X'Trapolis 100

The X'Trapolis 100 is a class of single deck electric multiple units part of Alstom's X'Trapolis family of trains, operated in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia and Valparaíso, Chile.

MelbourneEdit

X'Trapolis 100 (Melbourne)
 
First order X'Trapolis 100 863M-1632T-864M-M-T-M in Metro Trains Melbourne livery in November 2009
 
First generation X'Trapolis 100 interior prior to refurbishment
ManufacturerAlstom
Built atLa Rochelle, France (complete first 10 units)
La Rochelle, France (bodyshells for unit 11 onwards) and Alstom Ballarat, Australia (final assembly and fitout)
ReplacedHitachi trains
Constructed2002-2020
Entered service27 December 2002
Number built212 3-car trains
Formation3-car sets (driving motor, trailer, driving motor)
Fleet numbers1M-288M, 851M–986M, 1301T-1444T, 1626T–1693T
Capacity216 seated (3-carriage set)[1]
Depot(s)Bayswater, Craigieburn, Epping and Newport Workshops
Line(s) servedAlamein, Belgrave, Flemington Racecourse, Frankston, Glen Waverley, Hurstbridge, Lilydale, Mernda, Werribee, Williamstown.
Specifications
Car lengthDriving motor: 24.46 m (80 ft 3 in) (over couplers)
Trailer: 22.76 m (74 ft 8 in) (over couplers)
Width3.05 m (10 ft 0 in)
Height3.65 m (12 ft 0 in) (excluding roof equipment)
Floor height1.19 m (3 ft 11 in)
Maximum speed143 km/h (89 mph) (design)
130 km/h (81 mph) (service)
Weight43.34 t (42.66 long tons; 47.77 short tons) (Driving motor), 35.47 t (34.91 long tons; 39.10 short tons) (Trailer)
Traction systemIGBT-VVVF (Alstom ONIX 1500)
Traction motors4 × Alstom 4ECA 1836A 180 kW (240 hp) 3-phase AC induction motor[2]
Acceleration1.2 m/s2 (3.9 ft/s2)
Deceleration1 m/s2 (3.3 ft/s2) (service)
1.2 m/s2 (3.9 ft/s2) (emergency)
Electric system(s)1,500 V DC from overhead catenary
Current collection methodPantograph
Coupling systemScharfenberg coupler
Track gauge1,600 mm (5 ft 3 in) Victorian broad gauge

In serviceEdit

Since their introduction to the suburban network in 2002, the trains operated only on the former Connex Melbourne Hillside Trains network (which consisted of the Burnley and Clifton Hill group lines), and did not run revenue services elsewhere operated by M>Train on the Bayside Trains half of the system, despite the two networks merging in 2004.

On 22 October 2014, the operation of X'Trapolis 100 trains was expanded to include lines on the former Bayside Trains network with the Frankston line being cleared for their operation and initially running two weekday morning-peak services.

On 20 November 2016, X'Trapolis 100 trains were expanded to full-time running on the Frankston line and began operating services on the Werribee and Williamstown lines the same day.

Although Melbourne's trains operate as either one or two 3-car units, it was not until September 2007 that the X'Trapolis 100s were permitted to operate as single-units in revenue service.

The trains have power-operated doors that open when a button on the door is pressed and are closed by the driver or closed automatically after approximately thirty seconds.

The X'Trapolis 100s and the High Capacity Metro Trains (HCMT) are currently the only suburban trains in Melbourne with external destination displays on the sides of the carriages with this feature only seen on the diesel powered Sprinter and VLocity rail motors.

Several trains were given names: Croydon West (primary school that won a naming contest), Don Corrie (deceased railway employee),[3] Flash, Flinders Flyer, Iramoo (primary school that won a naming contest), Melbourne Rocks and Westernport. X'Trapolis 100 863M-1632T-864M-897M-1649T-898M was the first Melbourne train to receive the new ‘Metro’ livery in November 2009, in preparation for the launch of the new suburban operator.[4] When the Connex livery was retired in place of the current Metro design, the Iramoo name (shown on units 851M and 852M) was erroneously written as Imaroo. This spelling is still unchanged as of August 2018.

In November 2018, X'Trapolis 100 trains’ operations were expanded to the Flemington Racecourse line.

