Historically in Lancashire, it is on the northern bank of the River Mersey where the estuary narrows to form the Runcorn Gap. Directly to the south across the Mersey is the town of Runcorn. Upstream 8 miles (13 km) to the east is Warrington, and downstream to the west is Speke, part of the city of Liverpool.
Before the Industrial Revolution, Widnes was a small settlement on marsh and moorland. In 1847, the chemist and industrialist John Hutchinson established a chemical factory at Spike Island. The town grew in population and rapidly became a major centre of the chemical industry. The demand for labour was met by large-scale immigration from Ireland, Poland, Lithuania and Wales. The town continues to be a major manufacturer of chemicals, although many of the chemical factories have closed and the economy is predominantly based upon service industries.
Widnes and Hough Green railway stations are on the Liverpool to Manchester line. The main roads through the town are the A557 in a north–south direction and the A562 east–west. The disused Sankey Canal terminates at Spike Island. The Silver Jubilee Bridge crosses the River Mersey west of Warrington. In 2017, the Mersey Gateway bridge opened to relieve congestion at the older bridge. The Catalyst Science Discovery Centre is the United Kingdom's only museum dedicated solely to the Chemical Industry and is inside Hutchinson's former administrative building. The town's sport stadium hosts Widnes Vikings Rugby League club.
The most usual explanation for the origin of the name Widnes is that it comes from the Danish words vid, meaning wide, and noese, meaning nose and that it refers to the promontory projecting into the River Mersey. However, the Widnes promontory is not particularly wide and another possible explanation is the first part derives from the Danish ved, meaning a wood and possibly referring to a tree-covered promontory. Earlier spellings of the name have been Vidnes, Wydnes and Wydness.
There is little evidence of any early human occupation of the area although a flint arrowhead was discovered at Pex Hill, suggesting there was some human presence in the Stone Age. Pex Hill is a disused quarry, located to the north of the town. Roman roads by-passed the area but some Roman coins were found where the Ditton railway station stands today. In the 9th century Vikings had invaded the country and Widnes was at the extreme south of the Danelaw. The River Mersey derives its name from the Anglo-Saxon maeres ea, which means boundary river, the boundary being that between the Danelaw and the Saxon kingdom of Mercia. At the beginning of the 20th century it was believed that some earthworks on Cuerdley Marsh had been constructed by the Vikings but an archaeological investigation in the 1930s found nothing to confirm this.
Following the Norman conquest, William the Conqueror granted the Earldom of Lancaster to Roger de Poictou who in turn granted the barony of Widnes to Yorfrid. Yorfrid had no sons and his elder daughter married William FitzNigel, the second Baron of Halton. On Yorfrid's death the barony of Widnes passed to that of Halton. The current St. Luke's, a Norman church, was built in Farnworth. Its date of origin is uncertain but it is likely to be around 1180. In 1500 the South Chapel was added to the church and in 1507 a grammar school was established in Farnworth; both were endowments from Bishop William Smyth. Until the middle of the 19th century the area consisted of the scattered hamlets of Farnworth, Appleton, Ditton, Upton and Woodend. Nearby were the villages of Cronton and Cuerdley.
In the 1750s the Sankey Canal was constructed. This linked the area of St. Helens with the River Mersey at Sankey Bridges, near Warrington and was in operation by 1757. It was extended to Fiddler's Ferry in 1762 and then in 1833 a further extension to Woodend was opened. In the same year the St Helens and Runcorn Gap Railway was opened. The railway connected St Helens with an area in Woodend which was to become known as Spike Island. The termini of the canal and railway were adjacent and here Widnes Dock, the world's first railway dock, was established. Despite these transport links and the emergence of the chemical industry at nearby Runcorn and elsewhere in the Mersey Valley, the Industrial Revolution did not arrive at Widnes until 14 years later, with the arrival at Spike Island of John Hutchinson.
Coming of the chemical industryEdit
John Hutchinson built his first factory in 1847 on land between the Sankey Canal and the railway making alkali by the Leblanc process. This was an ideal site for the factory because all the raw materials could be transported there by the waterways and railway, and the finished products could similarly be transported anywhere else in the country or overseas. Further chemical factories were soon built nearby by entrepreneurs including John McClelland, William Gossage, Frederic Muspratt, Holbrook Gaskell and Henry Deacon. The town grew rapidly as housing and social provision was made for the factory workers. Soon the villages of Farnworth, Appleton, Ditton and Upton were subsumed within the developing town of Widnes. Woodend became known as West Bank. The substances produced included soap, borax, soda ash, salt cake and bleaching powder. Other industries developed including iron and copper works. The town became heavily polluted with smoke and the by-products of the chemical processes. In 1888 the town was described as "the dirtiest, ugliest and most depressing town in England" and in 1905 as a "poisonous hell-town".
Their especial ugliness is, however, never more marked than when the spring is making beautiful every nook and corner of England, for the spring never comes hither. It never comes because, neither at Widnes nor St. Helens, is there any place in which it can manifest itself. The foul gases which, belched forth night and day from the many factories, rot the clothes, the teeth, and, in the end, the bodies or the workers, have killed every tree and every blade of grass for miles around.— Robert Sherard, The White Slaves of England, Being True Pictures of Certain Social Conditions in the Kingdom of England in the Year 1897, p. 47
The demand for workers meant that, in addition to people from other areas of the United Kingdom, large numbers of workers came from other countries. Initially these were Irish but from the late 1880s significant numbers arrived from Poland and Lithuania who were fleeing from persecution and poverty in their home countries. Immigrants also came from other areas, in particular Wales. In 1890 the chemical companies making alkali by the Leblanc process combined to form the United Alkali Company, later one of the constituent companies of ICI. This involved practically all of the chemical industries in Widnes, which was considered to be the principal centre of the new company. However, during the 1890s the chemical business in Widnes went into decline as more efficient methods of making alkali were developed elsewhere.
