Brightline West

(Redirected from XpressWest)

Brightline West is a planned privately run high-speed rail route in the United States linking the Las Vegas Valley and Rancho Cucamonga in the Greater Los Angeles area through the California high desert. The line will connect with existing rail at Rancho Cucamonga station of Metrolink's San Bernardino Line, a commuter rail line in Southern California. The project is intended to provide an alternative to air and automobile travel between Southern California and Las Vegas, a popular leisure destination. In December 2023, the United States Department of Transportation awarded Brightline West a $3 billion grant as part of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. Construction was anticipated to begin shortly after the grant was announced in 2023, however construction is now expected to begin in early 2024.[4][5][6][7] Revenue service is planned to begin in 2027.[8][9]

Brightline West
Overview
Service typeInter-city high-speed rail
StatusPlanned (construction expected to begin in early 2024)
LocaleCalifornia, Nevada
PredecessorDesertXpress
XpressWest
Desert Wind
First service2027 (anticipated)
Current operator(s)Brightline
Websitebrightlinewest.com
Route
TerminiRancho Cucamonga, California, US
Enterprise, Nevada, US
StopsVictor Valley, Hesperia California, US
Distance travelled218 miles (351 km)[1]
Average journey timeApprox. 2h 10m[1]
Technical
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
ElectrificationOverhead line at 25 kV (AC)
Operating speed
  • Top:
  • 180 mph (290 km/h)
  • Average:
  • 101 mph (165 km/h)
Track owner(s)DesertXpress Enterprises, LLC[2] (Fortress Investment Group)[3]
Route map
Las Vegas
maintenance facility
Victor Valley
Hesperia
Rancho Cucamonga
Metrolink (California) Ontario International Airport
Down arrow future phases
Palmdale
Metrolink (California) California High-Speed Rail
Los Angeles
Metrolink (California) Amtrak California High-Speed Rail

The line was developed starting in 2005 as DesertXpress and has passed through several developers and investors. In September 2018, the project known as XpressWest, was acquired by Fortress Investment Group, which owns Brightline in Florida, the only privately run inter-city rail route in the United States. An extension from Victor Valley to the California High-Speed Rail station in Palmdale is also under consideration.

Context edit

Las Vegas is a gambling and tourist destination for the Greater Los Angeles area.[10] Interstate 15 is a direct route between the two regions.[11][12][13] An estimated 50 million people travel between Los Angeles and Las Vegas annually, with 85% using a car.[14] Travel by automobile takes over four hours[15] while scheduled buses cover the route in five to seven hours.[16]

The highway carries heavy traffic on Thursday, Friday, and Sunday which causes significant delays.[17] Motorists returning to Los Angeles on Sunday can create a 18-mile (29 km) backup.[18] Airlines have direct flights, but traffic and security at the airport add time to the short flight.[19][12] Las Vegas lost its last passenger train service in 1997 when Amtrak canceled the Desert Wind.[20]

Project development edit

DesertXpress edit

The original plan under the name DesertXpress was to provide an alternative to automobile travel and airline travel between the Los Angeles area and the Las Vegas area along Interstate 15. The city of Victorville was selected as the location for the westernmost terminal, as extending the train line farther into the Los Angeles Basin through the Cajon Pass was considered to be prohibitively expensive.[21] The station would include free parking and through-checking of baggage straight to the Las Vegas Strip resorts.[22] A future extension would have included a new link to the California High-Speed Rail station in Palmdale.[23]

DesertXpress Enterprises, LLC was founded in 2005 to develop, construct, own and operate the high-speed rail project. 70% of the company were held by Anthony A. Marnell II of Marnell Corrao Associates through his DX, LLC company. Gary Tharaldson and François Badeau held 20 and 10%, respectively.[24] In 2006, the preparation of a first Federal Railroad Administration-Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was started.[25]

The total cost of the link between Apple Valley and Las Vegas was expected to be around US$5 billion.[26] In March 2010, project planners said they could obtain the full funding amount through exclusively private investors,[22][27] but had also applied for a $4.9 billion loan through the federal Railroad Rehabilitation & Improvement Financing program.[27] As of October 2011, the start of the project was contingent on receiving a $6 billion loan from the federal government, the approval or denial of which was expected in mid-2012.[28]

A preferred design was identified with the release of the Final Environmental Impact Statement in April 2011, which began a public comment period that ended in May 2011. The federal government approved the design in July 2011.[29] The planned route was approved by the Surface Transportation Board in October 2011.[30] The trains were to be self-propelled, all electric multiple unit (EMU) trains with maximum speed of 150 mph (240 km/h).[31]

The train would travel at speeds of up to 150 mph (240 km/h) averaging 130 mph (210 km/h) and making the 186 mi (299 km) trip from Victorville to Las Vegas in about 1 hour 24 minutes.[32][33][34] In March 2010, executives with the project said they expected construction to begin in 2010.[22] In October 2011, construction was planned to begin in the last quarter of 2012, with completion in the last quarter of 2016, subject to funding.[28][35]

Transformation to XpressWest edit

In June 2012, the developer announced a new plan to build a network of high-speed rail for the region by expanding to Arizona, Utah and Colorado. The initial phase was to include high-speed tracks, Las Vegas to Apple Valley and Apple Valley to Palmdale.