RefurbishmentEdit

As part of its 2009 franchise agreement, Metro Trains Melbourne was required to modify the 3+2 seating layout in all original X'Trapolis 100s to have 2+2 seating, providing efficiency in passenger flow and more standing room. Later orders of X'Trapolis 100s were delivered with this modified layout.[5][6]

All cars prior to the sixth batch sets underwent an additional interior refurbishment program starting from 2017, similar to the refurbishment that the Siemens Nexas had recently completed. All X'Trapolis sets comprising the 1st to 5th orders had a number of seats removed at the ends of the motor cars to create dedicated spaces for passengers using wheelchairs and also provide standing room for additional passengers, thus increasing overall capacity, accessibility and passenger flow of each motor carriage. Additional handrails and emergency assistance intercoms were also installed in accordance to the same interior design of the motor cars from the 6th batch onwards.

MechanicsEdit

Mechanically, these trains are very different from the previous generation Melbourne trains. The X'Trapolis 100 was the first EMU in Melbourne to have computer-controlled traction, braking and safety systems. A continuous electrical circuit runs along the length of the train, which, when energised allows the train's emergency brakes to release. The circuit will be de-energised by a number of events, such as the driver releasing a vigilance control, applying an emergency brake or passing a signal at stop. This will cause the train to apply all brakes.

IncidentsEdit

On 9 December 2004, 882M overran the platform at Belgrave and crashed into the fence at the end of the line.

On 26 September 2009, 872M crashed into a car between Croydon and Mooroolbark, derailed on impact and destroyed an overhead power stanchion. The Ford Fairmont had crashed down the embankment onto the tracks and was abandoned prior to the train collision. Coincidentally, on 3 January 2013, a Hitachi train derailed in the same location on the city-bound line due to rails buckling in hot weather.

On 12 May 2010, an almost brand new 9M overran a siding in Ringwood, derailing and crashing into the siding fence. The train had entered service less than a month prior.

On 24 March 2011, 920M overran the dead-end platform at Macleod, crashing into the fence at the end of the platform. Prior to the accident, the platform had recently been washed and the soapy water had ended up on the tracks causing a complete loss of friction. Additionally, it was found that the end-of-line baulks (two wooden sleepers placed across the rails in lieu of a buffer stop) were also defective; the train wheels simply pushed them along the rails.

On the morning of 11 November 2015, an individual later identified as a then Metro employee gained access to the cabin of an X'Trapolis 100 6-car set stored at the depot of Hurstbridge station and drove it into a derail block, causing it to be derailed. 927M received the most damage in the incident from ploughing into an adjacent X'Trapolis set, whilst other carriages and track equipment were damaged. All carriages are expected to be back in revenue service after being repaired.[7][8]

On 6 February 2016, 1305T, led by 9M, derailed just before Rushall station city-bound,[9] where the track is a very tight 30 km/h bend. The South Morang line was partially suspended while the car was placed back onto tracks.

On 9 November 2018, a Lilydale-bound service, led by 959M, uncoupled in running shortly after departing Croydon Station, splitting into two 3-car units, with the trailing unit coming to a stop under emergency braking. The subsequent investigation found that a wiring error during a modification to the train's low-note whistle on 959M, combined with a deterioration of insulation resistance in the uncouple solenoid connector of 882M (the leading car of the trailing unit), resulted in an error circuit forming which resulted in the unintended coupling.[10]

On 12 August 2021, X'Trapolis set 871M-1636T-872M collided with a semi-trailer truck at the High Street Road level crossing near Glen Iris station before 8am, causing damage to the train only. Substantial damage was caused to the overhead structure by the truck, and the front bogie of the train derailed. After recovery efforts, the set was then taken to Epping Workshops.[11]

Order Sets Ordered First Entered Last Entered Note
First 58 2000 by Connex 27 December 2002 17 December 2004 To fulfill a franchise commitment to replace its fleet of aging Hitachi trains.[12] The first ten units were completely assembled at Alstom's La Rochelle factory in France. However, from unit 11 onwards, only the body shells were assembled at La Rochelle, with the rest of the train being assembled in Victoria at Alstom's Ballarat facility.[13]

The first set ran a special trip from Flinders Street to South Kensington and back to mark the event.

