Yazd (Persian: یزد [jæzd] (listen)), formerly also known as Yezd, is the capital of Yazd Province, Iran. The city is located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Esfahan. At the 2011 census, the population was 529,673, and it is currently the 15th largest city in Iran. Since 2017, the historical city of Yazd is recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Top to bottom, left to right: Jame Mosque Rotunda, Zoroastrian Fire Temple, Dowlatabad Garden, Markar Squire, Jame Yazd Mosque, Tomb of Seyyed Ruknaldin, Malekzadeh House.
|• Mayor||Mehdi Jamalinejad|
|• City Council Chairman||Gholam Ali Sefid|
|Elevation||1,216 m (3,990 ft)|
|• Urban||529,673 |
|Time zone||UTC+3:30 (IRST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+4:30 (IRDT)|
|Official name||Historic City of Yazd|
|Designated||2017 (41st session)|
|Region||Asia and the Pacific|
Because of generations of adaptations to its desert surroundings, Yazd has a unique Persian architecture. It is nicknamed the "City of Windcatchers" (شهر بادگیرها Shahr-e Badgirha) from its many examples. It is also very well known for its Zoroastrian fire temples, ab anbars (cisterns), qanats (underground channels), yakhchals (coolers), Persian handicrafts, handwoven cloth (Persian termeh), silk weaving, Persian cotton candy, and its time-honored confectioneries. Yazd is also known as City of Bicycles, because of its old history of bike riders, and the highest number of bicycles per capita in Iran. It is reported that bicycle culture in Iran originated in Yazd as a result of contact with European visitors and tourists in the last century.
The area encompassing Yazd first started to gain prominence in the Late antiquity, namely under the Sasanians. Under Yazdegerd I (r. 399–420), a mint was established in Yazd (under the mint abbreviation of "YZ"), which demonstrates its increasing importance. According to the New Persian chronicle Tarikh-i Yazd ("History of Yazd") of 1441, Yazd was refounded by "Yazdegerd, son of Bahram", i.e. Yazdegerd II (r. 438–457). The word yazd means God. After the Arab conquest of Iran, many Zoroastrians migrated to Yazd from neighboring provinces. By paying a levy, Yazd was allowed to remain Zoroastrian even after its conquest, and Islam only gradually became the dominant religion in the city.
Because of its remote desert location and the difficulty of access, Yazd remained largely immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages of war. For instance, it was a haven for those fleeing from destruction in other parts of Persian Empire during the Mongol invasion. In 1272 it was visited by Marco Polo, who remarked on the city's fine silk-weaving industry. In the book The Travels of Marco Polo, he described Yazd in the following way:
It is a good and noble city, and has a great amount of trade. They weave there quantities of a certain silk tissue known as Yasdi, which merchants carry into many quarters to dispose of. When you leave this city to travel further, you ride for seven days over great plains, finding harbour to receive you at three places only. There are many fine woods producing dates upon the way, such as one can easily ride through; and in them there is great sport to be had in hunting and hawking, there being partridges and quails and abundance of other game, so that the merchants who pass that way have plenty of diversion. There are also wild asses, handsome creatures. At the end of those seven marches over the plain, you come to a fine kingdom which is called Kerman.
Yazd briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the fourteenth century, and was unsuccessfully besieged in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq. The Friday (or Congregation) mosque, arguably the city's greatest architectural landmark, as well as other important buildings, date to this period. During the Qajar dynasty (18th century AD) it was ruled by the Bakhtiari Khans.
Under the rule of the Safavid (16th century), some people migrated from Yazd and settled in an area that is today on the Iran-Afghanistan border. The settlement, which was named Yazdi, was located in what is now Farah City in the province of the same name in Afghanistan. Even today, people from this area speak with an accent very similar to that of the people of Yazd.
One of the notable things about Yazd is its family-centered culture. According to official statistics from Iran's National Organization for Civil Registration, Yazd is among the three cities with the lowest divorce rates in Iran.
Language and ethnic groupsEdit
The majority of people in Yazd are Muslims. There is also a sizable population of Zoroastrians in the city. In 2013, Sepanta Niknam was elected to the city council of Yazd and became the first Zoroastrian councillor in Iran. There was once a relatively large Jewish-Yazdi community, however, after the creation of Israel, many have moved there for varying reasons. Former president of Israel Moshe Katsav is an example.
The Pir-e-Naraki sanctuary is one of the important pilgrimage destinations for Zoroastrians, where an annual congregation is held and frequent visits are made during the year; it is now also a famous tourist spot.
Several other city traditions are the Muslim parades and gatherings, which are mainly processions called azadari held to commemorate the events experienced by the main Islamic martyrs and other important figures. These huge public gatherings created a series of spaces which, since most are near important urban monuments, are used at other times as hubs from which visitors can tour the main spots in the city .
According to the Iranian Census of 2011 the population of Yazd is 486,152 people from 168,528 families, which includes 297,546 men and 285,136 women.
Yazd is an important centre of Persian architecture. Because of its climate, it has one of the largest networks of qanats (underground water supply systems) in the world, and Yazdi qanat makers are considered the most skilled in Iran.
To deal with the extremely hot summers, many old buildings in Yazd have magnificent wind towers and large underground areas.