During the early decades of the 20th century there was a revival in the local economy, particularly as the United Alkali Company began to manufacture new products. Improvements were being made to the structure of the town, in particular the opening of the Widnes–Runcorn Transporter Bridge in 1905 which gave the first direct link over the Mersey for road traffic. In 1909 the town became the first in Britain to have a regular covered-top double-decker bus service.
By 1919 the health of the residents of the town was improving. In the 1920s, and 1930s there was further diversification of the chemical industry and the products it manufactured. Slums were being replaced by more and better homes. After the Second World War more slums were cleared and there was ongoing growth and variation in the chemical industry. By the 1950s the town had 45 major chemical factories.
In 1961 the Silver Jubilee Bridge replaced the outdated Transporter Bridge and in recent years many of the old heavy chemical factories have closed to be replaced by more modern factories. Much of the land previously polluted by the old dirty chemical processes has been reclaimed, and there have been improvements in the cleanliness and environment of the town.
From Saxon times Widnes was part of the hundred of West Derby in Lancashire. Modern local government in the town of Widnes commenced with the creation of the Widnes Local Board in 1865, prior to which the town had been part of the administrative district of Prescot. In 1892 the town received a Charter of Incorporation giving it borough status. In 1974, as part of the Local Government Act 1972, Widnes Borough Council was abolished and its territory amalgamated with Runcorn to form the borough of Halton within the county of Cheshire. In 1998 the borough of Halton became a unitary authority. In 2009 the council entered into an agreement with the five metropolitan district councils of Merseyside to form the Liverpool City Region.
In 1885 Widnes became a parliamentary constituency and elected its first Member of Parliament. The UK parliamentary constituency is Halton and the current Member of Parliament is Derek Twigg. The local authority is the borough of Halton and the town is divided into nine electoral wards. For elections to the European Parliament, Widnes lies in the North West England constituency.
Widnes is situated on the north bank of the River Mersey. The whole town is low-lying with some slightly higher areas in Farnworth and Appleton. To the south of the town a spur projecting into the river forms the West Bank area of Widnes; together with a spur projecting northwards from Runcorn these form Runcorn Gap, a narrowing of the River Mersey. Runcorn Gap is crossed by Runcorn Railway Bridge, carrying the Liverpool branch of the West Coast Main Line, and the Silver Jubilee Bridge, carrying the A533 road which then curves in a westerly direction towards Liverpool becoming the A562. The density of housing is generally high but there are some open green areas, including Victoria Park in Appleton and two golf courses which are geographically near the centre of the urban development. Most of the chemical and other factories are close to the north bank of the River Mersey. A second road bridge, the Mersey Gateway, opened in October 2017, carrying a six-lane road connecting Runcorn's Central Expressway with Speke Road and Queensway in Widnes.
Drainage of the Widnes area is into the Mersey via Ditton, Steward's and Bower's Brooks. The bedrock of the area is rock from the Sherwood sandstone group. There are a few outcrops of sandstone but elsewhere the bedrock is covered by drift. Most of this consists of till except near the bank of the Mersey where it is recent alluvium.
When borings were made in the 1870s prior to the building of chemical works a deep gorge measuring around 100 feet (30 m) was found in the bedrock which was filled with glacial deposits. From this it was concluded that before the Ice Age the Mersey had flowed in a more northerly course, and when it was blocked by glacial deposits it had made a new channel through Runcorn Gap.
Being close to the west coast and the Irish Sea, the climate is generally temperate with few extremes of temperature or weather. The mean average temperature in the years 1971 to 2000 was 9.4 to 9.7 °C, which was slightly above the average for the United Kingdom as was the average amount of annual sunshine at 1391 to 1470 hours. The average annual rainfall was 741 to 870 mm, which was slightly below the average for the UK. The average number of days in the year when snow is on the ground is 0 to 6, which is low for the United Kingdom. The average number of days of air frost is 2 to 39, which is also low.
Since the borough of Halton became a unitary authority in 1998, which resulted in its having one level of local government, demographic statistics have been collated for the authority as a whole, rather than separately for the towns of Runcorn and Widnes. While the two towns have different histories and come from different historic counties, their demographic features are similar.
The estimated population of Halton in 2010 was 119,300. The change in population during the 20th century is shown in the following table.
In 2003 Halton had the largest proportion of the population in Cheshire in the age groups under 5, 5 to 15 and 16 to pension age and, at 16.1% the lowest proportion of people at pension age or older. At 1.2% the proportion of non-white ethnic groups in 2001 equalled the lowest in all local authorities in Cheshire. At 11.5 per 1,000 population, the live birth rate in Halton and Warrington, is the highest in the county. At 121 the standardised mortality ratio and at 21.5% the percentage of persons with limiting long-term illness are considerably the highest in Cheshire.
