Yola language

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Yola, historically the Forth and Bargy dialect, is a revived Anglic language once spoken in the baronies of Forth and Bargy in County Wexford, Ireland. It is thought to have evolved from Middle English, which was brought to Ireland during the Norman invasion, beginning in 1169. As such, it was similar to the Fingallian dialect of the Fingal area. Both became functionally extinct in the 19th century, when they were replaced by modern Hiberno-English, although Yola was not officially extinct until the death of the last speaker, a local fisherman of Kilmore Quay named Jack Devereux in 1998.[2] The name "Yola" means "old" in the language.[3]

Yola
Forth and Bargy, Forth and Bargy dialect
Native toIreland
RegionCounty Wexford
Extinct1998, with the death of Jack Devereux
RevivalAttempted revival, with 140 L2 speakers (no date)[1]
Early forms
Language codes
ISO 639-3yol
Glottologeast2834
yola1237
Linguasphere52-ABA-bd
Yola hut refurbished in Tagoat, County Wexford, Ireland

HistoryEdit

 
 
Forth and Bargy
Forth and Bargy shown within Ireland

The language was spoken in County Wexford, particularly in the baronies of Forth and Bargy. This was the first area English-speakers came to in the Norman invasion of Ireland, supporting the theory that it evolved from the Middle English introduced in that period. As such it is thought to have been similar to Fingallian, which was spoken in the Fingal region north of Dublin. Middle English, the mother tongue of the "Old English" community, was widespread throughout southeastern Ireland until the 14th century; as the Old English were increasingly assimilated into Irish culture, their original language was gradually displaced through Gaelicisation. After this point, Yola and Fingallian were the only attested relicts of this original form of English.[4][5]

Modern English was widely introduced by British colonists during and after the 17th century, forming the basis for the modern Hiberno-English of Ireland. The new varieties were notably distinct from the surviving relict dialects.[4][5] As English continued to spread, both Yola and the Fingallian died out in the 19th century, though Yola continued to be used as a liturgical language by the churches of Wexford well into the 20th century, to this day the Kilmore Choir sings what were once Yola tunes, now anglicized.

The speech of Forth and Bargy was the only kind in Ireland included in Alexander John Ellis's work On Early English Pronunciation Volume V, which was the earliest survey of “dialects of English”. The phonetics of the language were taken from a local reverend.[6]

Revival and use after the mid 19th centuryEdit

Though Yola ceased to be used as a means of daily communication after the mid 19th century, it continued to see significant usage as a liturgical language, and some personal usage within the linguist community of Ireland, such as Kathleen Browne's letter to Ireland dated to 10 April 1893. County Wexford native Paddy Berry is noted for his condensed performances of the piece "A Yola Zong" which he has performed for various recordings, the latest of which was in 2017.[7] Various Yola rhymes, passed down from generation to generation, can be heard spoken by a Wexford woman in a documentary recorded in 1969 on the present usage and rememberers of Yola in the former baronies of Forth and Bargy.[8] Yola Farmstead, a community-operated reenactment of a Forth and Bargy village as it would have been during the 18th century, delivered a speech and performance of a song in Yola at their opening ceremony, featured Yola phrases in their advertisements, and hosted events where participants could learn some of the language from linguists and other experts on it. The Yola Farmstead also hosted a memorial event dedicated to Jack Devereux of the Kilmore Choir, which once used Yola extensively in their Christmas services.[9] Devereux was a preservationist of, and well-versed in Yola, locals considered him to be the last native speaker of the language, and at said memorial a rendition of the Lord's Prayer, translated into Yola was read. The Yola Farm has since closed down but there have been efforts beginning in 2021 of reopening it.[10] Wikitongues also has a section dedicated to Yola on their website which hosts language documentation and revitalization resources.[11] There also exists various groups focused on reviving the Yola language.[12]

PhonologyEdit

As in the Dutch language, in southwestern varieties of English and (to a lesser extent) in German, most voiceless fricatives in Yola became voiced. The Middle English vowels are well-preserved, having only partially and sporadically undergone the changes associated with the Great Vowel Shift.[13]

One striking characteristic of Yola was the fact that stress shifted to the second syllable of words in many instances: morsaale "morsel", hatcheat "hatchet", dineare "dinner", readeare "reader", weddeen "wedding", etc.[14]

PronunciationEdit

Consonants:

  • ⟨ch⟩ variably pronounced as in Dutch ik, example barich pronounced as in English ick, or as in English itch, such as in ditch
  • ⟨gh⟩ – a guttural sound the same as the ⟨gh⟩ in lough ([ɣ] or [x])

