Waltzing Matilda

"Waltzing Matilda" is a song developed in the Australian style of poetry and folk music called a bush ballad. It has been described as the country's "unofficial national anthem".[1]

"Waltzing Matilda"
Original Waltzing Matilda manuscript.jpg
Original manuscript, transcribed by Christina Macpherson, c. 1895
GenreBush ballad
Lyricist(s)Banjo Paterson
Audio sample

The title was Australian slang for travelling on foot (waltzing) with one's belongings in a "matilda" (swag) slung over one's back.[2] The song narrates the story of an itinerant worker, or "swagman", making a drink of billy tea at a bush camp and capturing a stray jumbuck (sheep) to eat. When the jumbuck's owner, a squatter (grazier), and three troopers (mounted policemen) pursue the swagman for theft, he declares "You'll never catch me alive!" and commits suicide by drowning himself in a nearby billabong (watering hole), after which his ghost haunts the site.

The original lyrics were composed in 1895 by Australian poet Banjo Paterson, to a tune played by Christina Macpherson. In 1903, Marie Cowan changed some of the lyrics and wrote a new variation of the tune, and published it in sheet music as an advertising jingle for Billy tea.[3] The song quickly grew in popularity and Cowan's arrangement remains the best known version of "Waltzing Matilda".

Extensive folklore surrounds the song and the process of its creation, to the extent that it has its own museum, the Waltzing Matilda Centre in Winton, in the Queensland outback, where Paterson wrote the lyrics.[4] In 2012, to remind Australians of the song's significance, Winton organised the inaugural Waltzing Matilda Day to be held on 6 April, wrongly thought at the time to be the anniversary of its first performance.[5][6]

The song was first recorded in 1926 as performed by John Collinson and Russell Callow.[7] In 2008, this recording of "Waltzing Matilda" was added to the Sounds of Australia registry in the National Film and Sound Archive, which says that there are more recordings of "Waltzing Matilda" than any other Australian song.[5]


Writing of the songEdit

Combo Waterhole, thought to be the location of the story that inspired "Waltzing Matilda"

In 1895, Andrew Barton Paterson was living in Sydney, NSW. By day, he was a solicitor. By night he wrote his much-loved poetry and moonlighted as a freelance journalist under the pen name of “The Banjo”. Banjo was the name of his favourite horse on his father’s farm.[8]During his annual holiday, Paterson made the 5-day journey to Winton, in central Queensland, to visit Sarah Riley, his fiancé of 7 years, and to see first-hand how people lived on the enormous, remote sheep stations in Central Queensland. On arrival, he attended a gathering where he heard Christina Macpherson, Sarah’s best friend from school days, play a tune to entertain those present. Paterson offered to write some lyrics to suit the melody and, in Christina’s own words, "He then and there wrote the first verse.” The rest of the song was written over a period of some three or four weeks in August 1895[9] at a number of locations. Credible accounts exist of the later verses being written at Dagworth Station, a sheep station 130 km north west of Winton in Central West Queensland, owned by the Macpherson family. Paterson and others have left accounts of the song being written at Dick's Creek, en route to Winton from Dagworth Station. The song was then sung, with piano accompaniment, in a house in Winton (owned by members of the Riley family). There is photographic evidence of the song, at an advanced stage, being sung at Oondooroo Station, again with piano accompaniment.[10] Paterson's words were written to suit a tune played by 31‑year‑old Christina Macpherson (1864–1936),[11][12] one of the family members. When no piano was available, the instrument that Christina played was a small, very early model of an instrument called an volkszither or akkordzither Germany. In America, where it became very popular, it was called an autoharp.[13][14] At Dagworth and Dick's Creek, Christina would have played the autoharp.