There has been an increase in the number of households from 47,214 in 1991 to 52,501 in 2006. The average household size has reduced from 2.70 in 1991 to 2.44 in 2001. 89.8% of houses had central heating in 2001 compared with 75.8% in 2001. The type of housing has also changed with an increase from 15.5% to 19.2% in detached houses from 1991 to 2001, an increase over the same years in semi-detached houses from 30.0% to 33.0% and a corresponding decrease in terraced houses from 44.0% to 37.5%. The percentage of dwellings in council tax bands A-B is, at 69% the highest in any Cheshire local authority while the percentages in bands E-F (8%) and G-H (1%) are the lowest.
Widnes is an industrial town and its major industry is still the manufacture of chemicals, although there has been diversification in recent years and the economy predominately relies on service industries. In 2006 a new freight park, known as the 3MG Mersey Multimodal Gateway, was opened in the West Bank area of the town. This provides a link for freight arriving by road, air or sea to be transferred to the rail network. In 2010 the first phase of Stobart Park, a "multimodal logistics service for warehousing and distribution", and part of the Stobart Group, was opened. This consists of a 520,000 square feet (48,000 m2) refrigerated warehouse for Tesco.
In 2014 work began on the new Mersey Gateway bridge which was completed and open to the public in October 2017. A new six lane toll bridge over the River Mersey between the towns of Runcorn and Widnes was built to relieve the congested and ageing Silver Jubilee Bridge. The new bridge and access roads are a major strategic transport route linking the Liverpool city-region including Liverpool John Lennon Airport and the Port of Liverpool to North West England.
There has been considerable development of shopping areas in the town. The Greenoaks Centre, a mall which was opened in 1995 is adjacent to the long-established Widnes Market which has both a market hall and an open market. Also adjacent is a Morrisons supermarket. In the Simms Cross area a large Asda superstore opened in 2004, replacing its old store in nearby Ditton. A new shopping development, known as Widnes Shopping Park, opened on 18 March 2010, the flagship store being a Marks and Spencer shop. Other businesses involved in the development are Next, New Look, Boots, River Island and British Home Stores. The Outfit out-of-town chain outlet incorporates fashion brands, including Dorothy Perkins, Miss Selfridge, Topman, Wallis and Burton. Other businesses included in the development are Wilko, Costa Coffee, Halfords, Gala Bingo and KFC.
In Autumn 2011 construction began of a Tesco Extra 24-hour store. The glass fronted 120,000 sq ft store has been built on the old B&Q site next to Ashley Way and was opened in March 2012. The store was built on stilts allowing a car park to be built underneath the store for around 600 cars.
The Silver Jubilee Bridge is a Grade II listed structure with Historic England. It was opened in 1961 and crosses to Runcorn. With a main arch spanning 330m, for many years it was the only crossing of the River Mersey West of Warrington. In 2017 the new Mersey Gateway bridge was opened to relieve congestion at the older bridge and allow easier road access to the Liverpool City region.
Reclamation of chemical factory sites and areas formerly polluted with chemical waste has given opportunities for developments. These include Victoria Promenade at West Bank, alongside the River Mersey, and Spike Island, now cleared of industry, which forms an open recreation area leading to footpaths along the former towpath of the Sankey Canal. Adjacent to Spike Island occupying John Hutchinson's former Tower Building is the Catalyst Science Discovery Centre.
There are a number of listed buildings, many of them in the more outlying areas but some are scattered throughout the town. The listed churches are the Anglican churches of St Luke's, Farnworth (and its adjacent bridewell), and St Mary's, West Bank, the Roman Catholic churches of St Michael's, St Marie's and St Bede's, and the two chapels in the cemetery. The railway stations of Widnes and Hough Green are listed, as are the former town hall and the former power house of the transporter bridge.
Widnes is on the southern route of the Liverpool to Manchester railway line. There are two stations in the town, Hough Green and Widnes from which services are operated by East Midlands Trains and Northern. Northern operate frequent services to Liverpool and Manchester city centre from Hough Green and Widnes. East Midlands Trains link Widnes station at hourly intervals throughout the day to Liverpool, Manchester, Stockport, Sheffield, Nottingham and Norwich.
The A562 road passes through Widnes linking Liverpool to the west with Penketh to the east. The A557 road passes though the town linking Runcorn to the south, via the Silver Jubilee Bridge, with the M62 motorway, some 2.5 miles (4 km) to the north. The Mersey Gateway will replace the Silver Jubilee Bridge by mid-October 2017.
There are nineteen primary schools in the town and three nursery schools. The three secondary schools are Saints Peter and Paul Catholic College, Ormiston Chadwick Academy and Wade Deacon High School. The former colleges, Halton College and Widnes and Runcorn Sixth Form College, merged in 2006 to form Riverside College. There are three special schools. Also in Widnes is the Woodview Child Development Centre in Crow Wood Lane. Kingsway Learning Centre offers opportunities for Adult Learning, Basic Skills and Skills for Success.
As part of the Building Schools for the Future programme, Fairfield High School closed down in 2010 and merged with Wade Deacon High School. The school was founded in 1507 as Farnworth Grammar School by Bishop William Smyth and a school has been on the site since the 16th century. In the 1960s two separate-sex secondary schools amalgamated and the school took the title Fairfield High School from 1974 up until its closure. When it closed in August 2010, the schools pupils were transferred to Wade Deacon High School, though still operating from the same site. This continued until March 2013 when Wade Deacon High School's new build was completed; demolition of the old school began in August 2013 and was completed by the end of that year. The site is currently being developed into a housing estate and a cemetery.