Vowels:

  • ⟨eou⟩ (ɛu)
  • ⟨oo⟩ (o as in boot) ([uː])
  • ⟨ee⟩ (e as in bee) ([iː])
  • ⟨aa⟩ (as in man but longer) ([aː])
  • ⟨a⟩ is in "cat" ([a])
  • ⟨á⟩ as in "father" ([ɑ])
  • ⟨e⟩ as in "let" ([ɛ])
  • ⟨é⟩ as in "may" ([e])
  • ⟨i⟩ as in "bit" ([ɪ])
  • ⟨í⟩ (ee) as in "bee" ([i])
  • ⟨o⟩ as in "spot" ([ɔ])
  • ⟨ó⟩ as in "boat" (cot–coat merger) ([o])
  • ⟨u⟩ as in "boot", but shorter ([u])
  • ⟨ú⟩ as in "boot' ([u])
  • ⟨y⟩ as a mix between the i in spin and the ee in "bee' (possibly [ʏ])
  • ⟨ý⟩ an oiy sound not in English ([ɑi])
  • ⟨e⟩ at the end of a word is pronounced, but only short (examples: ross-laar-e (rosslaaré), moidh-e (mýdhe))

GrammarEdit

PronounsEdit

Yola pronouns were similar to Middle English pronouns.[15]

Pronouns
First Person Second Person Third Person
singular plural singular plural used for singular:
polite or formal singular
plural singular plural
nom. ich wough, wee thou ye ye hea, he shoo *it thye; hi
obj. mee ouse thee ye *ye him her it aam
possessive mee oore, oor, oure, our thee yer *yer his aar
reflexive meezil ourzels theezil yerzel himzil *herzil aamzil

ArticlesEdit

The definite article was at first a or ee, which was later replaced by the.[citation needed]

VerbEdit

Yola verbs had some conservative characteristics. The second and third person plural endings were sometimes -eth as in Chaucerian English. The past participle retained the Middle English "y" prefix as "ee".[16]

NounsEdit

Some nouns retained the -en plural of ME children, such as been 'bees' and tren 'trees'.[citation needed]

VocabularyEdit

The glossary compiled by Jacob Poole provides most of what is known about the Forth and Bargy vocabulary. Poole was a farmer and member of the Religious Society of Friends from Growtown in the Parish of Taghmon on the border between the baronies of Bargy and Shelmalier.[17] He collected words and phrases from his tenants and farm labourers between 1800 and his death in 1827.

Although most of its vocabulary is Anglo-Saxon in origin, Yola contains many borrowings from Irish and French.

Interrogative wordsEdit

English Yola Scots West Frisian Low German
(Low Saxon)
Dutch German Gothic
who fho wha
fa (Doric Scots)
wa wer/wel/wokeen wie wer ƕas
what fade whit
fit (Doric Scots)
wat wat wat was ƕat
when fan whan
fan (Doric Scots)
wannear wanneer wanneer wann ƕan
where fidi whaur
faur (Doric Scots)
wêr wo/woneem waar wo ƕar
why farthoo why
fit wye (Doric Scots)
wêrom worüm waarom warum
which wich whilk hokker welk welk welche ƕileiks
how fowe hou
foo (Doric Scots)
hoe wo/woans hoe wie ƕai

PrepositionsEdit

English Yola Scots Frisian Low Saxon Dutch German
about abut aboot om/rûn üm/rund om/rond um/rund
above aboo abuin boppe baven boven über
against ayenst agin tsjin gegen tegen gegen
among amang amang ûnder/tusken mang/twüschen onder/tussen unter/zwischen
around arent aroond om üm om/rond um
at/by adh/bee at/by by bi om/bij bei
before avar afore foar vöör voor vor
below/beneath/under aloghe ablo/aneath/unner ûnder (to)neddern/nedder, ünnen/ünner beneden/onder unten/unter
beside/next to besithe/neeshte aside/neist nêst/njonken blangen/neven bezijden/naast/neven neben
between/betwixt/'twixt betweesk/beteesh atween/atweesh (be)tusken twüschen tussen zwischen
for vor for foar för voor für
from vrom/vrem/vreem frae fan van, von, vun van von
in i/ing in yn in in in
out ut/udh oot út ut, uut uit aus
over ower/oer ower oer över over über
through trugh throch troch dörch, dör, döör door durch
upon apan/pa upon/upo' op up, op op auf
with wee wi mei mit met mit