On April 24 1894, Christina had attended the annual Warrnambool steeplechase meeting in south western Victoria. The music at the meeting was provided by the Warrnambool Garrison Artillery Band. The first item played by the band was the quick march, 'Craigielee', arranged by English born Australian, Thomas Bulch, in 1893. 'Craigielee' was typical contest brass band arrangement with three strains. The first strain was “Bonnie Wood of Craigielee”[15] composed by Glasgow musician, James Barr published in 1818 for Robert Tannahill's 1806 poem, "Thou Bonnie Wood o Craigielee".[16] Christina had a good memory for songs and, when she had the opportunity, tried to play the first strain by ear on piano. Christina’s memory was not perfect. The first strain of "Craigielee" had the musical form AABC.[17] Christina remembered the AAB section but not the C section. To complete her tune, she repeated the second A section. Christina’s tune had the musical form, AABA. This is the musical form of “Waltzing Matilda” sung today.

When Christina arrived at Dagworth in June,1895, she found an autoharp, with three or four chord bars, which belonged to the bookkeeper, John Tait Wilson.[18] As there was no piano at Dagworth, Christina learned to play this autoharp. Within 7 weeks she was able to play the tune that she heard at Warrnambool, well enough to catch the attention of Banjo Paterson. During the rest of her stay at Dagworth she mastered it.[19]

About seven weeks after arriving at Dagworth, Christina and her brothers went into Winton for a week or so. This happened to be the time that Banjo Paterson arrived to visit Sarah Riley. In Christina’s own words, “One day I played (from ear) a tune which I had heard played by a band at the races in Warrnambool. Mr Paterson asked me what it was - I could not tell him. He said he thought he could write some lines to it. He then and there wrote the first verse.” The Macphersons invited Paterson and Sarah Riley to return to Dagworth with them. During his stay, Paterson would have seen the places, heard the stories and encountered the people who inspired the lyrics of the original “Waltzing Matilda”.[20][3]

Fortified temporary shearing shed at Dagworth Station following the 1894 arson of the main shed. The three troopers at left are thought to be those referred to in "Waltzing Matilda", while the squatter was Bob Macpherson, fourth from right.[21]

Some of the stories and events that may have inspired the lyrics of “Waltzing Matilda” are below.

In Queensland, in 1891, the Great Shearers' Strike brought the colony close to civil war and was broken only after the Premier of Queensland, Samuel Griffith, called in the military.[22] In July and August 1894, as the shearing season approached, the strike broke out again in protest at a wage and contract agreement proposed by the ‘squatters'. During July and August, seven shearing sheds in central Queensland were burned by striking union shearers before shearing could begin with ‘scab’ labour.[23] Early on the morning of September 2, a group of striking union shearers, firing rifles and pistols, set fire to the shearing shed at Dagworth. The fire killed over a hundred sheep. The shed was defended by Constable Michael Daly, Bob Macpherson and his brothers and employees.[24] In the early afternoon of the same day, Senior Constable Austin Cafferty, in Kynuna, was informed that a man had shot himself at a striking shearers’ camp in a billabong 4 miles from Kynuna and about 15 miles from Dagworth. When he arrived at the camp, S/C Cafferty found the body of Samuel Hoffmeister, also known as “Frenchy”, with a bullet wound through the mouth, in an apparent suicide. Hoffmeister was a known leader of the striking unionists and suspected of being involved in the arson attack at Dagworth on the night before.[25] Later S/C Cafferty was joined by Constable Michael Daley who had travelled from Dagworth.[26] Three days later an inquest into his death was conducted with very limited police resources. The coroner, police magistrate, Ernest Eglington, gave the controversial but convenient verdict of suicide.[27]

