- May 1 – George Frideric Handel begins the tradition of benefit performances of his oratorio Messiah at and for the Foundling Hospital in London.
- Farinelli is knighted by King Ferdinand VI of Spain.
- Ten-year-old Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf begins playing with the Viennese Schottenkirche orchestra.
- Bach dictates Chorale preludes BWV 666 and 667 to pupil and son-in-law Johann Christoph Altnikol. These are then added to the manuscript of the Great Eighteen Chorale Preludes (BWV 668 is added posthumously).
- 1750 is commonly used to mark the end of the Baroque period
- CPE Bach
- Cello Concerto in A minor, H.432
- Harpsichord Concerto in D major, H.433
- Nicolas Chedeville – Les impromptus de Fontainebleau, Op.12
- Francesco Durante – Litania della Beata Maria Vergine in fa minore, a 4 voci
- George Frederic Handel – Theodora, HWV 68 (Oratorio, premiered Mar. 16 in London)
- Niccolo Jommelli – Laudate pueri Dominum
- Leopold Mozart – Partita for Violin, Cello and Double Bass ("Frog")
- Niccolò Pasquali – XII English songs in score. Collected from several masques and other entertainments... (London)
- Approximate date
- January 25 – Johann Gottfried Vierling, German organist and composer (died 1813)
- March 23 – Johannes Matthias Sperger, Austrian contrabassist and composer (died 1812)
- August 18 – Antonio Salieri, Italian-born composer (died 1825)
- November – Anton Stamitz, German composer (died c.1805)
- December 3
- date unknown
- probable – Antonio Rosetti, born Franz Anton Rösler, Bohemian-born composer (died 1792)
- January 4 – Christoph Schütz, German music publisher (born 1689)
- January 29 – Sophia Schröder, Swedish soprano at the Kungliga Hovkapellet (born 1712)
- February 22 – Pietro Filippo Scarlatti, Italian organist, choirmaster and composer (born 1679)
- March 6 – Domenico Montagnana, Italian luthier (born 1686)
- June 2 – Valentin Rathgeber, German composer (born 1682)
- June 14 – Franz Anton Maichelbeck, composer (born 1702)
- July 28 – Johann Sebastian Bach, German composer (born 1685)
- August – John Tufts, American music teacher (born 1689)
- September 4 – José de Cañizares, librettist (born 1676)
- September 15 – Charles Theodore Pachelbel, German-born organist, harpsichordist and composer (born 1690)
- September 28 – Johann Sigismund Scholze, music anthologist (born 1705)
- October 3 – Georg Matthias Monn, Austrian composer (born 1717)
- October 16 – Sylvius Leopold Weiss, German lutenist and composer (born 1687)
- November – Giuseppe Sammartini, Italian-born oboist and composer (born 1695)
- November 11 – Apostolo Zeno, librettist (born 1668)
- November 15 – Pantaleon Hebenstreit, German dance teacher, musician, composer and inventor of the pantalon (born 1668)
- November 25 – Francesco Feroci, composer (born 1673)
- date unknown – Francesco Goffriller, Italian violin maker (born 1692)
- "Recorder Sonata in F major (Rosa, Filippo) - IMSLP: Free Sheet Music PDF Download". imslp.org. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
- Ludger Stühlmeyer: Johann Valentin Rathgeber. Kantor, Komponist und Benediktiner. In: Jahrbuch des Erzbistums Bamberg, 91. Jahrgang 2016. Heinrichs-Verlag Bamberg, Juni 2015, pp. 52–57.
- David, Hans T.; Mendel, Arthur; Wolff, Christoph (1998). The New Bach Reader: A Life of Johann Sebastian Bach in Letters and Documents. New York: W. W. Norton. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-393-31956-9. OCLC 37801400.
- Robert Eitner (1880). "Hebenstreit, Pantaleon". Hebenstreit: Pantaleon H., besonders bekannt durch das von ihm erfundene Schlaginstrument, "Pantaleon" genannt, welches er auch selbst spielte, war geb... Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 11. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig & Wikisource. pp. 196–197. Retrieved 7 September 2015.