Pronouns and determinersEdit

English Forth and Bargy Scots Frisian Low Saxon Dutch German
all aul aw al all al alle
any aany/aught ony elts enig enig, eender einige
each, every earchee, earch/erich/everich ilk, ilka/ivery eltse elk, jeed/jeedeen elk, ieder jeder
few vew few/a wheen min wenig weinig wenig
neither nother naither noch noch noch weder
none, nothing noucht, nodhing nane, nocht nimmen, neat nüms, nix niemand, niets/niks kein(e), nichts
other ooree/oree ither oar anner ander, andere andere
some zim some guon welke sommige einige
this, that dhicke, dhicka this, that dizze, dat disse, dit, düsse, düt; dit, deze, dat dieser, diese, dieses;

Other wordsEdit

English Forth and Bargy Scots Frisian Low Saxon Dutch German Irish
Wexford Weisforthe Wexford "Wexford" "Wexford" "Wexford"
(lit. "West-voorde")
"Wexford"
(lit. "Westfurt")
Loch Garman
sun zin sun sinne Sünn zon Sonne [zɔnə] grian
land loan, lhoan laund lân Land land Land talamh, tír
day dei, die day dei Dag dag Tag
yourself theezil yersel dysels du sülvst/sülven jezelf du selbst [du zɛlpst], du selber tú féin
friend vriene fere freon Fründ vriend Freund cara
the a, ee the de, it de, den, dat de, het der, die, das, des, dem, den an, na
thing dhing hing ting Ding ding Ding rud, ní
go goe gae/gang/gan gean gaan gaan gehen dul (go), imeacht (go away), gabháil (go along)
fear vear/egast fear frees Forcht, Bang, Angst vrees, angst Furcht, Angst eagla
old yola, yole auld âld oold, oll- oud alt sean, seanda, aosta

Cardinal numbersEdit

Yola Dorset dialect English Frisian German Dutch
1 oan one one ien eins een
2 twy, tywe, twee, twine, twyne two two twa zwei twee
3 dhree dree three trije drei drie
4 vour, voure vower four fjouwer vier vier
5 veeve vive five fiif fünf vijf
6 zeese zix six seis sechs zes
7 zeven zeven seven sân sieben zeven
8 ayght aïght eight acht acht acht
9 neen nine nine njoggen neun negen
10 dhen ten ten tsien zehn tien
20 dwanty twenty tweintich zwanzig twintig
30 dhirtee thirty tritich dreißig dertig
100 hunderth, hundreth, hindreth hundred hûndert hundert honderd

Modern South Wexford EnglishEdit

 
Traditional thatched cottage near Bannow Bay in Bargy
 
Yola farm refurbished in Tagoat, County Wexford

Diarmaid Ó Muirithe travelled to South Wexford in 1978 to study the English spoken there.[18] His informants ranged in age between 40 and 90. Among the long list of words still known or in use at that time are the following:

  • Amain: ‘going on amain’ = getting on well
  • Bolsker: an unfriendly person
  • Chy: a little
  • Drazed: threadbare
  • Fash: confusion, in a fash
  • Keek: to peep
  • Saak: to sunbathe, to relax in front of the fire
  • Quare: very, extremely
  • Wor: seaweed

Amain is a Norman word which means 'of easy use'.[citation needed]

ExamplesEdit

A Yola songEdit

The following is a song in Yola with a rough translation into English.

A Yola Zong.

Fade teil thee zo lournagh, co Joane, zo knaggee?
Th' weithest all curcagh, wafur, an cornee.
Lidge w'ouse an a milagh, tis gaay an louthee:
Huck nigher; y'art scuddeen; fartoo zo hachee?

Well, gosp, c'hull be zeid; mot thee fartoo, an fade;
Ha deight ouse var gabble, tell ee zin go t'glade.
Ch'am a stouk, an a donel; wou'll leigh out ee dey.
Th' valler w'speen here, th' lass ee chourch-hey.

Yerstey w'had a baree, gist ing oor hoane,
Aar gentrize ware bibbern, aamzil cou no stoane.
Yith Muzleare had ba hole, t'was mee Tommeen,
At by mizluck was ee-pit t'drive in.

Joud an moud vrem earchee ete was ee Lough.
Zitch vaperreen, an shimmereen, fan ee-daf ee aar scoth!
Zitch blakeen, an blayeen, fan ee ball was ee-drowe!
Chote well aar aim was t'yie ouz n'eer a blowe.