Banjo Paterson was a first-class horseman and loved riding. It is likely that he would have seized any opportunity to go riding at Dagworth. Bob Macpherson (the brother of Christina) and Paterson went riding together and, in Christina's words, "they came to a waterhole (or billabong) & found the skin of a sheep which had been recently killed—all that had been left by a swagman". This incident may have inspired the second verse.[28] Tom Ryan worked at Dagworth in 1895 and recorded an incident in which Paterson accompanied Dagworth horse breaker, Jack Lawton, when he went to the Combo to bring in a mob of horses. They brought them part of the way in and then put them against a fence running into a waterhole. Lawton then took the saddle from his horse and gave it a swim. He then stripped off and dived from a gum tree into the waterhole. Paterson followed suit. Jack then noticed that the mob of horses were walking away and would probably go back to their starting point. He jumped on his own horse without waiting to don any clothes and galloped after the mob. He was surprised, on looking around, to find his companion had again followed his example. On reaching the station that night, Patterson told him it was the best day's outing he had ever had.[29] There is very little credible evidence of how Banjo spent his time while staying at Dagworth, but it is entirely feasible that, at some time, he visited the Combo Waterhole. He may even have visited the site of the shearers' camp where Frenchy Hoffmeister's body was found.

Paterson returned to Sydney in early September. Sometime later, Banjo wrote to Christina and asked her to send him a copy of the music of their song. This presented Christina with a serious problem: Christina played music by ear: she did not use music. Writing down music from memory is quite challenging, even for musicians who read music well. It is extremely challenging for one who doesn’t. In Christina’s own words, “I am no musician but did my best.”[30]Christina managed to get hold of some 12-stave manuscript paper and wrote a first draft, writing down the notes of her song on the stave, as little open circles, at the pitch, and in the order that she remembered them. When Christina messed up the spacing of the bars in the first line, she started again on the second. Christina would have used a piano to help her do this. She made no effort to indicate how long the notes were to be played for. Christina had a very good ear. Except for bars 9 and 10, the pitch of the notes in her draft is the same as the corresponding notes in ‘Craigielea’. In bar 9, Christina wrote the first 2 notes as a C. This was a mistake: they should have been B flat. Christina corrected this in a later manuscript. In bar 10, Christina’s memory let down slightly: she ran the melody down the E flat major6 chord instead of down the scale. This gave bar 10 in her tune, a slightly dreamier sound. From Christina’s first draft, any musician who can scan a poem and knows how to represent the time value of notes, can quickly write a full draft by matching the note values to the meter of the lyrics. Unfortunately, Christina had very limited ability to represent the time value of notes. Her full drafts have many mistakes. Some are minor and easily corrected. Some are fundamentally wrong. In bars 8, 9 and 10 there is a mysterious dot that appears in every draft. It meant something to Christina but is a mystery to everyone else. Christina’s final drafts do not accurately represent what she sang, and as written, they are unplayable. Despite this, it is possible to infer, with considerable accuracy, the tune that Christina sang, and it established the Scottish origin of the song.

It is not known when Banjo wrote to Christina or where Christina was when the manuscripts were written. Christina may have still been in Queensland or she may have returned to Melbourne. Christina wrote at least 3 full drafts of the song. She kept one, now known as the Macpherson manuscript. She sent one to Banjo and gave another to W. B. Bartlam, the manager of a station adjoining Dagworth at the time. This one is now known as the Bartlam-Roulston manuscript. The Bartlam-Roulson manuscript has the correct notes at the beginning of bar 9, indicating that it was written after the Macpherson manuscript. The manuscript that she kept was passed down through the Macpherson family and was not discovered until 1992. The Bartlams knew what their manuscript was, but no one believed them until 1971. This allowed some myths about the song to grow. Both full drafts and the first draft are held at the National Library of Australia. The manuscript sent to Paterson was lost.[31]