The trains differ from earlier trains on the Melbourne network in the following ways:

  • Doors open when button pressed
  • Sliding doors between carriages
  • 1 pantograph per 3-car train
Second & Third 38 (Total) July 2007 by Victorian Government Late 2009 April 2012 In July 2007 the Government of Victoria announced that Alstom was one of two companies invited to bid to build 10 new six-car trains for the existing network. Siemens Transportation Systems was the other company, and both were limited to supplying trains that were the same as those already supplied to Melbourne.[14]The Department of Infrastructure found that the new trains delivered less than one additional peak-hour service across the entire network, and had initially lobbied the Government to buy 20 six-carriage trains.[15]

In October 2007 the tender was extended to 18 six-car trains, to be delivered by 2010.[16]

The tender was awarded to Alstom in December 2007 and the trains were delivered in a staged roll-out from late 2009. [17]

In February 2009 an additional order was placed, with 20 more six car trains added, taking the total to 38 trains.[18]

The first of 19 trains that were built by Alstom in Italy were loaded onto a ship in July 2009,[19] with the first set arriving at Newport Workshops on 24 August 2009.[20][21] The remaining 19 trains were assembled at United Group's Ballarat plant, under a state government requirement for a minimum of 40% local content.[22]

The new trains were originally used in revenue service on lines already cleared for their operation, with some Comeng trains on these lines being cascaded across to the other side of the network.[23]

By late September the new units, numbered 1M-1301T-2M and 3M-1302T-4M, were moved into the open at the Newport Workshops and had been taken out on test runs without any livery applied. By October the train had received carriage numbers and names, with compatibility testing being carried out with a modified member of the existing fleet.[24] By December 2009 the first set had received the Metro Trains Melbourne livery, and was running stopping-all-stations test runs without passengers on the Epping line.[24]

The second train to be imported was taken to Ballarat immediately after arrival due to floor damage, with Alstom and United Group Rail spending two months making repairs.[25] This train was transferred to Melbourne on 28 February.[26]

X'Trapolis 100 sets from this order differed slightly from a passenger perspective. The trains were delivered with improved internal and external display screens. All external side of carriage screens and windscreen destination displays were replaced with a larger, bolder font. The same improvement was made to the internal carriage display screens with all first-generation X'Trapolis 100s later being re fitted with the same larger displays.

Improvements were also made to the internal audio systems along with minor technical improvements for drivers.[21]

The first train entered revenue service for a few hours on 30 December 2009, despite claims that train drivers were still having problems with the train, including getting the onboard passenger information display units to work,[27][28] the train being taken out of service the next day.[29]

On 15 February 2010 rail operator Metro planned to reintroduce the train into service, but drivers refused to operate it, citing unresolved safety issues. As a result, Metro took the Rail, Tram and Bus Union to the federal industrial tribunal.[30] On 18 February union representatives and Metro management met for private talks before Fair Work Australia,[31] on 20 February an agreement was reached for the train to enter service that afternoon, an event that became a media circus.[32]

Fourth 7 2011 September 2012[33] 14 June 2013[22]
Fifth 8 April 2013 22nd Dec 2014 16 October 2015[34][35] Carriages from these sets onwards have had a number of seats removed from the front of the motor carriages to improve comfort and capacity, creating dedicated space for passengers using mobility scooters and further preventing congregation in the doorways.
Sixth 5 March 2015 5th Oct 2016 9th Feb 2017 The sixth batch sets have had additional seats removed and additional horizontal handrails have been fitted around the walls in the front and rear carriages as well as the installation of additional emergency assistance intercoms. These modifications were eventually retro-fitted into the whole X'Trapolis fleet, meaning that all sets now share the same interior seating layout.
Seventh 5 May 2016 17th Aug 2017 19 December 2017
Eighth 9 September 2016 31st Jan 2018 25th Jan 2019 At the time of this order, the Victorian Government committed to purchasing 65 High Capacity Metro Trains of a different type which are currently being constructed.

[36]

Ninth 5 May 2018 (Final) 31st Jul 2020 1st Jul 2020 This final order will continue the X'Trapolis 100 production line in Victoria until 2020.

Motor carriage numbers from this order will resume from 967M, following on from the numbering of the earliest X'Trapolis sets delivered in 2004. This is due to X'Trapolis 100 trains being unable to exceed motor carriage number 300M, as some older Melbourne Comeng trains are currently numbered from 301M onwards.

