The Azd (Arabic: أَزْد) or Al-Azd (Arabic: ٱلْأَزْد) is one of the largest Arab tribes which descended from the Nabat. They immigrated from southern Arabia after the collapse of Ma'rib Dam, much of the Azd tribe left Marib and dispersed.[circular reference] The tribe descended from Ishmael.
|Nabataeanite Arab tribe|
|Descended from||Al-Azd bin al-Ghuth bin Nabıt|
Lineage of Azd (Father of the tribe)Edit
Al-Azd passes lineage through ancient ancestors that inhabited the Fertile Crescent, before moving to Northwest of the Arabian Peninsula, this has stirred up controversy among the scholars since they pass through the same Lineage that the Qedarites (Such as Quraysh) have, as opposed to the Qahtanites who pass lineage through ancestors that inhabited Southern Arabia. However, few scholars have said Nabit was the son of Malik bin Zayd bin Kahlan bin Saba bin Yaman bin Yarub bin Qahtan bin Abir (there are also the same number of generations between Ismail and Abir).
|١||وَحارِثَةَ الغِطريفِ مَجداً مُؤَثَّلا||وَرِثنا مِنَ البُهلولِ عَمروُ بنِ عامِرٍ|
|٢||وَنَبتَ اِبنِ إِسماعيلَ ما إِن تَحَوَّلا||مَواريثَ مِن أَبناءِ نَبتِ بنِ مالِكٍ|
As well as Ibn Kathir (One of the most authentic scholars) said:
In which he included Azd Shanū’ah.
Genetic studies and anthropologyEdit
Scientific research studies have shown that the tribe Alazd belong to the breed descended from the far north of the Arabian Peninsula, specifically from the Fertile Crescent area.
Imran bin AmrEdit
Imran bin Amr and the bulk of the tribe went to Oman, where they established the Azdi presence in Eastern Arabia. Later they invaded Karaman and Shiraz in Southern Persia, and these came to be known as "Azd Daba". Another branch headed west back to Yemen, and a group went further west all the way to Tihamah on the Red Sea. This group would be known as "Azd Uman" after the emergence of Islam.
Jafna bin AmrEdit
Jafna bin Amr and his family headed for Syria, where he settled and initiated the kingdom of the Ghassanids. They were so named after a spring of water where they stopped on their way to Syria. This branch was to produce:
- The Ghassanid dynasty in Syria
- A Byzantine dynasty (the Byzantine Emperor Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian, ruled 717-741 CE)
Thalabah bin AmrEdit
Thalabah bin Amr left his tribe Al-Azd for the Hijaz and dwelt between Thalabiyah and Dhi Qar. When he gained strength, he headed for Yathrib, where he stayed. Of his seed is the great tribe Khazraj, sons of Haritha bin Thalabah. These were to be the Muslim Ansar and were to produce the last Arab dynasty in Spain (the Nasrids).
Haritha bin AmrEdit
Haritha bin Amr led a branch of the Azd tribes. He wandered with his tribe in the Hijaz until they came to the Tihamah. He had three sons Adi, Afsa and Lahi. Adiy was the father of Bariq, Lahi the father of Khuza'a and Afsa, the father of Aslam.
Azd | .--------------+------------. | | Mazin Shahnvah | | .----------+----------. .--------+-----------. | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Samala (Banu) Daws Haddan Thalabah Haritha Jafna | | (Ghassanids/The Ghassinids) .--+----. | | | |_________________ (Banu) Aws (Banu) Khuza'a/Khazraj | | .-----+---+----------. | | | Adi Afsa Lohay | | | Bariq Aslam (Banu) Khuza'a | | Salaman Mustalik
The Zahran tribe is an ancient Arabian offshoot of the Azd tribe, also originating from the Kingdom of the Northern part of the Arabian peninsula. The shortage of water prompted them to relocate to Al-Bahah in the Arabian Peninsula. Of this tribe branched the tribe of Aws .Today members of the Zahran tribe can be found all over the Middle East and beyond. According to Arab scholars, the dialect used by the Hejazi tribes, the Zahran and the Ghamid, is the closest to classical Arabic.