The 185-mile (298 km) link between Las Vegas and Victorville was designed to be double-tracked which is dedicated for the high-speed trains. The costs of this section was estimated at $6.9 billion. The developer would put up $1.4 billion in private investment and the rest of funding would borrowed under the Railroad Rehabilitation and Improvement Financing program provided by the Federal Railroad Administration.

Future plans include a link between Las Vegas and Phoenix, Arizona, and another from Las Vegas to Salt Lake City, Utah,[36] and Denver, Colorado.[37] The project was rebranded to XpressWest to reflect the expanded mission.[38]

DesertXpress Enterprises signed a document with Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority officials in June 2012 to explore the plan to build a 50-mile (80 km) high-speed rail link between Victor Valley and Palmdale. The link would initially connect to the Metrolink system in Palmdale. This would allow passengers to complete a train ride between Los Angeles and Las Vegas with one transfer, by using Metrolink in the Los Angeles area and a transfer to the high-speed train at Palmdale station. The station would eventually connect with California High-Speed Rail, and is designed to have the same specifications and technology, allowing it to continue on California High-Speed Rail further into Burbank and Los Angeles. The early estimate of the costs for this link was $1.5 billion. and the earliest environmental work was to be completed by the end of 2013. The date of the service for this link has not been determined.[39]

Joint venture edit

In February 2013, the federal loan remained unapproved and construction was not expected to start until mid-2014 at the earliest.[40][41][42]

Representative Paul Ryan (R-WI), the chairman of the House Budget Committee and senator Jeff Sessions (R-AL), the ranking minority member of the Senate Committee on the Budget were the main opponents to the federal loan application of XpressWest. They argued that the project represented high risk to the taxpayer. They wrote to then-Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood in March 2013 and recommended the administration to reject the loan application.[43] The letter indicated that the total cost was estimated to be $6.9 billion. The $1.4 billion would come from the private sources and the remaining $5.5 billion would come from the federal loan. The letter cited a taxpayer risk analysis report as a basis of their recommendation.[44]

In July 2013, there were reports that loan was indefinitely suspended,[45] which were later confirmed by the federal government, which said that it had been suspended in part due to the failure of the application in regard to the "Buy America" policy, which required applicants to use American-made products.[46] Despite the indefinite suspension of the federal loan application, which was viewed as a denial of the application, the developer indicated that the XpressWest project would proceed without providing the details on financial plan.[47]

In 2014, Nevada Senator Harry Reid mentioned that the federal loan request may resurface, but little had been seen so far of the project's continued viability.[48] In 2015, the Nevada High-Speed Rail Authority was proposed to look into the feasibility of high-speed rail into southern Nevada from California, possibly XpressWest.[49] The bill was introduced in April 2015, and was passed by the legislature in May 2015, by a vote of 40–1.[50] It was approved by the Governor in May 2015.[51]

In September 2015, XpressWest and the newly formed China Railway International USA, a consortium of Chinese rail industry companies, announced a joint venture to design, build, and operate the service between Las Vegas and Palmdale, with construction planned to begin in September 2016.[52] A CAHSRA spokesperson said that there have been ongoing discussions concerning allowing the trains to use California High-Speed Rail lines to go further into the Los Angeles area, although no commitments had been made.[53]

In June 2016, XpressWest announced that the joint venture had been called off. The biggest reason cited for the termination of the joint venture was a federal regulation requiring the manufacture of the high speed trains inside the United States. XpressWest said that they are "undeterred by this development and remains dedicated to completing its high-speed passenger rail project."[54]

Brightline project edit

In September 2018, Fortress Investment Group, which owns an inter-city rail route in Florida called Brightline, announced that it would acquire the XpressWest project from Marnell, indicating that it would begin construction of the rail line in the second half of 2020 with expected completion in the second half of 2024.[55][56][57][58] The project is expected to generate around 18,000 jobs at its peak. Los Angeles County finished an environmental assessment for the project in 2016. In October 2019, design plans were almost 30% complete.[59] In September 2020, the line was rebranded to Brightline West, and is being called "a Brightline affiliated company."[60][58]

Funding assistance edit

A high speed line following the Palmdale–Apple Valley–Las Vegas route was included in the 2018 California State Rail Plan as part of the 2040 timeline of projects.[61] Subsequently, the state of California issued tax-exempt, private activity bonds to XpressWest to partially fund construction.[62] These bonds are meant to assist private ventures for the public interest.[63]

In September 2019, it was announced that California would assist the project in funding. In October 2019 California Infrastructure and Economic Development Bank approved $3.25 billion in bonds.[64][65] In April 2020, California government officials signed off on issuing $600 million in tax-exempt private activity bonds for XpressWest.[66][67] The state of Nevada allocated the company an additional $200 million in private activity bonds in July 2020.[68]