The 2001 census showed that of the people living in the borough of Halton, 83.8% declared themselves to be Christian, 8.7% stated that they had "no religion" and for 7.0% their religion was not stated. Those declaring other religions (Buddhism, Hinduism, Jewish, Islam, Sikh and "other religions") amounted to 0.5%.
The Anglican churches are administered by the Diocese of Liverpool. The longest established church is St Luke's, Farnworth. The other Anglican churches are St Mary's in West Bank, St Paul's in Victoria Square, St John's in Greenway Road and St Ambrose in Halton View Road. The Anglicans share the building of St Michael's in Ditchfield Road with Hough Green Methodist Church. The Anglicans also share the building of All Saints in Hough Green Road with the Catholic Church of St Basil's.
The Roman Catholic churches in Widnes are part of the Archdiocese of Liverpool. There are eight churches in Widnes, namely St Bede's in Appleton, Our Lady of Perpetual Succour in Mayfield Avenue, St John Fisher in Moorfield Road, St Marie's in Lugsdale Road, St Michael's in St Michael's Road, St Pius X in Sefton Avenue and St Raphael's in Liverpool Road. Owing to a shortage of Catholic Priests and the "Leaving Safe Harbours" project in effect throughout the Archdiocese St Marie's was closed, the last Mass was celebrated on 6 January 2007. The church is a listed building, but it has been placed on the Buildings at Risk list by the campaign group Save Britain's Heritage and was identified by the Victorian Society on their 2008 annual list as being one of the ten most endangered Victorian buildings in Britain.
Trinity Methodist Church is in Peelhouse Lane and there are Methodist churches in Farnworth and Halebank. There is a Baptist church in Deacon Road and Evangelical Christian churches at The Foundry in Lugsdale Road and in Ditton. The Jehovah's Witnesses have a Kingdom Hall in Moorfield Road and The Widnes National Spiritualist Church is in Lacey Street.
The major sporting body in the town is Widnes Vikings Rugby League Football Club. Cup kings of the 1970s, and 1980s, they were World Club Champions in 1989, after defeating Australian side Canberra Raiders at Old Trafford. More recently, they were winners of the Northern Rail Cup in 2007and 2009. Their home ground is Select Security Stadium in Lowerhouse Lane, which is owned and run by Halton Borough Council. In addition to being a sporting ground it has facilities for conferences and banqueting. In October 2007 the club was defeated in the National League One Grand Final. Following this, and because of the club's financial situation, its board decided to put it into administration. It was subsequently purchased by Steve O'Connor, a local businessman. The Widnes Vikings are in the Betfred Championship.
Widnes Rugby Union Football Club (otherwise known as "the wids"), are an amateur rugby union club based at Heath Rd and administered by volunteers. The players are all club members and pay subscriptions. The club welcomes and encourages the development of rugby within all sections of the local community by promoting links with local schools, local authorities and the Rugby Football Union constituency body.
Widnes Cricket Club was founded in 1865 and has its ground in Beaconsfield Road. Moorfield Sports & Social Club in Moorfield Road hosts sports including football, rugby league, cricket and bowls. At Highfield Road there is a private golf club.
Widnes Tennis Academy is located on Highfield Rd and shares an entrance with St Peter and Pauls School. This is a privately operated facility consisting of 3 in-door courts, six floodlit outside courts and a gym. It is a Beacon facility and has many links with schools, the local authority and the LTA to promote and develop tennis in the area. It is the home of Lane Tennis Club (Est 1876) which has a number of men's, women's and junior teams playing competitively in the Warrington District League.
Widnes is home to a MMA Gym, the Wolfslair MMA Academy. This was established in 2004 by MMA fans and Anthony McGann and Lee Gwynn. Since then the academy has trained MMA fighters including current UFC Middleweight champion Michael Bisping and former Light-Heavyweight champion Quinton Jackson.
Widnes Football Club play their home matches at Halton Stadium. The club was founded in 2003 as The Dragons Amateur Football Club (The Dragons A.F.C.) and in 2012 it was acquired by the Rugby League team and became known as Widnes Vikings Football Club. In June 2014 the club became independent of the Rugby League team and changed its name to Widnes Football Club. After promotion to the North West Counties Premier Division at the end of the 2016/2017 season the team gained automatic promotion to the Evo-Stik Western Division at the end of the 2017/18 season, becoming the first side since AFC Fylde to achieve back-to-back promotions from the North West Counties Football League.
The Queens Hall opened in 1957, it was originally Victoria Road Weslyan Methodist Chapel. It was in use as a theatre and concert hall until the opening of The Brindley in Runcorn in 2004. The Queens Hall was demolished (December 2011 – February 2012). Adjacent to the hall, in Lacey Street, is the Queen's Hall Studio, originally built as a Sunday School in 1879. It was a venue for music and live performance but closed in 2004. After years of campaigning by the volunteer group Loose, and with the support of the Community Assets Fund/Big Lottery Fund and WREN and other donors, it re-opened on 17 April 2010.
There is a tradition that the song Homeward Bound was written by Paul Simon at a Widnes station. A quote from Paul Simon reads as follows: "If you know Widnes, then you'll understand how I was desperately trying to get back to London as quickly as possible. Homeward Bound came out of that feeling." Also, the song "Stars of Track and Field" by Scottish indie rock band Belle and Sebastian, from the album If You're Feeling Sinister makes reference to the town of Widnes in the lyrics, as does the song "Watch Your Step" by Elvis Costello from his album Trust.