Some 40 years later, and not long before Christina died, Christina and Banjo each left different accounts of their recollection of the events surrounding the writing of "Waltzing Matilda". In 1934, in his book “Cobbers”, English musician, Dr Thomas Wood, wrote a brief, colourful, but very incomplete account of the composition of “Waltzing Matilda”.[32] Christina carefully drafted a letter to him to tell more of the story. In it, Christina stated, that when the first verse was written, she had travelled to Winton with her brothers and that she had heard the music played by a band at Warrnambool. Christina then added more information from 1895 through to the song’s inclusion in the “Australasian Students Song Book”, which was published in 1911. Christina had a comprehensive memory and was proud of her role in producing the song.[33] About the same time, in a talk prepared for ABC radio, Paterson wrote, that in 1894 the shearers staged a strike by way of expressing themselves, and Macpherson’s shearing shed was burnt down, and a man was picked up dead. .... while resting for lunch or changing horses on our four-in-hand-journeys, Miss Macpherson, afterwards the wife of financial magnate, J McCall McCowan, used to play a little Scottish tune on a zither, and I put words to the tune and called it “Waltzing Matilda”. These scanty details complement Christina’s account but do not suggest that the song meant a lot to him. Paterson also attributed the playing of the music to the wrong Macpherson sister. Christina's sister Jean, married McCall McCowan. Christina never married.[34] How well did Banjo remember Christina?

For many years, it was believed that the song was first performed on 6 April 1895 by Sir Herbert Ramsay, 5th Bart., at the North Gregory Hotel in Winton, Queensland. The occasion was a banquet for the Premier of Queensland. This day is still celebrated as 'Waltzing Matilda Day'. In fact, Christina, Jean and Ewen Macpherson left Melbourne on the SS Wodonga on 1 June 1895[35] and the song was not written until September. 'Waltzing Matilda' was certainly not sung on April 6 1895. Sir Herbert Ramsay did sing 'Waltzing Matilda' when Bob Macpherson, Christina and Banjo visited Oondooroo Station, owned by the Ramsay family about the end of September. Herbert was dressed up as a swagman and his photo was taken.[36] It remains to be seen what happens to the date of 'Waltzing Matilda Day'.

The song did not spread very quickly: an electronic search of hundreds of Australian newspaper titles between 1895 and 1901 reveals only one report of it being sung.[37] However, the cultural critic, A.A. Phillips, born in 1900, recalled being taught it in his childhood.

In February 2010, ABC News reported an investigation by barrister Trevor Monti that the death of Hoffmeister was more akin to a gangland assassination than to suicide. The same report asserts, "Writer Matthew Richardson says the song was most likely written as a carefully worded political allegory to record and comment on the events of the shearers' strike."[38]

Alternative theoriesEdit

Given the tumultuous events of the shearers’ strike and the burning down of 8 shearing sheds in the Winton & Kynuna districts in 1894, and given Paterson’s socialist views, it is not difficult to see why historians look for a political allegory in the words of “Waltzing Matilda”, penned in the districts in 1985. In 2008, Australian writers and historians, Peter and Sheila Forrest, claimed that the widespread belief that Paterson had penned the ballad as a socialist anthem, inspired by the Great Shearers' Strike, was false and a "misappropriation" by political groups.[39] The Forrests asserted that Paterson had in fact written the self-described "ditty" as part of his flirtation with Christina Macpherson, despite his engagement to Sarah Riley. [40]

This theory was not shared by other historians like Ross Fitzgerald, emeritus professor in history and politics at Griffith University. Fitzgerald argued that the defeat of the strike only a year or so before the song's creation, would have been in his mind, most likely consciously but at least "unconsciously", and thus was likely to have been an inspiration for the song.[40] Fitzgerald stated, "the two things aren't mutually exclusive"[40]—a view shared by others, who, while not denying the significance of Paterson's relationship with Macpherson, nonetheless recognise the underlying story of the shearers' strike and Hoffmeister's death in the lyrics of the song.[21]

The original words of the first two lines of the first chorus of ‘Waltzing Matilda’ are, 'Who’ll come a’waltzing Matilda my darling? Who’ll come a’waltzing Matilda with me?'[41] In 2019, in his meticulously researched book, ‘Waltzing Matilda- Australia’s Accidental Anthem', W Benjamin Lindner, asks two questions. “Is ’Waltzing Matilda’ a serenade and who was the ‘darling’ to whom Paterson posed the question, 'Who’ll come a’waltzing Matilda with me?'” Lindner gives the unequivocal answer, "Waltzing Matilda’ is a serenade to Paterson’s musical muse, Christina."[42]