Cofounder and co-CEO of Fortress, Wes Edens, estimated the cost of construction at $8 billion in 2020.[69] In September 2020, up to $3.2 billion in the tax-exempt, private activity bonds were offered.[70] In November, it was decided to let the rights for the sale of the bonds lapse.[71][72][73] A bond sale was planned for 2021 but was moved to 2022 to allow continued progress on project planning and for the bonds to be more attractive to investors.[74][75][76]

The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority is considering re-programming around $2 billion in Measure M funding slated for the High Desert Corridor, a proposed freeway between Victorville and Palmdale, cancelled in October 2019, to instead create a development plan for an extension of the XpressWest route between the two cities.[77][78][79]

In February 2023, the company applied for $3.75 billion in funding from Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act.[80] A bipartisan congressional group from Nevada and California wrote a letter in April 2023 in support of the funding.[81] In December 2023, the United States Department of Transportation awarded Brightline West $3 billion of the grant request.[10] In January 2024, Brightline West received $2.5 Billion of private activity bonds from the US Department of Transportation.[82] The remainder of the cost is expected to be privately financed.[83]

Rancho Cucamonga extension edit

The company initiated planning on a rail line over the Cajon Pass to Rancho Cucamonga in June 2020.[84] The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act passed in November 2021 has billions of dollars for rail projects which provides expanded opportunities for companies such as Brightline.[85] In January 2022, the Federal Transportation Department's Federal Rail Administration began reviewing the 49-mile segment (79 km) that would allow speeds of up to 180 miles per hour (290 km/h).

The environmental report for the Rancho Cucamonga route was released in October 2022.[86] The environmental report includes the location of the proposed intermediate station in Hesperia. The report notes some mitigation measures will be necessary: temporary impacts on noise and wetlands, temporary and permanent impacts on some threatened or endangered species, visual impacts on views in the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains, and traffic impacts around stations in Hesperia and Rancho Cucamonga. The report concludes that the project "will not result in a significant impact on the environment" or have "disproportionately high and adverse impacts" on low-income or minority populations.[87] The environmental permit was approved in July 2023.[88]

The San Bernardino County Transportation Authority was awarded a $25-million grant in July 2023 from the Rebuilding American Infrastructure with Sustainability and Equity (RAISE) program to fund design and construction costs of the stations in Hesperia and Apple Valley.[89][90]

Construction edit

Preparatory work involving ground surveys in the right of way in Interstate 15 and the start of recruitment of up to 11,000 workers began in January 2024.[91][92]

Route edit

The tracks are planned to be laid along Interstate 15. The sections between Rancho Cucamonga and Barstow, California and from Primm, Nevada to Las Vegas will be primarily in the median strip of the highway, while between Barstow and Primm the line will run along one side of the highway.[93][94] Sections will pass through federal land controlled by the Bureau of Land Management and National Park Service.[95][22] While plans at first called for a fully double-track railway along the route, Brightline intends to initially build the project as a single track with passing sidings, in part because additional sections were moved to the highway median where space is more limited.[96]

Interstate 15 approaching Cave Mountain, California (above) and in the Ivanpah Valley, Nevada (below). The line is planned to run in the highway median strip for most of its length.

In the original plan, the route did not extend into Los Angeles due to the high cost of building rail in urban areas.[97] The 50-mile (80 km) extension from Victor Valley to the city of Palmdale, where it would connect to the California High-Speed Rail system currently in development, in order to provide service to Los Angeles, was not included in the initial phase.[98] In June 2012, the new plan included the link between Victor Valley and Palmdale as part of construction for the first phase of the project. Passengers would transfer to Metrolink to access the Los Angeles area.[39]

In June 2020, the company initiated planning on a rail line south of Apple Valley over the Cajon Pass to Rancho Cucamonga to provide more direct Los Angeles service, while not ruling out the Palmdale expansion.[84] The details of other sections have not been announced. Later phases may include extensions to Phoenix, Arizona, Salt Lake City, Utah, or Denver, Colorado.[99][100]

In 2009, XpressWest estimated that it will carry around five million round trip passengers in the first full year of operation,[29] with the company charging fares of around $50 for a one-way trip between Victorville and Las Vegas.[101] In 2012, the round-trip fare was planned to be around $89,[38] with trains expected to run every 20 minutes on peak, and up to every 12 minutes as demand requires.[31] As of 2020, the stated frequency is 45 minutes between departures.[102]

In 2023, Brightline West relocated more sections of the route into the median of I-15. The Victor Valley station was reconfigured to have passenger platforms in the highway median. The vehicle maintenance facility was moved from the Victor Valley site to a 246-acre parcel (100 ha) west of I-15 in Sloan, Nevada and will connect to the Union Pacific mainline at this location.[103]