The Azd 'Uman were the dominant Arab tribe in the eastern realms of the Caliphate and were the driving force in the conquest of Fars, Makran and Sindh. They were the chief merchant group of Oman and Al-Ubulla, who organized a trading diaspora with settlements of Persianized Arabians on the coasts of Kirman and Makran, extending into Sindh since the days of Ardashir. They were strongly involved in the western trade with India and with the expansion of the Muslim conquests they began to consolidate their commercial and political authority on the eastern frontier. During the early years of the Muslim conquests the Azdi ports of Bahrain and Oman were staging grounds for Muslim naval fleets headed to Fars and Hind. From 637 CE the conquests of Fars and Makran were dominated by the Azdi and allied tribes from Oman. Between 665 CE and 683 CE the Azdi 'Uman became especially prominent due in Basra on account of favors from Ziyad ibn Abihi, the Governor of Muawiya I, and his son Ubaidullah. When a member of their tribe Abu Said Al- Muhallab ibn Abi Sufra became governor their influence and wealth increased as he extended Muslim conquests to Makran and Sindh, where so many other Azdi were settled. After his death in 702, though, they lost their grip on power with the rise of Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf as governor of Iraq. Al-Hajjaj pursued a systematic policy of breaking Umayyad power, as a result of which the Azdi also suffered. With the death of Hajjaj and under Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik as Caliph, their fortunes reversed once again, with the appointment of Yazid ibn al-Muhallab.
Influential people or branches of AzdEdit
- The Ghassanids
- The Banu Tanukh
- The Nasrid dynasty of Al-Andalus
- The Al Said dynasty of Oman
- Abu Dawood, collector of hadiths
- Ibn Duraid
- Kuthayyir, Arab poet
- Jābir ibn Zayd, the co-founder of the Ibadi sect of Islam
- Tribe of Balgarn (Al Garni) or ( Al-Qarni)
- Bani Shehr
- Zahran tribe
- Tribe of Bariq
- Hudhayfah al-Bariqi
- Khalil ibn Ahmad
- Urwah al-Bariqi
- Arfaja al-Bariqi
- Humaydah al-Bariqi
- Ibn Al-Thahabi
- Ibn al-Banna
- Jamilah bint Adwan
- Asma bint Adiy al-Bariqiyyah
- Al Muhallab ibn Abi Suffrah
- Fatimah bint Sa'd
- Suraqah al-Bariqi
- Ibn Al-Thahabi
- Banu Khazraj
- Billasmar (AL-Asmari)
- Jamilah bint Adwan
- Balahmer (Al-Ahmari)
- Bani Amr (Al-Amri)
- Amr ibn Khalid
- Umm al-Khair
- Dawasir (Al Dawasir)
- Bani Malik
- "Azd", G. Strenziok, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. I, ed. H. A. R. Gibb, J. H. Kramers, E. Levi-Provençal, J. Schacht (Brill, 1986), 811.
- نسب معد و اليمن الكبير - ابن الكلبي - الصفحة 362
- "أزد - ويكيبيديا". ar.m.wikipedia.org (in Arabic). Retrieved 2020-11-01.
- The pre Islamic Arabia tribes
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- Constructing Al-Azd: Tribal Identity and Society in the Early Islamic Centuries. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-549-63443-0. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- The Role of the Arab Tribes in the East During the Period of the Umayyads (40/660-132/749). Al-Jamea's Press. 1978. pp. 35, 34. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
- Muhammad Suwaed (2015). Historical Dictionary of the Bedouins. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 261. ISBN 9781442254510.
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- Wink pg 51-52;"It is not accident that, among the Arabs, the Tribe of the Azd 'Uman were instrumental in the conquest of Fars, Makran and Sind, and that for some time they became the dominant Arab tribe in the eastern caliphate."
- Ibn Khallikan wafayat alayan p. 524. alwarraq edition.
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