The main library in Victoria Square has been refurbished. In addition to the normal services provided by a library, this library holds a large collection of material relating to railways. There is a branch library in the Ditton area of the town.
The Queens Hall Studio, now known as the Studio, is in Lacey Street and is a community venue. Live music and theatre events take place, and the ACCESS ALL AREAS project is based there for young people interested in music and associated creative activities, funded by the Big Lottery Fund.
Victoria Park is in the Appleton area of the town and has a number of attractions, including a cafeteria and refreshment kiosk, a bandstand, model boating lake, tennis and basketball courts, bowling greens, a skateboarding facility, glasshouses with a pets' corner and a butterfly house. Hough Green Park is in the Ditton area of the town. Crow Wood Park is in the eastern part of Widnes and Sunnybank is a large area of open ground also in the eastern part of the town. There are a number of nature reserves. Pickerings Pasture is an area of wildflower meadows overlooking the River Mersey which was built on the site of a former household and industrial landfill. The other nature reserves in the town are Clincton Wood and Hale Road Woodlands.
Kingsway Leisure Centre, has a swimming pool and a gym in addition to a sports hall. There are a number of football, cricket and rugby league clubs in the town. St Michael's Golf Course was a municipal golf course which was built on reclaimed industrial waste land but high levels of arsenic have been found in the soil and at present it is closed. There is a private golf club in Highfield Road.
In October 2011 the Hive Leisure Park opened in a new development as part of the Widnes Waterfront. Its facilities include Reel Cinema, a five-screen multiplex cinema, a Frankie & Benny's bar and restaurant, Super Bowl UK Widnes containing a 16-lane ten-pin bowling centre, a children's play area, licensed bar, a Nando's restaurant, a Premier Inn, Brewers Fayre pub opened in February 2012 and also a brand new Ice Rink operated by Silverblades opened on 21 December 2012
There is no hospital in Widnes. For acute medical care patients go to Warrington Hospital which is run by Warrington & Halton Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust or to Whiston Hospital which is run by St Helens and Knowsley Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. Halton Clinical Commissioning Group is responsible for NHS services in the area. They established the Widnes Urgent Care Centre in 2015 to ease pressure on local accident and emergency units. General practitioner services are provided in health centres and in separate medical practices. There are dental practices providing a mixture of National Health Service and private dental care.
Three men born in or near the village of Farnworth achieved prominent positions in the Anglican church. They were William Smyth (c.1460–1514) who became Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, then Bishop of Lincoln and who built the grammar school in the village, Richard Barnes (1532–1587) who became Bishop of Carlisle, then Bishop of Durham, and Richard Bancroft (1544–1610) who became Bishop of London and then Archbishop of Canterbury. John Tiarks (1903–1974) was a vicar in Widnes in the early 1930s and later became Bishop of Chelmsford.
- Science & Industry
William Gossage (1799–1877) was a chemical manufacturer who established a soap making business in Widnes. James Hargreaves (1834–1915) was an English chemist who moved to Widnes in 1859 and worked for Gossage. During the late 19th century a number of prominent chemists and industrialists lived in Widnes. Amongst these was Ludwig Mond (1839–1909), co-founder of Brunner Mond & Company. He lived in The Hollies, Farnworth and there his two sons were born, both of whom became notable. There were three generations of Holbrook Gaskell's who were chemical industrialists. The first (1813–1909) was also an art and plant collector. The second (1846–1919) became a director of United Alkali Company and the third (1878–1951) was chief engineer of the United Alkali Company and was knighted.
Henry Deacon (1822–1876) was a chemist and industrialist who established a chemical factory in Widnes. John Hutchinson (1825–1865) was a chemist and industrialist who established the first chemical factory in Widnes in 1847, it manufactured alkali by the Leblanc process. Henry Brunner (1838–1916) was an English chemist employed in 1861 by John Hutchinson in his chemical business. Ferdinand Hurter (1844–1898) was a Swiss industrial chemist who joined Henry Deacon and Holbrook Gaskell at their alkali manufacturing business, Gaskell, Deacon & Co., in Widnes in 1867. Neil Mathieson (1823-1906) was a Scottish chemist, he set up his own business, Matheison and Company in 1870 with Frederick Herbert Gossage, son of William Gossage. Sir John Tomlinson Brunner, 1st Baronet PC DL (1842–1919) was also a British chemical industrialist at Hutchinson's alkali works in Widnes where he rose to the position of general manager.
Vero Charles Driffield (1848–1915) was a chemical engineer, he became an engineer at the Gaskell–Deacon Works in 1871. Sir Robert Mond (1867–1938) became a chemist and archaeologist and his younger brother Alfred Mond, 1st Baron Melchett (1868–1930) became an industrialist, financier and politician serving as a Liberal MP for Chester 1906-1910, for Swansea 1910 to 1918 and for Swansea West from 1918 to 1923.
Sydney Young FRS (1857 in Farnworth – 1937) was an academic English chemist. Charles Glover Barkla (1877 in Widnes – 1944) was the winner of the 1917 Nobel prize in physics for his work in X-ray spectroscopy  Charles Suckling CBE FRS (1920–2013) was a British chemist who first synthesised halothane, a volatile inhalational anaesthetic in 1951, while working at the ICI Central Laboratory in Widnes. Gordon Rintoul (born 1955) CBE FRSE was Director of the Catalyst Science Discovery Centre in Widnes between 1987 and 1998.