ValparaísoEdit

X'Trapolis 100 (Valparaíso)
 
 
ManufacturerAlstom
Number in service27 two-car sets
FormationOne or two 2-car sets (motor-trailer)
Capacity144 seated per 2-car unit
Specifications
Maximum speed143 km/h (89 mph) (design)
120 km/h (75 mph) (service)
Weight43 t (42 long tons; 47 short tons)
Electric system(s)3 kV DC from overhead catenary
Track gauge1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in)
Notes
Same specifications as Melbourne version except where noted

Valparaíso has had an interurban passenger train system since the 19th century, but it could not be called a metro due to an infrequent train service and other shortcomings. In 1999 construction began on the current system, tearing down the old stations and building new ones with a homologous design. In Viña del Mar, a tunnel more than five kilometres in length was constructed. The new trains, specially made for the new system, arrived in Chile on 22 February 2005 and the old system was decommissioned on 30 June 2005.[37]


The metropolitan railway that opened in 1855 between the Barón station in Valparaíso and El Salto, near Viña del Mar, is the oldest continuously operating railway in the southern hemisphere. At the end of the 1990s, the decision was made to renew the railway equipment, equip the region with state-of-the-art trains and, at the same time, organize a new functional structure with new stations and the undergrounding of an important part of the route.

The purchase of the rolling stock was completed in November 2002, with the signing of a contract between Merval and the French company Alstom , which in addition to guaranteeing the delivery of 27 convoys of 2 cars, included signaling, control systems and electrical power, as well of various items that ensured maintenance for 30 years.

The work for the implementation of this project, called Stage IV, began in 1999 , with the demolition of the solid construction stations, replacing them with bus stops, and only remodeling the Limache station for the new uses that would later be given to it, making them architectural homologation and functionally. The road was buried with the construction of a tunnel of more than 5 kilometers between the Caleta Abarca and El Salto sectors in the Viña del Mar commune , leaving 4 stations under the street line, and allowing a restructuring of the fascia urban environment via Vina Mar. Because of the work on the tunnel, the service was suspended between July and November 2005.

Drive to Limache at Portales station.

The first car of the new fleet arrived in Chile on February 22 , 2005 . On June 30, a farewell ceremony was held for the old Suburban Electric Motor Vehicles (AES), built in Argentina by Fiat Concord , which provided commercial service until July 2005. At 12:45 hours a "symbolic" tour began that began in Valparaíso and concluded in Limache. Thus, stations, bus stops and the signaling system completed their last day.

The service began with a 3-day white march, operating partially outside the tunnel, on November 21, 22 and 23, 2005. On November 23, the inauguration ceremony was held, which was attended by the then President of Chile Ricardo Lagos . The service formally began on November 24, 2005.

Merval rolling stockEdit

Unlike their Australian peers, Merval's cars do not have intermediate cars, they only consist of two cars with a cabin, one motor (which has the pantograph) and another trailer. They can also operate as double units, forming convoys of 4 wagons, but always smaller than the Australians.

The door system is the same; Automatic doors that are activated by pressing a button on the door and are closed by order of the driver or after two minutes. Each car has 3 passenger doors per side, which gives a total of 6 accesses per single car and 12 per double convoy.

Each car has a single pantograph that delivers energy to the motor car from the catenary available throughout the network.

Due to the lack of a catenary, the trains do not operate beyond the Limache station, although the possibility of extending Merval's service to La Calera is being analyzed.

Changes in passenger seatsEdit

Contrary to what was done in Australia, Merval announced a reduction in seat capacity of its trains, to be implemented between October and December 2014.  This reduction seeks to increase train capacity to meet the growing demand of passengers. Although exact figures were not provided, a reduction of approximately 46 seats per train is expected, to be homologated to the 96 that the X'Trapolis Modular has, a model of which 8 units will arrive in 2015 to reinforce Merval's service.

Antimicrobial trainsEdit

In a pioloto plan between state copper company Codelco and Alstom, 1 car was modified to include antimicrobial copper in the handrails and contact areas.  The modification, which included the removal of handles and panels, is part of the search for new uses for copper that Codelco carries out as part of its market development plan.