The city is also home to prime examples of yakhchals, which were used to store ice retrieved from glaciers in the nearby mountains. Yazd is also one of the largest cities built almost entirely out of adobe.
Yazd's heritage as a center of Zoroastrianism is also important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, and the city has an ateshkadeh which holds a fire that has been kept alight continuously since 470 AD. Zoroastrians make up a significant minority of the population, around 20,000–40,000 or 5 to 10 percent.
Yazd has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh). It is the driest major city in Iran, with a yearly precipitation amount of 49 millimetres (1.9 in) and only 23 days of precipitation, with summer temperatures very frequently above 40 °C (104 °F) in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather uncomfortable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below 0 °C (32 °F).
|Climate data for Yazd|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.0
|Average high °C (°F)||12.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||6.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.3
|Record low °C (°F)||−14
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||7.0
|Average precipitation days||1||3||2||11||1||1||1||0||1||0||2||0||23|
|Average relative humidity (%)||53||46||37||33||25||18||17||18||19||27||38||47||32|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||181.6||203.0||207.5||230.9||293.9||334.1||340.7||335.0||313.1||278.1||217.8||193.4||3,129.1|
|Source 1: Climate-Data.org|
|Source 2: NOAA (extremes, sun, humidity, 1961–1990)|
Always known for the quality of its silk and carpets, Yazd today is one of Iran's industrial centers for textiles. There is also a considerable ceramics and construction materials industry and unique confectionery and jewellery industries. A significant portion of the population is also employed in other industries including agriculture, dairy, metal works, and machine manufacturing. There are a number of companies involved in the growing information technology industry, mainly manufacturing primary materials such as cables and connectors. Currently Yazd is the home of the largest manufacturer of fibre optics in Iran.
Yazd's confectioneries have a tremendous following throughout Iran and have been a source of tourism for the city. Confectioners workshops (khalifehs, or experts) keep their recipes a guarded secret, and there are many that have remained a private family business for many generations. Baklava, ghotab and pashmak are the most popular sweets made in the city.
In 2000 the Yazd Water Museum opened; it features exhibits of water storage vessels and historical technologies related to water.
Yazd has expanded its industrial fields since the 1980s. With at least three main industrial areas each containing over 70 different factories, Yazd has become one of the most technologically advanced cities of Iran.
- Mohammad Khatami, former president of Iran; born in Ardakan
- Mohammad Ali Jafari, the commander of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution of Iran
- Mohammad Reza Aref, Vice President of Iran from 2001 to 2005
- Mirza Mohammad Farrokhi Yazdi, poet and politician
- Vahshi Bafghi, poet
- Habibollah Bitaraf, former Minister of Energy
- Mohammad-Ali Eslami Nodooshan, Iranian author
- Mehdi Azar Yazdi, author of children's stories
- Reza Amrollahi, Head of Atomic Energy Organization of Iran 1981–1997
- Iraj Afshar, bibliographer, historian, and an iconic figure in the field of Persian studies
- Ahmad Fardid, prominent Iranian philosopher and an inspiring and dedicated professor
- Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi, 15th-century Persian historian.
- Zia'eddin Tabatabaee, Iranian politician and the Prime Minister of Iran
- Reza Ardakanian, Iranian professor, politician and the current Minister of Energy of Iran, a position he has held since 29 October 2017
The University of Yazd was established in 1988. It has a college of architecture specializing in traditional Persian art and architecture. Yazd and its nearby towns contain the following institutes of higher education:
- Yazd Science and Research
- Yazd University
- Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences and Health Services
- Payam e Nour University of Yazd
- Yazd Institute of Higher Education (ACECR)
- Islamic Azad University of Bafq
- Islamic Azad University of Maybod
- Islamic Azad University of Yazd
- Yazd Sampad Information Center
- Yazd Science and Technology Park
- Applied Science University of Yazd
- Imam Java University College
- Barazande muqadam High School (Tizhushan)
- Shahid Sadoughi High School (Tizhushan)
- Shahid Sadoughi Middle School (Tizhushan)
- Farzanegan Middle School (Tizhushan)
- Bahadori High School
- Farzanegan High School (Tizhushan)
- Iranshahr High School
Twin towns – sister citiesEdit
Yazd is twinned with:
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با ایزد و یزدان همریشه است و معنی آن پاک و مقدس و درخور تحسین و آفریننده ٔ خوبیهاست و نام شهر یزداز آن است.
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- Choksy 2020, p. 225.
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- "Yazd Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 29, 2012.
-  Archived June 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "شهرداران يزد پس از انقلاب اسلامي" [Mayors of Yazd since 1979] (in Persian). Municipality of Yazd. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- "Testvérvárosi kapcsolataink". jku.hu (in Hungarian). Berény Café. 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2020-06-18.
- "დამეგობრებული ქალაქები". poti.gov.ge (in Georgian). Poti. Retrieved 2020-06-18.
- , Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. XXIV, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1888, p. 733.
- , Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed., Vol. XXVIII, New York: Encyclopædia Britannica, 1911, p. 919.
- Choksy, Jamsheed K. (2020). "Yazd: a "Good and Noble City" and an "Abode of Worship"". In Durand-Guédy, David; Mottahedeh, Roy; Paul, Jürgen (eds.). Cities of Medieval Iran. Brill. pp. 217–252. ISBN 978-90-04-43433-2.