Born in the village of Farnworth, Roy Chadwick (1893–1947) was the designer of the Avro Lancaster bomber. Thomas Mottershead (1893–1917), also born in Widnes, joined the Royal Flying Corps during the First World War; he was awarded the Victoria Cross and the Distinguished Conduct Medal posthumously for his gallantry. Another Widnes man, Thomas Wilkinson (1898–1942) of the Royal Naval Reserve, was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously in the Second World War. Air Marshal Sir Edward Gordon Jones, KCB, CBE, DSO, DFC (1914 in Widnes – 2007) was an officer in the Royal Air Force for 34 years, from 1935 to 1969. He commanded a squadron of obsolescent biplane Gladiator fighters during the Greek Campaign in WWII.
Arthur Henderson (1863–1935) was a British iron moulder and Labour politician & MP. In 1919 he won a by-election in Widnes He later achieving the unique feat of being elected five times at by-elections in constituencies where he had not previously been the MP. Jack Ashley (1922–2012) was born in Widnes and was a local councillor there. He was then a Member of Parliament for Stoke-on-Trent for many years. He became a Companion of Honour in 1975 and was invested as a Privy Councillor in 1979. In 1992 he was made a life peer as Baron Ashley of Stoke, of Widnes in the County of Cheshire. Gordon Oakes (1931–2005) who was born and educated in Widnes became a MP for Bolton West 1964-1970, for Widnes 1971-1983 and for Halton 1983 to 1997. John Twigg (born 1959 in Widnes) has been the Labour MP for Halton since 1997.
- Johnny Briggs (1862–1902) a distinguished Victorian cricketer, the only man to have scored a hat trick and a century in Ashes cricket, lived in the town 1877-1890s
- Tommy Magee (1899 in Widnes – 1974) footballer who made over 400 appearances for West Bromwich Albion F.C.
- Tommy McCue (1913 in Widnes – 1994) rugby league player, 339 games for Widnes Vikings
- Nat Silcock Jr. (1927 in Widnes – 1992) rugby league footballer, 458 games
- Alan Prescott (1927 in Widnes – 1998) rugby league footballer, 404 matches for St. Helens R.F.C.
- Vince Karalius (1932 in Widnes – 2008) international rugby league player mainly for St Helens R.F.C. 
- Tony Karalius (born 1943 in Widnes) rugby league footballer, 394 games mainly for St. Helens R.F.C.
- Doug Laughton (born 1944 in Widnes) professional rugby league footballer, 450 games
- George Nicholls (born 1944 in Widnes) rugby league player, 484 club games and for Great Britain and England 
- John Stephens (born 1945 in Widnes) professional rugby league footballer, 393 games
- Eric Prescott (born 1948 in Widnes) rugby union and professional rugby league footballer, 503 games
- David France OBE (born 1948 in Widnes) is an author, Everton football historian and philanthropist.
- Mick Adams (1951 in Widnes – 2017) professional rugby league footballer, 438 games mainly for Widnes Vikings
- Peter Glynn (born 1954 in Widnes) rugby league footballer, 402 games mainly for St. Helens R.F.C.
- Paul Sherwen (born 1956 in Widnes) former Tour de France rider 
- Mike O'Neill (born 1960 in Widnes) rugby league footballer, 414 games for Widnes Vikings
- Andy Currier (born 1966 in Widnes) rugby league player 312 games, incl. 248 for Widnes Vikings
- John Bowles (born 1967 in Widnes) is a professional darts player 
- Andrew Higginson (born 1977) a professional snooker player, lives in Widnes 
- Martin Hewitt (born 1980 in Widnes) a mountaineer, businessman and former Captain in the Parachute Regiment
- Gary Taylor-Fletcher (born 1981 in Widnes) professional football player, over 500 pro appearances 
- Stephen Myler (born 1984 in Widnes), rugby union player and part of the Myler rugby family
- Lucy Martin (born 1990 in Whiston) retired professional road and track cyclist, grew up in Widnes,
- Creative Arts
- Nor Kiddie (born 1897 in Widnes) the stage name of Norman Chilton Kiddie, comedian, actor and juggler
- Alan Bleasdale (born 1946) an English screenwriter of social realist drama, went to school in Widnes 1957-64 
- Michael Kenna (born 1953 in Widnes) an English photographer best known for his unusual black & white landscapes
- Angela Topping (born 1954 in Widnes) a British poet, literary critic and author
- Ian Finney (born 1966) guitarist, multi-instrumentalist and songwriter, brought up in Widnes 
- Jane Weaver (born 1972) singer, songwriter and guitarist, was brought up in Widnes 
- Melanie Chisholm (born 1974) singer, Spice Girl known as Mel C or Sporty Spice, went to school in Widnes 
- David Dawson (born 1982) actor, born and raised in Widnes 
- "Coordinate Distance Calculator". boulter.com. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- Morris 2005, pp. 27–141.
- Whimperley 1991, pp. 111, 133.
- Hardie 1950, pp. 25–41.
- Poole 1906, p. 5.
- Diggle 1961, p. 2.
- Whimperley 1991, p. 11.
- Poole 1906, pp. 5–6, 226–227.
- Whimperley 1991, p. 12.
- Poole 1906, pp. 7–8.
- Stephen Richard Glynne, James Augustus Atkinson, Chetham Society, Notes on the Churches of Lancashire, 1893.
- Foster, Alan, A History of Farnworth Church, its Parish and Village, 1981.
- Poole 1906, p. 107.