Stations edit

The Las Vegas station will be south of the Las Vegas Strip on Las Vegas Boulevard in Enterprise.[104] The 110-acre site (45 ha) is across from the Premium Outlets South mall.[79] The two-story station will feature retail and restaurant space.[105] The Las Vegas station on Las Vegas Boulevard was announced in 2020. The land was acquired in July 2021.[79] In April 2023, renderings of the Las Vegas station were released.[106]

Victor Valley station will be in the northeast portion of the town of Apple Valley, adjacent to I-15 at Dale Evans Parkway.[107][75] Passenger platforms will be in the median of I-15 and accessed via walkway under the northbound lanes of the highway.[89][108][109]

A station in Hesperia will be built in the median of I-15 at the Joshua St exit.[110] Trains will make limited stops here in the morning and evening.[111]

The line will continue into the Greater Los Angeles area, terminating at Rancho Cucamonga Metrolink station.[112] Service to a planned transit center incorporating the station will operate under the jurisdiction of the San Bernardino County Transportation Authority (SBCTA).[113] SBCTA and the city of Rancho Cucamonga approved the sale of a 5-acre parcel (2.0 ha) to Brightline for the high speed rail station in 2022.[114] A proposed 2.8 miles (4.5 km) underground people-mover would provide a link to the Ontario International Airport. Omnitrans currently offers direct bus service to the airport from this station.[115][116]

High Desert Corridor edit

The High Desert Corridor is a proposed high speed rail connection between Brightline West and California High Speed Rail. It will connect Victor Valley station and Palmdale station. At Palmdale, passengers can connect to the existing Metrolink service or continue on into Los Angeles using California High Speed Rail's tracks.[13]

Right of way agreements edit

In June 2020, the company entered into an agreement to lease the state-owned Interstate 15 right-of-way between Las Vegas and Victor Valley from California Department of Transportation (Caltrans).[117][112][118] The 50-year lease is in the amount of $842,000 per year starting in 2020, adjusted according to the consumer price index every three years.[119] A similar agreement for the Apple Valley to Rancho Cucamonga segment was signed in March 2023.[120]

Brightline entered into a memorandum of understanding (MOU) with the San Bernardino County Transportation Authority in 2020 for the spur between Apple Valley to Rancho Cucamonga, as it provided connectivity within the Inland Empire.[112][84] Metrolink also approved a MOU to study the links to the Rancho Cucamonga and Palmdale Metrolink stations.[13] A MOU was signed in October 2021 with the California State Transportation Agency (CalSTA), Caltrans, and California High-Speed Rail Authority, for the use of 48 miles (77 km) within Interstate 15 to Rancho Cucamonga.[121][122]

Wildlife crossings edit

A 6-foot-high concrete barrier (1.8 m) will keep vehicles away from the rail line along the center divider of Interstate 15. This would prevent animals from making what is already a dangerous crossing of the freeway. Desert bighorn sheep once thrived in these mountain ranges, though they now face many challenges. Wildlife researchers determined that wildlife crossings at Soda, Cady and Clark mountains could help sustain the sheep and other wildlife.[123]

Under an agreement with the California Department of Transportation and the California Department of Fish and Wildlife, wildlife crossings will cross over the freeway and the rail line at the three proposed locations.[80] Hundreds of existing culverts and crossings under the Interstate will be maintained or improved. Fencing to protect the desert tortoise and to exclude wildlife will be restored or installed as part of the project.[124]

Rolling stock edit

The RENFE Class 103 is a Siemens Velaro high speed train in service in Spain similar to that proposed for Brightline West.

Brightline is in active discussion with Alstom and Siemens Mobility to procure rolling stock for the service and for potential future routes.[125][126]

If selected as the preferred provider, the service would utilize Siemens Velaro Novo rolling stock.[127] Brightline would be the first customer of the Siemens Velaro Novo platform, which is currently being tested in Germany using the ICE-S train.[128][75][69] Siemens has released promotional materials for the American Pioneer 220, the U.S. version of the Siemens Velaro platform, specifically mentioning the Los Angeles to Las Vegas route of Brightline West.[129]

Vehicles will require a high power-to-weight ratio to climb the steep grades of up to 4.5%[130] on the planned route: the Velaro series was designed for the German high speed rail system which has grades up to 4% on the Cologne–Frankfurt high-speed rail line. This is already a better "climbing" performance than specified by the European Union's Technical Specifications for Interoperability, which mandate a maximum grade of 3.5%.

