Alids

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The Alids (Arabic: بني علي‎, Bani Ali) are an Islamic community and a part of Ahl al-Bayt, found predominantly in the Arab world and other Middle Eastern countries. Alids are the one who were accepted as the descendants of Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, cousin and son-in-law of Islamic prophet Muhammad, through all his wives (through some branches such as Sayyids including the Hasanids, Husaynids and Zaynabids, and Alvis, including the Awans).[1]: 31 

Alids
(Arabic: بنو علي‎)
Ahl al-Bayt of Banu Hashim of the Quraysh of the Adnaniyyun of Banu Ismail
Arabic caligraphic seal in Hagia Sophia.jpg
The name of Ali, respectively written in the Hagia Sophia Mosque, Turkey
Nisbaal-Alawi
LocationArabia (majority)
Middle East
North Africa
Central Asia
Horn of Africa
South Asia
Southeast Asia
Descended fromAli ibn Abi Talib
(Ahl al-Bayt)
Branches
ReligionIslam

HistoryEdit

Primarily Sunnis in the Arab world reserve the term sharif or "sherif" for descendants of Hasan ibn Ali, while sayyid is used for descendants of Husayn ibn Ali. Both Hasan and Husayn are grandchildren of Muhammad, through the marriage of his cousin Ali and his daughter Fatimah. However ever since the post-Hashemite era began, the term sayyid has been used to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn. Arab Shiites use the terms sayyid and habib to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn; see also ashraf.

To try to resolve the confusion surrounding the descendants of Muhammad, the Ottoman Caliphs during the 19th Century C.E. attempted to replicate the Almanach de Gotha (the tome listing the noble houses of Europe) to show known and verifiable lines of descent. Although not 100% complete in its scope (some lines might have been excluded due to lack of proof, although no false lines are included) the resulting "Kitab al-Ashraf" (Book of the Sharifs), kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul is one of the best sources of evidence of descent from Muhammad.

The Awans are descended from Ali's sons, Abbas ibn Ali and Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah.

LinesEdit

There are several dynasties of Alid origin (under two main branches; Sayyids and Alvis):

Genealogical treesEdit

 
Simplified Alid Interrelationships as presented in Burke's Peerage

This is a table of the interrelationships between the different parts of the Alid dynasties:[9]

Family of Alids
Fatimah al-Zahra bint Muhammad (Family tree)Ali al-Murtadha
ibn Abi Talib
Khawlah bint Ja'far
Hasan al-MujtabaHusayn al-SibtMuhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah
MuhammadZaydQasimHasan al-MuthannaBeshrFatimah bint HasanAli Zayn al-AbidinAliAbu HashimHasan
HasanYahyaMuhammadAbdullahTalhaHasanAbu Bakr al-Siddiq
(Family tree)
Hasan (Alavids)MaymūnahUmm al-Husayn[10]AliMuhammad ibn Abi Bakr
Abdullah al-KamilDa'wudHasanIbrahim al-GhamrJa'farMuhammadHasanQasim ibn Muhammad
SulaymanAli al-AbidIsma'ilHasanAliMuhammad al-BaqirUmm Farwah bint al-Qasim
SulaymanidsHusayn
Sahib Fakhkh
Ibrahim
Tabataba
HasanHusayn al-AsgharUmar al-AshrafZaydJa'far al-Sadiq
MuhammadAl-Qasim al-RassiUbaydullahYahyaIdris
Imams
of Yemen
Hasan al-UtrushHasanHusayn
Musa al-JawnYahyaIbrahimIdris al-AkbarMuhammad al-Nafs al-ZakiyyaSulaymanJa'farIsa
IbrahimAliAbdullahIdrisids of
Morocco
,
Hammudids
of Spain
and Senussids of Libya
Alaouites of Morocco
and Saadids of Morocco
Sulaymanids
of the Maghrib
Sharifs
of Sus
Yahya ibn Umar ibn Yahya ibn Husayn ibn Zayd al-Kufi
Yusuf
al-Ukhaidhir
Husayn
al-Ukhaidhir
Isma'il ibn Ja'farAbdullah al-AftahMusa
al-Kadhim
Ishaq al-Mu'taminMuhammad al-Dibaj
Banu al-UkhaidhirMusaSalihSulaymanMuhammad ibn Isma'ilMuhammad ibn AbdullahAli
al-Ridha
AhmadAli al-Uraidhi
Muhammad ibn YusufBanu Qatadah of Mecca & Banu FulaytaBanu Salih
of Ghana
Sulaymanids
of Mecca and Jizan
Hidden Isma’ili ImāmsMuhammad
al-Jawad
Yusuf ibn MuhammadFatimid caliphsAli al-HadiMusa al-Mubarraqa
Ismāʿīl ibn YusufMuhammadMusta'liNizarHasan
al-Askari
MuhammadJa'far
Hassan ibn IsmāʿīlAl-HafizAl-AmirImams of AlamutMuhammad
al-Mahdi
Ahmad ibn HassanAl-ZafirAl-TayyibAga Khans
Abu'l-Muqallid Ja'far[11]Fatimid caliphs