Several alternative theories for the origins or meaning of "Waltzing Matilda" have been proposed since the time it was written. Still, most experts now essentially agree on the details outlined above. Some oral stories collected during the twentieth century claimed that Paterson had merely modified a pre-existing bush song, but there is no evidence for this. In 1905, Paterson himself published a book of bush ballads he had collected from around Australia entitled Old Bush Songs, with nothing resembling "Waltzing Matilda" in it. Nor do any other publications or recordings of bush ballads include anything to suggest it preceded Paterson. Meanwhile, manuscripts from the time the song originated indicate the song's origins with Paterson and Christina Macpherson, as do their own recollections and other pieces of evidence.[21]

History of the MusicEdit

The story of “Waltzing Matilda” began in West Paisley, Scotland, about 2 km south of where Glascow airport is today. Robert Tannahill, the weaver poet, wrote a poem, “Thou Bonnie Wood of Craigielea” prior to 1806. It was written in the pattern, chorus, verse, chorus, verse, ready to be set to music.[43] Tannahill’s friend, James Barr set it to music, and it was published in 1818. Barr’s song was unusually melodious: it used four, 4-bar phrases in a 16-bar song. It had the musical form, ABCD. In 1850, an arrangement was published in The Lyric Gems of Scotland', page 65',[44] which was written in the pattern, verse, chorus, verse, chorus and it dropped out the second phrase of the verse and repeated the first. It had the musical form AABC. In 1880, an arrangement by T S Gleadhill, published in 'Kyles Scottish Lyric Gems', page 244, also dropped out the second phrase of the verse and repeated the first.[45]In 1893, Thomas Bulch, an English expat living in Australia, wrote a quick march arrangement for brass band, called 'Craigielee'. (Click on the hyperlink to hear 'Craigielee'.) The opening strain of 'Craigielee' was 'Bonnie Wood of Craigielea' with the musical form, AABC. It is very close to the melody in the “Lyric Gems” and even closer to the melody in Gleadhill’s “Kyles Scottish Lyric Gems”. This was the tune that caught Christina Macpherson’s attention at the races at Warrnambool, Victoria, in 1894. Christina had a good ear and, when she next sat at a piano, she tried to play the opening strain. Christina remembered the AAB phrases, but she did not remember the C phrase. Christina made up her version of the song by repeating the second A phrase instead of the C phrase. Her tune had the musical form AABA, popular American style. This is the musical form of “Waltzing Matilda” sung today.

One more change needed to be made. The tune that Christina played for Banjo was written to set the poem, “Thou Bonnie Wood of Craigielea”, to music. The words of its chorus are,

Thou bonnie wood of Craigielee,

Thou bonnie wood of Craigielee,

Near thee I pass’d life's early day,

An’ won my Mary's heart in thee.[46]

The number of syllables in each line is 8, 8, 8, 7. The verses are the same. Precision poetry.

The words of the original chorus of Christina’s Waltzing Matilda are

Who'll come a Waltzing Matilda my darling?

Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Waltzing Matilda and leading a water bag,

Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?[47]

The number of syllables in each line is 11, 10,12, 10. The verses are similar.

As Banjo and Christina collaborated on their song, Christina had to add more notes to her initial tune. She did this by breaking up several notes in each line into shorter ones. Typical of songs with multiple verses, the melody had to be changed slightly in some verses to fit the meter of the words. Christina and Banjo would have had some arguments, Christina wanting to preserve the tune and Banjo wanting the strict meter of the lyrics to be preserved. Despite this, the two tunes sound very similar. Some may even say that they are the same. Sadly, this tune did not seem to spread beyond the Winton district and this precious gem of Australian folklore was lost until the 1970s.[citation needed]

Alternative theories and mythsEdit

There has been speculation[48] about the similarity of "Waltzing Matilda" and a British song, "The Bold Fusilier" or "The Gay Fusilier" (also known as "Marching through Rochester", referring to Rochester in Kent and the Duke of Marlborough). The similarity is so obvious that one is clearly a copy of the other. "The Bold Fusilier" is dated by some back to start of the 18th century. [49] In the early 1900’s only one verse and chorus of the song were known. This snippet was printed in ‘The Bulletin’ magazine in Sydney, Australia on 8/10/1941.[50]

Verse: A gay fusilier was marching down through Rochester
Bound for the wars in the low country,
And he cried as he tramped through the dear streets of Rochester,
Who'll be a sojer for Marlboro with me?