The service will use up to 25 train pairs, travelling up to 180 miles per hour (290 km/h), at 45 minute intervals.[131]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Brightline West | Brightline".
  2. ^ "Rail News – Brightline on track to begin Las Vegas high-speed rail project". Progressive Railroading. April 14, 2021. Retrieved July 10, 2021.
  3. ^ Varghese, Romy (August 26, 2020). "Fortress Wins California Approval for Vegas Rail Reimbursement". Bloomberg.
  4. ^ Seeman, Matthew (July 15, 2023). "Brightline West high-speed train clears environmental regulatory hurdle". News3lv. Retrieved July 15, 2023.
  5. ^ Akers, Mick (January 14, 2021). "Spring start eyed for construction of Vegas-to-So Cal rail line". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved January 14, 2021.
  6. ^ Akers, Mick (November 16, 2022). "High-speed rail project construction could begin in '23". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved November 16, 2022.
  7. ^ Forrest, Brett (August 18, 2023). "High-speed rail between Las Vegas, California could open by 2028". KSNV. Retrieved September 10, 2023.
  8. ^ Harden, Olivia (March 1, 2023). "Plan to bring bullet train from LA to Vegas is underway". SFGATE. Retrieved March 1, 2023.
  9. ^ Hawley, Tom (December 16, 2020). "VIDEO VAULT | Las Vegas tries to get a high-speed train to California off the ground". KSNV. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  10. ^ a b Uranga, Rachel (December 5, 2023). "SoCal to Vegas in two hours? High-speed rail comes closer to reality with $3-billion award". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 26, 2023.
  11. ^ Gillan, Jeff (October 22, 2021). "High-speed rail takes step to link Las Vegas with Los Angeles". KSNV. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  12. ^ a b Jernigan, Meg (December 21, 2017). "How to Travel From Las Vegas to Los Angeles". Travel Tips – USA Today. Retrieved October 5, 2020.
  13. ^ a b c Ohnsman, Alan (August 22, 2020). "High-Speed Rail Heats Up In California As Brightline Eyes Las Vegas Route Extensions". Forbes. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  14. ^ Ohnsman, Alan (April 25, 2023). "'The Greenest Bullet Train In The World': Wes Edens Wants To Kickstart U.S. High-Speed Rail With A Vegas-L.A. Line". Forbes. Retrieved April 26, 2023.
  15. ^ Newton, Damien (November 2, 2022). "Brightline Releases Environmental Documents for High-Speed Rail from Victorville to Las Vegas". Streetsblog California. Retrieved November 3, 2022.
  16. ^ "Los Angeles to Las Vegas Travel Options". About.com. Archived from the original on January 12, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  17. ^ "Interstate 15 Northbound – Barstow to Nevada". AARoads. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  18. ^ Dowd, Katie (November 27, 2022). "18-mile gridlock on Calif.-Nevada border amid slammed travel day". SFGATE. Retrieved November 27, 2022.
  19. ^ Ohnsman, Alan (January 24, 2022). "High-Speed Las Vegas Train Back On Track As U.S. Reviews L.A. Extension". Forbes. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  20. ^ "US infrastructure plan spurs talk of Vegas-LA rail service". AP News. April 18, 2021. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  21. ^ "KVBC Las Vegas Story". KVBC Television. Las Vegas, Nevada. July 25, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved October 1, 2020.
  22. ^ a b c d Richard N. Velotta (March 25, 2010). "Work on high-speed rail set to begin this year". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  23. ^ Velotta, Richard N. (October 22, 2010). "Pressure on DesertXpress in first run at high-speed rail". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  24. ^ "Conduit Exempt Facility Bondfinancing: DesertXpress Enterprises, LLC" (PDF). California Infrastructure and Economic Development Bank. 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 20, 2020. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  25. ^ "Federal Railroad Administration, Environmental Impact Statement: DesertXpress High Speed Train Between Apple Valley, CA and Las Vegas, NV" (PDF). Federal Register. 71 (135): 40176−40177. July 14, 2006. Retrieved April 20, 2020.
  26. ^ Maldonado, Cinthia (August 28, 2019). "High-speed train back on track, construction set for 2020". KTNV. Retrieved September 6, 2019.
  27. ^ a b Richard N. Velotta (March 25, 2011). "DesertXpress high-speed rail project rolls forward". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved May 9, 2011.
  28. ^ a b Cy Ryan (October 10, 2011). "DesertXpress hopes for federal loan, aims for 2012 start on work". Las Vegas Sun. Archived from the original on November 9, 2011. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  29. ^ a b "DesertXpress – Las Vegas to Victorville Environmental Impact Statement". Archived from the original on May 30, 2009.
  30. ^ "STB approves DesertXpress route". Progressive Railroading. October 27, 2011. Archived from the original on May 9, 2012. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
  31. ^ a b "The Trains". XpressWest. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  32. ^ Gloria Hillard (April 30, 2012). "Towns Debate Impact of Calif.-Las Vegas Bullet Train". NPR. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  33. ^ "Proven, Reliable, Safe Technology". DesertXpress. 2008. Archived from the original on June 12, 2008. Retrieved August 8, 2008.