Below is a simplified family tree of Hasan and Husayn ibn Ali. For the ancestors of ibn Ali see the family tree of Muhammad and the family tree of Ali. People in italics are considered by the majority of Sunni and Shia Muslims to be Ahl al-Bayt (People of the House). The Twelver Shia also see the 4th to 12th Imamah as Ahl al-Bayt.

Family tree of Hasan ibn AliEdit

The Hashemites of Sharifate of Mecca, Kings of Jordan, Syria and Iraq are descended from Hasan ibn Ali:[dubious ]

 
Genealogical tree of the Hashemite family showing their descent from Muhammad,[12] [13] which is contradictory to the previous family tree of Hasan ibn Ali in some parts.

[14][15][16]

The Alaouites, Kings of Morocco, are also descended from Hasan ibn Ali through Al-Hassan Ad-Dakhil[dubious ]:

 
Genealogical tree of the Alouite family showing their descent from Muhammad.[17][18]

Genealogoical chart of the descent from Muhammad of the Idrisid dynasty, rulers of Fez and Morocco, Kings of Tunis, and the Senussi dynasty, founders and heads of the Libyan Senussi Order and Kings of Libya are also descended from Hasan ibn Ali through Idris al-Azhar.

 
Genealogical tree of the Idrisid and the Senussi family showing their descent from Muhammad.[18]

Family tree of Husayn ibn AliEdit

The kin which ruled over Medina were descended from the other brother Husayn ibn Ali.

Muhammad
(Islamic prophet and messenger)
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
FatimahAli
(4th Sunni Rashidun Caliph)
Muhsin ibn AliHasan ibn Ali
(5th Sunni Rashidun Caliph)
Husayn ibn AliUmm Kulthum bint AliZaynab bint Ali
ShahrbanuRubab bint Imra al-QaisLayla bint Abi Murrah al-ThaqafiUmm Ishaq bint Talhah
Fatima SughraSakinah bint HusaynAli al-Asghar ibn HusaynSukayna bint HusaynAli al-Akbar ibn HusaynFatimah bint Husayn
Mother of ‘UmarAli ibn Husayn
4th Twelver/Zaidi and 3rd Musta'li/Nizari Imam
Fatimah bint al-HasanJayda al-SindhiAli al-Akbar ibn Husayn
‘Umar al-AshrafMuhammad al-Baqir
5th Twelver and 4th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
Farwah bint al-Qasim
(Umm Farwa)
Zayd ibn Ali
5th Zaidi Imam
Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn
‘AlīHamidah KhatunJa'far al-Sadiq
6th Twelver and 5th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram bin al-Hasan bin AliZaynab bint Husayn
al-ḤasanMusa al-Kadhim
7th Twelver Imam
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-SadiqIsma'il ibn Jafar
6th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
UnknownUmm Kulthum bint Husayn
‘AlīUmmul Banīn Najmah
al-Nāṣir al-KabīrAli ar-Ridha
8th Twelver Imam
Sabīkah a.k.a. KhayzurānMuhammad ibn Ismail
7th Sevener/Musta'li/Nizari Imam
Fatima
SumānahMuhammad al-Taqi
9th Twelver Imam
UnknownAhmad al-Wafi
8th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
Other issue
Ali al-Hadi
10th Twelver Imam
Hâdise (Hadīthah) / Suzan (Sūsan) / Sevil (Savīl)Other issueMuhammad at-Taqi
9th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
Unknown
Hasan al-Askari
11th Twelver Imam
NarjisRabi Abdullah
10th Musta'li/Nizari Imam
Muhammad al-Mahdi
12th Twelver Imam

Family tree of Abbas ibn AliEdit

This is a simplified family tree of Abbas ibn Ali.