However, months later, the copper railings were removed and the car returned to its original condition.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "WTT NETWORK CONFIGURATION: METRO ROLLING STOCK" (PDF). Metro Trains Document Portal. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  2. ^ "Alstom Motors Catalogue 2015 - English" (PDF). Alstom. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  3. ^ "XTrapolis unit 38 named Don Corrie after the Epping foreman that passed away in April 2004". Vicsig. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
  4. ^ "Metro Trains Melbourne launch". Wongm's Rail Gallery. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 3 December 2009.
  5. ^ Train Franchise Agreement Volume 2 Archived 1 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine Public Transport Victoria
  6. ^ Trains are working better but seating not guaranteed The Age 7 November 2014
  7. ^ Train stolen and derailed, in 'severe act of vandalism' at a Melbourne station ABC News 11 November 2015
  8. ^ Hurstbridge derailing: Keys used to steal train 'could have been bought online' The Age 11 November 2015
  9. ^ Train derails at Rushall Station on Melbourne's South Morang line ABC News 6 February 2016
  10. ^ "Parting of Metro Trains Melbourne passenger train TD 3817 at Croydon, Victoria on 9 November 2018". Australian Transport Safety Bureau. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  11. ^ "Two in hospital after truck, train collide in Melbourne". news.com.au. 12 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  12. ^ "X'Trapolis Welcomed to Melbourne's Railways". Minister for Public Transport. 18 December 2002. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
  13. ^ "$150 Million Investment in Rail Manufacturing". Minister for Manufacturing Industry. 17 August 2001. Retrieved 14 March 2008.
  14. ^ "Tender for New Trains on Melbourne Tracks". Minister for Public Transport. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
  15. ^ Stephen Moynihan (3 October 2007). "Melbourne buying fewest new trains". The Age. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
  16. ^ "New trains for Melbourne's congested rail network". ABC News. 10 October 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
  17. ^ "18 More Trains Ordered for Metropolitan Rail System". Minister for Public Transport. 21 December 2007. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
  18. ^ "Melbourne orders 20 more X'Trapolis EMUs". Railway Gazette International. 6 February 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
  19. ^ Nick Higginbottom (28 July 2009). "Pirate threat could delay arrival of new trains to Victoria". Herald Sun. Archived from the original on 31 July 2009.
  20. ^ "First of 38 new trains arrive". Connex Melbourne. 26 August 2009.
  21. ^ a b Ashley Gardiner (25 August 2009). "First of new trains arrives in Melbourne". Herald Sun. Retrieved 4 September 2009.
  22. ^ a b X'Trapolis Vicsig
  23. ^ "Limited run for new Melbourne trains". ABC Melbourne. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 12 August 2009.
  24. ^ a b "Wongm's Rail Gallery - New XTrapolis EMUs". wongm.railgeelong.com. 30 October 2009. Retrieved 16 November 2009.
  25. ^ Paul Austin, Clay Lucas and Sarah-Jane Collins (15 February 2010). "Brumby rail promise stalls". The Age. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  26. ^ "Wongm's Rail Gallery: XTrap transfer - February 2010". wongm.railgeelong.com. 28 February 2010. Retrieved 1 March 2010.
  27. ^ "Melbourne's New Train Begins Taking Passengers". Premier of Victoria. 30 December 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2009.
  28. ^ Clay Lucas (30 December 2009). "New train set to go, despite drivers' claim of problems". The Age. Retrieved 30 December 2009.
  29. ^ Clay Lucas (31 December 2009). "New train: catch it if you can". The Age. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  30. ^ Clay Lucas and David Rood (16 February 2010). "Metro at war with its drivers over new train". The Age. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  31. ^ Ashley Gardiner, Stephen McMahon (18 February 2010). "Metro drivers face legal action if they continue to refuse to drive Melbourne's new trains". Herald Sun. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  32. ^ Lucie van den Berg (20 February 2010). "Chaos and expletives as Metro's' new X'Trapolis train pulls into Melbourne's Flinders St Station". Herald Sun. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  33. ^ "New trains to join Melbourne fleet in time for new November timetable". Minister for Public Transport. 19 September 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  34. ^ New trains ordered for Melbourne rail network ABC News 10 April 2013
  35. ^ Alstom to provide an additional eight Xtrapolis trainsets for Melbourne's Metropolitan Rail Network in Australia Alstom 21 June 2013
  36. ^ "More X'Trapolis EMUs for Melbourne". Railway Gazette International. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  37. ^ Alstom in Chile Archived 2 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine Alstom

External linksEdit