  34. ^ Benjamin Spillman (June 28, 2009). "DesertXpress on right track?". Las Vegas Review-Journal.
  35. ^ "Progress". DesertXpress. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  36. ^ Tavss, Jeff (December 8, 2023). "Plans for high-speed rail between Salt Lake City and Las Vegas not moving forward". FOX 13 News Utah (KSTU). Retrieved December 9, 2023.
  37. ^ "The Network". XpressWest. Archived from the original on April 28, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  38. ^ a b Richard N. Velotta (June 11, 2012). "DesertXpress Vegas-California rail project renamed". Associated Press. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  39. ^ a b Richard N. Velotta (June 7, 2012). "DesertXpress inks deal to add train link from Victorville to Palmdale, making travel to L.A. possible". Vegas Inc. Archived from the original on October 26, 2014. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  40. ^ "High Speed Rail To Las Vegas Breaks Ground 2017". Canyon News. March 30, 2017. Retrieved February 20, 2018.
  41. ^ Laura Carroll (February 12, 2013). "High-speed train project at least months away from start". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
  42. ^ Velotta, Richard N. (April 22, 2017). "Arrival of Las Vegas Raiders breathes new life into high-speed rail project". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved April 23, 2017.
  43. ^ Demirjian, Karoun (March 18, 2013). "High-speed rail project beset by political mine fields". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  44. ^ "Letter from Ryan and Sessions to LaHood". United States Senate Committee on the Budget Republicans. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  45. ^ Warren, Mackenzie (July 12, 2013). "Feds suspend $5.5B loan application for XpressWest". KSNV MyNews3.com. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  46. ^ Tetreault, Steve (July 16, 2013). "Feds: XPressWest failed to meet 'Buy America' rules for high-speed train". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  47. ^ "XpressWest vows to proceed, despite federal loan denial". Railway Track & Structures. July 22, 2013. Retrieved July 23, 2013.
  48. ^ "Las Vegas rail service plans have seen starts, stops". Las Vegas Review-Journal. September 2, 2014. Retrieved January 13, 2014.
  49. ^ Young, Allen (May 26, 2015). "Nevada joins the high-speed rail bandwagon with plans for Vegas, SoCal link". Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  50. ^ "Vote on SB457". Nevada Legislature. Nevada Legislative Counsel Bureau. May 20, 2015. Retrieved May 28, 2015.
  51. ^ Nevada Legislature SB457, Nevada State Legislature, retrieved July 15, 2015 (Became Chapter 260 – see Bills signed by Governor)
  52. ^ "US-Chinese joint venture to develop Las Vegas high speed line". Railway Gazette International. September 18, 2015. Retrieved September 29, 2015.
  53. ^ Makien, Julie (September 18, 2015). "A high-speed rail from L.A. to Las Vegas? China says it's partnering with U.S. to build". Los Angeles Times.
  54. ^ Makinen, Julie (June 8, 2016). "China will not build L.A.-to-Vegas rail line – U.S. company calls the deal off". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 9, 2016.
  55. ^ "Brightline to Build Express Intercity Passenger Rail Connecting Southern California and Las Vegas" (Press release). XpressWest. September 18, 2018. Archived from the original on July 26, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  56. ^ Velotta, Richard N. (September 18, 2018). "Florida firm acquires company planning Las Vegas to LA rail line". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved September 18, 2018.
  57. ^ "Las Vegas officials eye linking downtown to proposed high-speed rail". Las Vegas Review-Journal. May 24, 2019.
  58. ^ a b "LA To Vegas Fact Sheet" (PDF). Brightline. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 27, 2021. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  59. ^ "Virgin Trains USA to Move Ahead on Vegas to Calif. Line". Construction Equipment Guide. October 23, 2019.
  60. ^ "West Coast | Brightline". www.gobrightline.com. Archived from the original on May 6, 2021. Retrieved September 16, 2020.
  61. ^ "2018 California State Rail Plan (Draft)" (PDF). CalTrans. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 29, 2018. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  62. ^ "State Treasurer Fiona Ma announces CDLAC Board approval of $300M in bonds for Apple Valley-Las Vegas high-speed rail". Orange County Breeze. September 21, 2019. Retrieved September 23, 2019.
  63. ^ Varghese, Romy (December 21, 2021). "Fortress-Backed Rail Company Brightline Gets an Ally in California's Treasurer". Yahoo News | Finance. Retrieved December 22, 2021.
  64. ^ "California to assist financing of private California-Vegas train". Associated Press. September 19, 2019.
  65. ^ "Virgin Trains USA hoping to start construction of train line from Victorville to Las Vegas in 2020". Victor Valley News Group. October 24, 2019.
