Zabarwan Range

The Zabarwan Range is a short (20 mi (32 km) long) sub-mountain range between Pir Panjal and Great Himalayan Range in the central part of the Kashmir Valley in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir in India.[1][2]

Zabarwan Range
Dal lake 2.jpg
Reflection of snow covered Zabarwan mountains in the Dal Lake
Highest point
PeakMahadev Peak
Elevation3,966 m (13,012 ft)
Coordinates34°09′09″N 74°59′14″E / 34.152443°N 74.987268°E / 34.152443; 74.987268
Length20 mi (32 km) N-W
Width8 mi (13 km)
StateJammu and Kashmir
RegionKashmir Valley
DistrictsSrinagar, Pulwama and Ganderbal
Range coordinates34°08′27″N 74°58′08″E / 34.140934°N 74.968898°E / 34.140934; 74.968898Coordinates: 34°08′27″N 74°58′08″E / 34.140934°N 74.968898°E / 34.140934; 74.968898


Nishat Bagh in the lap of the Zabarwans

The Zabarwan Range borders the central part of the Kashmir Valley in the east. Literally it is the mountain range between Sind Valley and Lidder Valley on the north and south, and between the Zanskar Range and Jehlum Valley on the east and west, respectively.[3] Specifically the range is known to be what overlooks the Dal Lake and holds the Mughal gardens of Srinagar. The north end of the range lies in Ganderbal, while the south end lies in Pampore. The Shankaracharya Temple is built on the edge of the central part of the Zabarwan Range. The highest peak of this range is Mahadev Peak at 13,013 feet (3,966 m), which forms the distant background of the eastern mountain wall.[2][4][5][6][7]

On the northern slopes of the central part of the range there are three Mughal gardens built by Emperor Shah Jahan. These include Chashma Shahi, Nishat Bagh and Shalimar Garden alongside the Pari Mahal (the fairy palace). The recently built Indira Gandhi Memorial Tulip Garden in the lap of the Zabarwans is considered the largest tulip garden of Asia spread over 12 hectares of land.[8]


The Zabarwan mountain range possesses great Himalayan features with rich wildlife. The Dachigam National Park, spread over 141 km2, is the main feature of the range. The Dachigam National Park holds the last viable population of Kashmir stag (Hangul) and the largest population of black bear in Asia. The range is also home to musk deer, leopard, Himalayan brown bear, leopard cat, jungle cat, red fox, jackal, Himalayan wolf, serow, Himalayan yellow-throated marten, long-tailed marmot, Indian porcupine, Himalayan mouse-hare, langur and Himalayan weasel.[2][3][9][10]


The climate of the Zabarwans can be summed up from the climate of Dachigam. It is a sub-Mediterranean type, with two spells of dryness from April to June and September to November. The range has irregular weather conditions with a considerable variation in the amount of precipitation. Snow is the main source of precipitation, and in some parts melts till June. The annual minimum and maximum rainfall of the Zabarwans ranges between 32 mm to 546 mm.[2][3]

Panorama of the Zabarwans


The crystalline axis of the Himalayan system contains the oldest rocks, and in the northern flank of this crystalline axis are found fossiliferous sediments of marine origin. The Zabarwan Range has crystalline rocks such as granite, schists and phyllites with embedded limestone, which form the core of its parent range. The western region from Khanmoh to the east of Mahadev consists of shale, calacarious slates and blue limestone. The sediments composing this range have been laid from Cambrian to Tertiary. The soil depth in Dachigam on the slope from lower to middle reaches is less than 25 cm, and hence falls under the category of very shallow soils.[3][11]


  1. ^ "First record of Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica in the Kashmir Himalaya, India" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d "Srinagar City History". Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d "MANAGEMENT PLAN (2011-2016) DACHIGAM NATIONAL PARK" (PDF). Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  4. ^ Mitra (2013). Jammu & Kashmir: Travel Guide. India. Ministry of Tourism. ISBN 9789380262451.
  5. ^ Tikoo, C.T.K. Kashmir: Its Aborigines and Their Exodus. Lancer Publishers LLC. ISBN 9781935501589.
  6. ^ "Mahadev Peak". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.
  7. ^ "SOME EARLY ASTRONOMICAL SITES IN KASHMIR (INDIA)" (PDF). Journal of Astronomical History.
  8. ^ "Asias largest Tulip garden opens in Kashmir". Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  9. ^ "Kashmir conflict spares wildlife". Retrieved 4 December 2013.
  10. ^ Valmik Thapar (1977). Land of the Tiger: A Natural History of the Indian Subcontinent. University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 9780520214705.
  11. ^ "The making of the Himalaya". CGUC. Archived from the original on 23 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.

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