Mot w'all aar boust, hi soon was ee-teight
At aar errone was var ameing 'ar 'ngish ee-height.
Zitch vezzeen, tarvizzeen, 'tell than w'ne'er zey.
Nore zichel ne'er well, nowe, nore ne'er mey.

(There are nine more verses.)

An Old Song.

What ails you so melancholy, quoth John, so cross?
You seem all snappish, uneasy, and fretful.
Lie with us on the clover, 'tis fair and sheltered:
Come nearer; you're rubbing your back; why so ill-tempered?

Well, gossip, it shall be said; you ask what ails me, and for what;
You have put us in talk, till the sun goes to set.
I am a fool, and a dunce; we'll idle out the day.
The more we spend here, the less in the churchyard.

Yesterday we had a goal, just in our hand.
Their gentry were quaking, themselves could not stand.
If Good-for-little had been buried, it had been my Tommy,
Who by misluck was placed to drive in.

Throngs and crowds from each quarter were at the Lough;
Such vapouring, and shimmering, when stript in their shirts!
Such bawling, and shouting, when the ball was thrown!
I saw their aim was to give us ne'er a stroke.

But with all their bravado, they soon were taught
That their errand was aiming to bring anguish upon them.
Such driving, struggling, 'till then we ne'er saw.
Nor such never will, no, nor never may.

(There are nine more verses.)

Address to Lord Lieutenant in 1836Edit

Congratulatory address in the dialect of Forth and Bargy, presented to the Earl of Mulgrave, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, on his visit to Wexford in 1836. Taken from the Wexford Independent newspaper of 15 February 1860. The paper's editor Edmund Hore wrote:

The most remarkable fact, in reality, in connexion with the address is this. In all probability it was the first time regal or vice-regal ears were required to listen to words of such a dialect; and it is even still more probable that a like event will never happen again; for if the use of this old tongue dies out as fast for the next five-and-twenty years as it has for the same bygone period, it will be utterly extinct and forgotten before the present century shall have closed.

In order for a person not acquainted with the pronunciation of the dialect to form anything like an idea of it, it is first necessary to speak slowly, and remember that the letter a has invariably the same sound, like a in 'father.' Double ee sounds as e in 'me,' and most words of two syllables the long accent is placed on the last. To follow the English pronunciation completely deprives the dialect of its peculiarities.

To's Excellencie Constantine Harrie Phipps, y' Earle Mulgrave, Lord Lieutenant-General and General Governor of Ireland. Ye soumissive Spakeen o'ouz Dwelleres o' Baronie Forthe, Weisforthe.

MAI'T BE PLEASANT TO TH' ECCELLENCIE, – Wee, Vassalès o' 'His Most Gracious Majesty', Wilyame ee Vourthe, an, az wee verilie chote, na coshe an loyale dwellerès na Baronie Forthe, crave na dicke luckie acte t'uck neicher th' Eccellencie, an na plaine garbe o' oure yola talke, wi vengem o' core t’gie oure zense o' y gradès whilke be ee-dighte wi yer name; and whilke we canna zei, albeit o' 'Governere,' 'Statesman,' an alike. Yn ercha an aul o' while yt beeth wi gleezom o' core th' oure eyen dwytheth apan ye Vigere o'dicke Zouvereine, Wilyame ee Vourthe, unnere fose fatherlie zwae oure daiez be ee-spant, az avare ye trad dicke londe yer name waz ee-kent var ee vriene o' livertie, an He fo brake ye neckarès o' zlaves. Mang ourzels – var wee dwytheth an Irelonde az ure generale haime – y'ast, bie ractzom o'honde, ee-delt t’ouz ye laas ee-mate var ercha vassale, ne'er dwythen na dicke waie nar dicka. Wee dwyth ye ane fose dais be gien var ee gudevare o'ye londe ye zwae, – t'avance pace an livertie, an, wi'oute vlynch, ee garde o' generale reights an poplare vartue. Ye pace – yea, we mai zei, ye vaste pace whilke bee ee-stent owr ye londe zince th'ast ee-cam, proo'th, y'at wee alane needeth ye giftes o’generale rights, az be displayte bie ee factes o'thie goveremente. Ye state na dicke daie o'ye londe, na whilke be nar fash nar moile, albiet 'constitutional agitation,' ye wake o'hopes ee-blighte, stampe na yer zwae be rare an lightzom. Yer name var zetch avancet avare ye, e’en a dicke var hye, arent whilke ye brine o'zea an ye craggès o'noghanes cazed nae balke. Na oure gladès ana whilke we dellt wi' mattoke, an zing t'oure caulès wi plou, wee hert ee zough o'ye colure o' pace na name o' Mulgrave. Wi Irishmen owre generale hopes be ee-bond – az Irishmen, an az dwellerès na cosh an loyale o' Baronie Forthe, w’oul daie an ercha daie, our meines an oure gurles, praie var long an happie zins, shorne o'lournagh an ee-vilt wi benisons, an yerzel an oure gude Zovereine, till ee zin o'oure daies be var aye be ee-go t'glade.

