign Pilots Arrive (part 2)". The Indianapolis Star. May 19, 1919. p. 12. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  41. ^ Sturm, William F. (May 20, 1919). "Wilcox Will Team With Goux in Speedway Race". The Indianapolis Star. p. 14. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  42. ^ "First Picture of Speedway From Plan". The Indianapolis Star. May 20, 1919. p. 13. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  43. ^ "Practice Expected Tp Pick Up At Speedway". The Indianapolis News. May 20, 1919. p. 20. Retrieved July 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  44. ^ "Sunbeam Cars Ineligible in Motor Classic". The Indianapolis Star. May 21, 1919. p. 14. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  45. ^ "Sunbeam Cars Out Of 500-Mile Classic". The Indianapolis News. May 21, 1919. p. 18. Retrieved July 6, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  46. ^ "Many Drivers Arriving for the 500-Mile Classic". The Indianapolis Star. May 22, 1919. p. 14. Retrieved May 8, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
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1916 Indianapolis 500
Dario Resta
1919 Indianapolis 500
Howdy Wilcox
1920 Indianapolis 500
Gaston Chevrolet