  66. ^ O'Connor, Devin (April 15, 2020). "Virgin Hotels Las Vegas Remains Focused on Fall 2020 Opening, Virgin Trains Receives $600M". Casino.org. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  67. ^ Hass, Greg (July 21, 2020). "Financing for DesertXpress line from Las Vegas to Apple Valley takes step forward". KLAS. Archived from the original on July 21, 2020. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  68. ^ Ohnsman, Alan (July 24, 2020). "Los Angeles-To-Las Vegas High-Speed Train Wins $200 Million Nevada Bond Allocation". Forbes. Retrieved July 29, 2020.
  69. ^ a b Ohnsman, Alan (September 25, 2020). "Rail Startup Brightline Kicks Off $3.2 Billion Bond Sale For LA-To-Vegas High-Speed Train". Forbes. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  70. ^ Akers, Mick (October 5, 2020). "Vegas-to-LA high-speed train could serve as Raiders fan pipeline". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  71. ^ Horwath, Bryan (November 2, 2020). "Las Vegas-California high-speed rail project hits snag". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved November 6, 2020.
  72. ^ Akers, Mike (October 26, 2020). "Brightline reveals more details about Vegas-to-LA high-speed rail line". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  73. ^ Akers, Mick (December 9, 2020). "Nevada reallocates $200M in bonds from high-speed rail to affordable housing". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
  74. ^ Akers, Mick (June 22, 2021). "Las Vegas-LA high-speed rail plan delayed until 2022". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved June 22, 2021.
  75. ^ a b c De La Cruz, Rene Ray (January 19, 2021). "With revised plan, Brightline eyes 2021 groundbreaking of Apple Valley rail project". Victor Valley Daily Press. Retrieved January 21, 2021.
  76. ^ Komenda, Ed (April 9, 2021). "Brightline CEO: Vegas-to-LA high-speed rail line still on track to break ground in 2021". Reno Gazette Journal. Retrieved April 11, 2021.
  77. ^ "Editorial: It was a terrible idea to build a new freeway in Los Angeles County. Now it's on hold for good". Los Angeles Times. October 6, 2019. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  78. ^ Linton, Joe (August 19, 2020). "Metro Looks to Shift High Desert Freeway Funds to High-Speed Rail". Streetsblog Los Angeles. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  79. ^ a b c Akers, Mick (July 6, 2021). "Brightline buys land for high-speed rail terminal". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
  80. ^ a b Akers, Mick (February 15, 2023). "Brightline West agrees to build wildlife crossings along I-15". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved February 17, 2023.
  81. ^ Ritter, Ken (April 24, 2023). "Las Vegas-to-California bullet train gets bipartisan backing". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved April 25, 2023.
  82. ^ Seeman, Matthew (January 23, 2024). "$2.5 billion in bonds approved for Brightline West high-speed train to Las Vegas". News 3.
  83. ^ Birenbaum, Gabby (December 5, 2023). "Vegas to L.A. high-speed rail line secures $3 billion in federal funding". The Nevada Independent. Archived from the original on December 5, 2023. Retrieved December 5, 2023.
  84. ^ a b c Burroughs, David (July 2, 2020). "Virgin Trains plans extension of LA – Las Vegas high-speed line". International Railway Journal. Retrieved July 16, 2020.
  85. ^ Varghese, Romy (April 18, 2022). "Will a Fast Train to Vegas Lure Road Trippers From Their Cars?". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 3, 2022.
  86. ^ "Comment period begins for environmental report on Brightline West Cajon Pass project". permits.performance.gov. Federal Infrastructure Projects Permitting Dashboard. Retrieved April 21, 2023.
  87. ^ "Comment period begins for environmental report on Brightline West Cajon Pass project". Trains. Kalmbach Media. November 10, 2022. Retrieved April 16, 2023.
  88. ^ Akers, Mick (July 14, 2023). "High-speed rail receives key approval for link into LA". Las Vegas Review Journal. Retrieved July 15, 2023.
  89. ^ a b Sharp, Steven (July 5, 2023). "$25M awarded for Brightline West stations in Hesperia and Apple Valley". Urbanize LA. Retrieved July 8, 2023.
  90. ^ "STB approves Brightline West high speed rail modifications and extension across Cajon Pass". Trains. Kalmbach Media. November 20, 2023.
  91. ^ McLawhorn, Jennifer (January 18, 2024). "Brightline West Will Begin Hiring Workers and Launch Field Investigation Work". RT&S. Simmons-Boardman Publishing Inc.
  92. ^ De La Cruz, Rene Ray (January 29, 2024). "Brightline West conducts fieldwork in California ahead of high-speed rail groundbreaking". Victorville Daily Press. Retrieved January 29, 2024.
  93. ^ "Caltrans and XpressWest Complete Lease Agreement". Caltrans. June 30, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
  94. ^ "Project Description" (PDF). Federal Railroad Administration. September 2023. Retrieved March 29, 2024.
  95. ^ Akers, Mick (June 30, 2020). "High-speed rail project gets OK to use I-15 right of way in California". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  96. ^ "Digest: Proposed Las Vegas high speed project seeks STB approval of route changes". Trains. September 17, 2020. Retrieved September 18, 2020.
  97. ^ Schneider, Benjamin (December 13, 2023). "Brightline's new Las Vegas train line could be the start of a U.S. high-speed rail revolution". Fast Company.