- Diggle 1961, pp. 12–15.
- Whimperley 1991, p. 73.
- Diggle 1961, pp. 17–19.
- Diggle 1961, p. 20.
- Greatbatch, M. L. and Mercer, P. J., Spike Island, Halton Borough Council.
- Whimperley 1991, p. 132.
- Whimperley 1991, p. 107.
- Daily News quoted by Diggle 1961, p. 71.
- Daily Mail quoted in Diggle 1961, p. 105.
- Morris 2005, pp. 73ff.
- Morris 2005, pp. 114, 125.
- Morris 2005, pp. 157ff.
- Hardie 1950, p. 149.
- Diggle 1961, pp. 83–84.
- Diggle 1961, p. 106.
- Diggle 1961, pp. 111–112.
- Ian, Allan (1995), British Buses Before 1945, Ian Allan Publishing, p. 61, ISBN 0-7110-2279-8
- Diggle 1961, p. 138.
- Diggle 1961, p. 146.
- Diggle 1961, pp. 151–152.
- Diggle 1961, pp. 171–172.
- Whimperley 1991, pp. 176–188.
- Whimperley 1991, pp. 119–121.
- Whimperley 1991, p. 125.
- Whimperley 1991, p. 180.
- Election 2010 – Halton, BBC, retrieved 10 May 2010
- Local Democracy, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 13 April 2007, retrieved 25 April 2007
- Ordnance Survey, Explorer 275 map
- Poole 1906, pp. 1–5.
- Mean Temperature: Annual Average 1971–2000, Met Office, retrieved 30 March 2007
- Sunshine Duration: Annual Average 1971–2000, Met Office, retrieved 30 March 2007
- Rainfall Amount: Annual Average 1971–2000, Met Office, retrieved 30 March 2007
- Days of Snow Lying: Annual Average 1971–2000, Met Office, retrieved 30 March 2007
- Days of Air Frost: Annual Average 1971–2000, Met Office, archived from the original on 5 July 2007, retrieved 30 March 2007
- Population breakdown of Halton for 2010, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 22 May 2012, retrieved 4 January 2012
- Halton UA: Total Population, A Vision of Britain through Time, retrieved 7 April 2007
- National Statistics:Region in Figures, North West Winter 2004/05 Archived 8 January 2007 at the Wayback Machine, pp24, 26. Retrieved 4 April 2007
- "Halton Unitary in Figures". Halton Borough Council. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 2 July 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2007.
- Phillpotts, Greg (2005). Dan Cohen (ed.). "Region in Figures: North West" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. p. 106. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 July 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2007.
- Jordan, Barbara (26 May 2010), "Halton residents land jobs at new Tesco chilled distribution warehouse", Runcorn and Widnes World, Newsquest Media Group, retrieved 5 June 2010
- Greenoaks shopping centre, Halton Borough Council, retrieved 1 February 2011[permanent dead link]
- "Johanna's gran-d opening of new Asda", Guardian Series, Newsquest Media Group, 11 August 2004, archived from the original on 27 September 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Smith, Mark (18 March 2010), "New era dawns for Halton with the opening of Widnes Shopping Park", Runcorn and Widnes Weekly News, Trinity Mirror, retrieved 12 March 2010
- Barbara Jordan (21 May 2011), "New £40m Tesco store to create 400 jobs in Widnes", Runcorn and Widnes World, retrieved 15 November 2011
- Waterfront sites and promenades in Halton, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 1 July 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Catalyst Science Discovery Centre, Catalyst, retrieved 25 April 2007
- Listed buildings in Halton, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 17 February 2007, retrieved 25 April 2007
- Rail Information, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 12 May 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Public transport, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 21 September 2013, retrieved 20 September 2013
- Education and Learning, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 3 March 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- "Kingsway Learning Centre". Halton Borough Council. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Short, Adrian (5 June 2008), "Strategy launched to wind up school", Runcorn and Widnes Weekly News, Trinity Mirror North West & North Wales, retrieved 8 June 2008
- Religion, Census 2001: Key Statistics for the rural and urban area classification 2004, National Statistics, retrieved 2 April 2007
- The Diocese of Liverpool, Diocese of Liverpool, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Churches in Widnes, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 13 February 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- The Archdiocese of Liverpool, Archdiocese of Liverpool, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Short, Adrian (15 February 2007), "Parishioners told closure is permanent", Runcorn & Widnes Weekly News, Trinity Mirror North West & North Wales Limited, retrieved 28 September 2007
- St Marie's Roman Catholic Church, Halton Borough Council, retrieved 21 September 2008[permanent dead link]
- Miller, Vikki (21 June 2008), "Record number of churches face demolition", The Daily Telegraph, London: Telegraph Media Group, retrieved 24 June 2008
- Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (21 September 2008), "Catholic church 'neglecting' heritage", Sunday Telegraph, London, p. 16
- Widnes Baptist Church, Widnes Baptist Church, archived from the original on 21 March 2008
- Church @ The Foundry, The Foundry, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Super League, Stobart Super League, retrieved 10 June 2012
- Widnes Vikings, Widnes Vikings RLFC, archived from the original on 27 September 2007, retrieved 26 September 2007 The name "Vikings" is an association with the supposed presence of Vikings in Cuerdley (see Early history).
- Halton Stadium, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 13 April 2007, retrieved 27 April 2007
- Turner, Alex (9 October 2007), "Vikings board puts club into administration", Widnes Weekly News, Trinity Mirror North West & North Wales Limited.