English Translation

To his Excellency, Constantine Henry Phipps, Earl of Mulgrave, Lord Lieutenant-General, and General Governor of Ireland. The humble Address of the Inhabitants of the Barony of Forth, Wexford.

MAY IT PLEASE YOUR EXCELLENCY – We, the subjects of his Most Gracious Majesty, William IV., and, as we truly believe, both faithful and loyal inhabitants of the Barony of Forth, beg leave at this favourable opportunity to approach your Excellency, and in the simple dress of our old dialect to pour forth from the strength (or fulness) of our hearts, our sense (or admiration) of the qualities which characterise your name, and for which we have no words but of 'Governor,' 'Statesman,' &c. In each and every condition it is with joy of heart that our eyes rest upon the representative of that Sovereign, William IV., under whose paternal rule our days are spent; for before your foot pressed the soil, your name was known to us as the friend of liberty, and he who broke the fetters of the slave. Unto ourselves – for we look on Ireland to be our common country – you have with impartial hand ministered the laws made for every subject, without regard to this party or that. We behold in you one whose days are devoted to the welfare of the land you govern, to promote peace and liberty – the uncompromising guardian of the common right and public virtue. The peace – yes, we may say the profound peace – which overspreads the land since your arrival, proves that we alone stood in need of the enjoyment of common privileges, as is demonstrated by the results of your government. The condition, this day, of the country, in which is neither tumult nor disorder, but that constitutional agitation, the consequence of disappointed hopes, confirms your rule to be rare and enlightened. Your fame for such came before you even into this retired spot, to which neither the waters of the sea below nor the mountains above caused any impediment. In our valleys, where we were digging with the spade, or as we whistled to our horses in the plough, we heard the distant sonnd of the wings of the dove of peace, in the word Mulgrave. With Irishmen our common hopes are inseparably bound up – as Irishmen, and as inhabitants, faithful and loyal, of the Barony Forth, we will daily and every day, our wives and our children, implore long and happy days, free from melancholy and full of blessings, for yourself and our good Sovereign, until the sun of our lives be gone down the dark valley (of death).

"The maiden of Rosslare"Edit

This following is a Yola poem from an original document containing accents to aid pronunciation;[citation needed]

Ee mýdhe ov Rosslaarè
'Cham góeen to tell thee óa taale at is drúe
Aar is ing Rosslaarè óa mýdhe geoudè an drúe
Shoo wearth ing her haté óa ribbonè at is blúe
An shoo goeth to ee faaythè earchee deie too
Ich meezil bee ing ee faaythè éarchee deie zoo
At ich zee dhicka mýdhe fhó is geoudè an drúe
An ich bee to ishólthè ee mýdhe, ee mýdhe at is drúe
An fhó coome to ee faaythè wi' ribbonè blue
'Chull meezil góe to Rosslaaré earche deie too
to zie thaar ee mydhe wee her ribbonè blúe
An 'chull her estólté vor her ribbonè blúe
ee mýdhe at is lyghtzóm, an well wytheen an drúe
Ich loove ee mýdhe wee ee ribbonè blúe
At coome to ee faaythè éarchee arichè too
Fan 'cham ing ee faaythè éarchee arichè too
To estóthè mýdhe wee ee ribbons blúe

The maiden of Rosslare
I'm going to tell you a tale that is true
there is in Rosslare a maid good and true
she wears in her hat a ribbon that is blue
and she goes to the faythe every day too
I myself am in the faythe every day so
that I see this maid who is good and true
and I go to meet the maid, the maid that is true
and who comes to the faythe with ribbons blue
I myself will go to Rosslare every day too
to see there the maid with her ribbons blue
And I will meet her for her ribbons blue
the maid that is enlightened and good looking and true
I love the maid with the ribbons blue
that comes to the faythe every morning too
when I'm in the faythe every morning too
to meet the maid with the ribbons blue