  98. ^ "Expansion and connectivity". Desert Xpress. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  99. ^ Rosenberg, Mike (July 29, 2012). "Bay Area to Sin City? Las Vegas bullet train backers gamble on record loan". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved November 20, 2012.
  100. ^ "China, U.S. Reach Agreement on High-Speed Rail Before Xi Visit". Bloomberg. September 16, 2015.
  101. ^ Lisa Mascaro (July 2, 2009). "Path clears for federal support of fast train to California". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved October 24, 2010.
  102. ^ "Construction on Las Vegas-California train could start this year". Las Vegas Sun. April 15, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  103. ^ "Brightline West's Modified Alignment Approval Brings High-Speed Rail Project Closer to Reality". Victor Valley News Group. November 21, 2023.
  104. ^ Emerson, Elaine (July 6, 2021). "Brightline buys land on Las Vegas Boulevard for planned train terminal". FOX5 Las Vegas. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
  105. ^ Martin, Bradley (February 11, 2020). "Dine Outdoors at the Virgin Trains Las Vegas Terminal in 2023". Eater Vegas. Retrieved March 4, 2020.
  106. ^ Akers, Mick (April 22, 2023) [April 21, 2023]. "First look: Brightline's Vegas high-speed train station revealed". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  107. ^ "Brightline West: High Speed Train from Apple Valley to Las Vegas". Town of Apple Valley. Archived from the original on May 23, 2021. Retrieved June 4, 2021.
  108. ^ "Clark County OKs plans for high-speed train station". Las Vegas Review-Journal. March 4, 2020. Retrieved March 5, 2020.
  109. ^ "Virgin Trains USA buys land in California". KTNV. March 13, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  110. ^ Akers, Mick (August 2022). "Sisolak believes LV-LA high-speed train will come to fruition". Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved February 18, 2023.
  111. ^ "Hesperia Passenger Station Proposed for Cajon Pass High-Speed Rail System connecting Hesperia to Rancho Cucamonga". Victor Valley News Group. November 5, 2022.
  112. ^ a b c Sharp, Steven (July 7, 2020). "High-Speed Train to Las Vegas Takes Another Step Forward". Urbanize LA. Retrieved July 7, 2020.
  113. ^ Cruz, Rene Ray De La (October 27, 2021). "Brightline adds Rancho Cucamonga to high-speed rail project bound for Las Vegas". Victor Valley Daily Press. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  114. ^ Darling, Jordan B. (October 27, 2022). "Rancho Cucamonga, SBCTA approve sale of 5 acres for high-speed rail station". The Sun. Retrieved October 28, 2022.
  115. ^ Lin, Summer (July 27, 2022). "Elon Musk abandoned plans for a four-mile tunnel at Ontario airport. Locals are picking it up". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 12, 2023.
  116. ^ Brightline. "Rancho Cucamonga, SBCTA move progress sale of Cucamonga Station to Brightline West" (Press release). Mass Transit Magazine. Retrieved January 11, 2023.
  117. ^ Lilly, Caitlin (June 30, 2020). "XpressWest receives permission to use I-15 right-of-way in California". KVVU-TV. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  118. ^ "High-speed train company receives permission to use I-15 right-of-way in California". KTNV. June 30, 2020. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
  119. ^ Parsons, Jim (July 8, 2020). "Vegas-LA High-Speed Rail Line Can Use Interstate 15 Right-of-Way". Engineering News-Record. Retrieved July 17, 2020.
  120. ^ De La Cruz, Rene Ray (March 14, 2023). "Brightline, Caltrans to sign pact for Apple Valley to Rancho Cucamonga rail line". Victorville Daily Press. Retrieved March 15, 2023.
  121. ^ Luczak, Marybeth (October 22, 2021). "Brightline West Project Advancing in California". Railway Age. Retrieved October 24, 2021.
  122. ^ "Brightline West on Track to Rancho Cucamonga" (Press release). Brightline. October 21, 2021.
  123. ^ Sahagún, Louis (September 16, 2021). "High-speed train to Las Vegas is hailed as an eco jackpot. But will it harm desert sheep?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 9, 2023.
  124. ^ Martinez, Christian (February 16, 2023). "As trains tear from L.A. to Vegas at 180 mph, bighorn sheep will have safe passage". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 9, 2023.
  125. ^ Mann, Ted (September 6, 2023). "European Rail Giants Fight for Slice of U.S. High-Speed Train Line".
  126. ^ "Brightline West Presentation (High Speed Rail 2023 Conference)" (video). youtube.com. US High Speed Rail Association. May 23, 2023.
  127. ^ "FRA-2020-0096 Decision Letter 2023". www.regulations.gov. Federal Railroad Administration. March 14, 2023. Retrieved March 23, 2023.
  128. ^ "ICE S auf Messfahrt mit dem EWET – Nürnberger Eisenbahnfreunde e.V." (in German). October 30, 2021. Retrieved March 9, 2023.
  129. ^ "The American Pioneer 220: High Speed Rail for the U.S." Siemens Mobility Global.
  130. ^ DesertXpress "XpressWest" – Las Vegas to Victorville environmental review (Report). Federal Railroad Administration.
  131. ^ Simmons, Mark (January 22, 2024). "Brightline West starts preparatory works". International Railway Journal. Archived from the original on January 22, 2024. Retrieved January 22, 2024.

Further reading edit

External links edit

KML is not from Wikidata