- Businessman Steve O'Connor is new owner of Widnes Vikings, Widnes Vikings RLFC, archived from the original on 6 November 2007
- Widnes RUFC, Widnes Rugby Union Football Club, archived from the original on 13 May 2008, retrieved 13 May 2008
- Widnes Golf Club, Widnes Golf Club, archived from the original on 27 October 2005, retrieved 27 April 2007
- "Stepping inside the Wolfslair". ESPN.com. 30 April 2008. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
- Latest news: Widnes Town FC, North West Counties Football League, 7 March 2012, archived from the original on 16 March 2012, retrieved 20 March 2012
- Runcorn and Widnes Weekly News
- Smith, Mike (22 April 2010), "Queen's Hall Studio on Lacey Street, Widnes, officially re-opened", Runcorn and Widnes Weekly News, Trinity Mirror North West & North Wales, retrieved 5 May 2010
- "Information about Widnes". Event Transport Accommodation. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Homeward Bound, Simon and Garfunkel Homepage, retrieved 26 April 2007
- "Elvis Costello lyrics". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- "Widnes Library". Halton Borough Council. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Cornucopia: Railway collection, Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, retrieved 26 April 2007[permanent dead link]
- "Ditton Library". Halton Borough Council. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Victoria Park, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 29 April 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Hough Green Park, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 17 July 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- "Crow Wood Park". Halton Borough Council. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on 14 July 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Ip, D; Anstee, M; Wu, Ct (October 1998), "Sunnybank", In'gu munje nonjip = Journal of population studies, Halton Borough Council (18): 53–79, ISSN 0537-6998, PMID 12222464, archived from the original on 14 July 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Pickerings Pasture, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 2 July 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Clincton Wood, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 23 February 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Hale Road Woodlands, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 28 September 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- "Kingsway Leisure Centre". Halton Borough Council. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
- Football, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 16 February 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Cricket, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 18 February 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Rugby League, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 16 February 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- St Michael's Golf Course, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 17 May 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- Widnes Golf Club, Halton Borough Council, archived from the original on 30 September 2007, retrieved 26 April 2007
- The Hive Leisure Park, The Hive, retrieved 21 February 2012
- "Widnes NHS urgent care centre due to be completed by end of June". Liverpool Echo. 9 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Halton & St. Helens Primary Care Trust, Healthcare Commission, archived from the original on 27 September 2007, retrieved 29 September 2007
- Greenaway, Frank, 'Mond family (per. 1867–1973)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004;  accessed 9 March 2007.
- Falconer, Isobel, 'Barkla, Charles Glover (1877–1944)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004  Accessed 28 April 2007
- Sgt Thomas Mottershead VC, Halton Royal British Legion, retrieved 28 April 2007
- British and Dominion Navies – Victoria Cross at Sea, 1940–1945, Naval History.net, retrieved 28 April 2007
- Jack Ashley, Baron Ashley of Stoke, Second Site, retrieved 28 April 2007
- Davies, Bryan (22 August 2005), "Gordon Oakes: Labour frontbencher of the 1970s", Obituary, London: Guardian News and Media Limited, retrieved 28 April 2007
- "Vince Karelius (obituary)", The Daily Telegraph, London, 17 December 2008, retrieved 18 December 2008
- Fletcher, Paul; Harlow, Phil (22 October 2008), When Great Britain won the World Cup, BBC, retrieved 23 April 2013
- "The big interview: paul sherwen", Cycling Weekly, IPC Media, 15 April 2008, retrieved 30 March 2010
- John Bowles, Darts Database, retrieved 5 June 2013
- Euro Player Profile: Andrew Higginson, European Billiards & Snooker Association, archived from the original on 19 April 2007, retrieved 28 April 2007
- SoccerBase Database retrieved 27th July 2018
- IMDb Database retrieved 26th July 2018
- "Ian Finney". IMDB. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Higham, Paul (6 March 2015). "GIT Award 2015 nominee profile #11: Jane Weaver". GetIntoThis. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
- Melanie Chisholm Picture, Profile, Gossip, and News, CelebrityWonder.com, archived from the original on 28 September 2007, retrieved 28 April 2007
- 20 Questions With ... David Dawson, WhatsOnStage, retrieved 22 July 2011[permanent dead link]
- Poole, Charles (1906), Old Widnes and its Neighbourhood, Widnes: Swale
- Hardie, D. W. F. (1950), A History of the Chemical Industry in Widnes, London: Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
- Diggle, Rev. G. E. (1961), A History of Widnes, Corporation of Widnes
- Whimperley, Arthur (1991), Widnes Through the Ages, Halton Borough Council
- Morris, Jean M. (2005), Into the Crucible, Countryvise Limited, ISBN 1-901231-61-5
- The Bridging of Runcorn Gap, Halton: Halton Borough Council, 1978
- Cowan, C. A. (1990), Crossing the Runcorn Gap, Vol. 1: Runcorn Ferry and Hale Ford, Halton: Halton Borough Council
- Cowan, C. A. (1992), Crossing the Runcorn Gap, Vol. 2: Early Bridging Proposals, Halton: Halton Borough Council
- Cowan, C. A. (1990), Crossing the Runcorn Gap, Vol. 3: Runcorn Railway Bridge, Halton: Halton Borough Council
- Morris, Jean M. (2007), Where Spring Never Came, Bury St Edmunds: arima, ISBN 978-1-84549-255-7