Ali ibn Abi Talib (4th Caliph)Umm al-Banin Fatimah bint Huzam
Lubaba bint UbaydillahAbbas ibn Ali (Haydar II)
Ubaydullah
Al-Hasan
Hamza
Ja'far
Ali
Qasim
Tayyar
Qasim
Hamza
Yaala
Abdullah Awn (Qutb Shah)
Awans

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Parwej, Mohammad Khalid (2015). 365 days with Sahabah. Goodword Books. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  2. ^ Ibn Khaldoun, Histoire des Berbères, 2003, Berti, Alger.
  3. ^ الاسحاقي الصومالي, عبدالرحمن. كتاب تحفة المشتاق لنسب السيد اسحاق.
  4. ^ يحيى, بن نصر الله الهرري. مناقب الشيخ أبادر- متحف الشريف عبد الله في هرر.
  5. ^ Zaylaʻī, ʻAbd al-Raḥmān Shaykh Maḥmūd; زيلعي، عبد الرحمن شيخ محمود. (2018). al-Ṣūmāl ʻurūbatuhā wa-ḥaḍāratuhā al-Islāmīyah = Somalia's Arabism and Islamic civilization (al-Ṭabʻah al-ūlá ed.). Dubayy. ISBN 978-9948-39-903-2. OCLC 1100055464.
  6. ^ Kathryn Babayan, Mystics, Monarchs and Messiahs: Cultural Landscapes of Early Modern Iran, Cambridge, Massachusetts ; London : Harvard University Press, 2002. p. 143: "It is true that during their revolutionary phase (1447-1501), Safavi guides had played on their descent from the family of the Prophet. The hagiography of the founder of the Safavi order, Shaykh Safi al-Din Safvat al-Safa written by Ibn Bazzaz in 1350-was tampered with during this very phase. An initial stage of revisions saw the transformation of Safavi identity as Sunni Kurds into Arab blood descendants of Muhammad."
  7. ^ R.M. Savory, "Safavid Persia" in: Ann Katherine Swynford Lambton, Peter Malcolm Holt, Bernard Lewis, The Cambridge History of Islam, Cambridge University Press, 1977. p. 394: "They (Safavids after the establishment of the Safavid state) fabricated evidence to prove that the Safavids were Sayyids."
  8. ^ RM Savory, Safavids, Encyclopedia of Islam, 2nd ed.
  9. ^ Daftary, Farhad. "ʿAlids." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Brill Online, 2014.
  10. ^ Al-Yasin, Shaykh Radi. "1". Sulh al-Hasan. Jasim al-Rasheed. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 4.
  11. ^ Madelung, "Al-Ukhaydir," p. 792
  12. ^ The Hashemites: Jordan's Royal Family
  13. ^ Stitt, George (1948). A Prince of Arabia, the Amir Shereef Ali Haider. George Allen & Unwin, London.
  14. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press.
  15. ^ Antonius, George (1946). The Arab Awakening. Capricorn Books, New York.
  16. ^ The Hashemites, 1827-present
  17. ^ "Morocco (Alaoui Dynasty)". Usa-morocco.org. Archived from the original on 2005-08-29. Retrieved 2014-01-01.
  18. ^ a b Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (1980). Burke's Royal Families of the World: Africa & the Middle East. Burke's Peerage.

External linksEdit

  • Descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib (Dynastie des Alides, in French):[1]
  • Moroccan branch of the Alids (among which the members of the (royal) Alaouite dynasty of Morocco): [2]
  • Idrisid branch of the Alids (among which the members of the (royal) Idrissid dynasty of Morocco): [3]
  • Fatimid branch [4]