1861 in science

The year 1861 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

List of years in science (table)




Earth sciencesEdit

History of science and technologyEdit

Medicine and physiologyEdit

Broca's area (in red)



The first colour photograph by James Clerk Maxwell






  1. ^ Kirchhoff, G.; Bunsen, R. (1861). "Chemische Analyse durch Spectralbeobachtungen" (PDF). Annalen der Physik und Chemie. 189 (7): 337–381. Bibcode:1861AnP...189..337K. doi:10.1002/andp.18611890702. hdl:2027/hvd.32044080591324.
  2. ^ Weeks, Mary Elvira (1932). "The discovery of the elements. XIII. Some spectroscopic discoveries". Journal of Chemical Education. 9 (8): 1413–1434. Bibcode:1932JChEd...9.1413W. doi:10.1021/ed009p1413.
  3. ^ Kazansky, B.; Bykov, G. V., eds. (1961). Centenary of the Theory of Chemical Structure: collection of papers by A. M. Butlerov. Moscow: Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
  4. ^ Rzepa, Henry S. (2005). "Joseph Loschmidt: Structural formulae, 1861". Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
  5. ^ "Rotative steam engine by Boulton and Watt, 1788". Collection. Science Museum Group. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  6. ^ "Guillaume Benjamin Amand Duchenne de Boulogne". WhoNamedIt?. Archived from the original on 2011-05-25. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  7. ^ Meyer, Hermann von (1861-08-15). "Vogel-Federn und Palpipes priscus von Solenhofen" [Bird feathers and Palpipes priscus [a crustacean] from Solenhofen]. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefaktenkunde (in German): 561. Aus dem lithographischen Schiefer der Brüche von Solenhofen in Bayern ist mir in den beiden Gegenplatten eine auf der Ablösungs- oder Spaltungs-Fläche des Gesteins liegende Versteinerung mitgetheilt worden, die mit grosser Deutlichkeit eine Feder erkennen lässt, welche von den Vogel-Federn nicht zu unterscheiden ist. (From the lithographic slates of the faults of Solenhofen in Bavaria, there has been reported to me a fossil lying on the stone's surface of detachment or cleavage, in both opposing slabs, which can be recognized with great clarity [to be] a feather, which is indistinguishable from a bird's feather.)
  8. ^ Natural History Museum, London BMNH 37001. Chiappe, Luis M. (2007). Glorified Dinosaurs. Sydney: UNSW Press. pp. 118–146. ISBN 978-0-471-24723-4.
  9. ^ "Fairground Rides – A Chronological Development". National Fairground Archive. University of Sheffield. 2007. Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2011-08-24.
  10. ^ John DeLancy Watkins and Robert Bryson, Mowing Machines, U.S. Patent Reissue 1,904.
  11. ^ "On the rolling of ships." Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects 2 (1861): pp. 180–227; 3 (1862): pp. 45–62.
  12. ^ Greeley, Horace; Case, Leon (1872). The Great Industries of the United States. Hartford: J.B. Burr & Hyde. p. 944.
  13. ^ The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. ISBN 978-1-85986-000-7.
  14. ^ "Copley Medal | British scientific award". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 23 July 2020.