NotesEdit

  1. ^ "How many speakers of Yola are there now?". google. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  2. ^ "Fascinating book on Yola dialect of Forth and Bargy". independent. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  3. ^ Hickey, Raymond (2005). Dublin English: Evolution and Change. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 238. ISBN 90-272-4895-8.
  4. ^ a b Hickey, Raymond (2005). Dublin English: Evolution and Change. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 196–198. ISBN 90-272-4895-8.
  5. ^ a b Hickey, Raymond (2002). A Source Book for Irish English. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 28–29. ISBN 9027237530.
  6. ^ Ellis, A. J. (1889). On Early English Pronunciation, Part V. The existing phonology of English dialects compared with that of West Saxon speech. London: Truebner & Co. p. 67.
  7. ^ Paddy Berry singing 'The Yola Hurling Song' (2017), retrieved 18 January 2022
  8. ^ "Baronies Of Forth And Bargy". RTÉ Archives. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  9. ^ "Kilmore Carols". RTÉ Archives. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  10. ^ "Locals hope to restore the Yola Farmstead to it's former glory". South East Radio. 20 August 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  11. ^ "Wikitongues | yol". Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  12. ^ "Gabble Ing Yola - English". www.sites.google.com. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  13. ^ Hickey, R. (1988). A lost Middle English dialect. Historical Dialectology: Regional and Social, 37, 235.
  14. ^ O'Rahilly, T. F (1932). "The Accent in the English of South-east Wexford". Irish Dialects Past and Present. Dublin: Browne and Nolan. pp. 94–98. Reprinted 1972 by the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-55-3.
  15. ^ William Barnes, Jacob Poole: A Glossary, With some Pieces of Verse, of the Old Dialect of the English Colony in the Baronies of Forth and Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland. Formerly collected By Jacob Poole: And now edited, with some Introductory Observations, Additions from various sources, and Notes, By William Barnes. London, 1867
    • ich is mentioned on p. 133
    • ich, wough, ouse, hea, shoo, thye, aam; oor, yer (= your, but singular or plural?), aar (= there/their); meezil, theezil, himzil are in the glossary
    • mee (possessive), thee (personal and possessive), ouse, oor & oore & our (possessive), he, shoo, it (objective), hi, aar (possessive), theezil (reflexive), aamzil (reflexive) occur in A Yola Zong (p. 84-92), mee (possessive), wough, ye (pl. nom.), our (possessive), hea, his (possessive), aar (possessive) in The Wedden o Ballymore (p. 93-98), ich, her in The Bride's Portion (p. 102f.), ich, mee (personal and possessive), ye (pl. nom.), hea & he, his (possessive), thye, aar (possessive) in Casteale Cudde's Lamentations (p. 102-105), hea, him, his (possessive), shoo, aam, aar (possessive) in a song recited by Tobias Butler (p. 108f.), wee, oure (possessive), ye (pl. for sg. obj.), yer (possessive, pl. for sg.), ourzels (reflexive), yersel (reflexive, pl. for sg.) in To's Excellencie Constantine Harrie Phipps (p. 114-117)
  16. ^ Poole 1867, p.133.
  17. ^ Jacob Poole of Growtown.
  18. ^ Dolan, T. P.; D. Ó Muirithe (1996). The Dialect of Forth and Bargy Co. Wexford, Ireland. Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-200-3.

ReferencesEdit

  • Dolan, T. P.; D. Ó Muirithe (1996). The Dialect of Forth and Bargy Co. Wexford, Ireland. Four Courts Press. ISBN 1-85182-200-3.
  • Hickey, Raymond (2005). Dublin English: Evolution and Change. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 90-272-4895-8.
  • Hickey, Raymond (2002). A Source Book for Irish English (PDF). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 28–29. ISBN 90-272-3753-0. ISBN 1-58811-209-8 (US)
  • Ó Muirithe, Diarmaid (1977). "The Anglo-Norman and their English Dialect of South-East Wexford". The English Language in Ireland. Mercier Press. ISBN 0853424527.
  • O'Rahilly, T. F (1932). "The Accent in the English of South-east Wexford". Irish Dialects Past and Present. Dublin: Browne and Nolan. pp. 94–98.
  • Sullivan, Aidan (2018). Yola and the Yoles: Ireland's Living Old English Dialect. ISBN 978-1983196485.
  • Poole's Glossary (1867) – Ed. Rev. William Barnes (Editorial 'Observations')
  • Poole's Glossary (1979) – Ed. Dr. D. O'Muirithe & T.P. Dolan (Corrected Etymologies)

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