Chorus: Who'll be a sojer, Who'll be a sojer,
Who'll be a sojer for Marlboro with me?
And he cried as he tramped through the dear streets of Rochester,
Who'll be a sojer for Marlboro with me?

The song sung today has the musical form, AABA and is sung to the same tune as Marie Cowan’s ‘Waltzing Matilda’, published in Sydney, Australia, in 1903. It describes events as happening in Rochester, England, during the reign of Queen Ann, 1702 to 1714. It was widely, though not universally accepted, that the song was written at that time.[51] English folklore authority, Ralph Vaughan Williams, considered that the language used in the song was not appropriate to 1700.[52] The song has the musical form AABA which suggests a much later origin and there is no documentary proof that 'The Bold Fusilier' existed before 1900. The origin of ‘Waltzing Matilda’ can be traced from ‘Thou Bonny Wood of Craigie Lee’ published in 1818. Hearsay evidence exists that ‘Waltzing Matilda' was sung by Australian soldiers in South Africa during the Boer War and that the British troops returned friendly fire by singing ’The Gay/Bold Fusilier’ as a parody.

In about 1970, English folk singer, Peter Coe reworked the first verse and chorus of the existing song and added another four verses. This song, a timeless comment about war, is quite popular today and has spawned other similar lyrics.[53] Peter’s song is called ‘The Rochester Recruiting Sergeant’.


Paterson sold the rights to "Waltzing Matilda" and "some other pieces" to Angus & Robertson for five Australian pounds.[54] In 1903, tea trader, James Inglis, hired Marie Cowan, who was married to Inglis's accountant, to alter the song lyrics for use as an advertising jingle for the Billy Tea company, making it nationally famous.[55] Cowan adapted the lyrics and set them to music in 1903.[56][57]

Although no copyright applied to the song in Australia and many other countries, the Australian Olympic organisers had to pay royalties to an American publisher, Carl Fischer Music, following the song being played at the 1996 Summer Olympics held in Atlanta.[58] According to some reports, the song was copyrighted by Carl Fischer Music in 1941 as an original composition.[59] However, The Sydney Morning Herald reported that Carl Fischer Music had collected the royalties on behalf of Messrs Allan & Co, an Australian publisher that claimed to have bought the original copyright, though Allan's claim "remains unclear".[60] Arrangements such as those claimed by Richard D. Magoffin remain in copyright in America.[61]

Cowan's melodyEdit




Typical lyricsEdit

There are no "official" lyrics to "Waltzing Matilda" and slight variations can be found in different sources.[63] Paterson's original lyrics referred to the swagman "drowning himself 'neath the Coolibah Tree".[64] The following lyrics are the Cowan version.

Once a jolly swagman camped by a billabong
Under the shade of a coolibah tree,
And he sang as he watched and waited till his "Billy" boiled,[55]
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Waltzing Matilda, waltzing Matilda,
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me,
And he sang as he watched and waited till his "Billy" boiled,[a]
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."

Down came a jumbuck to drink at that billabong,
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him with glee,
And he sang as he shoved[b] that jumbuck in his tucker bag,
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."


Up rode the squatter, mounted on his thoroughbred.
Down came the troopers, one, two, and three.
"Whose is that jumbuck[c] you've got in your tucker bag?
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."


Up jumped the swagman and sprang into the billabong.
"You'll never catch me alive!" said he
And his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong:
"You'll come a-waltzing Matilda, with me."


  1. ^ Third line of chorus changes to match preceding verse
  2. ^ Sometimes "stowed"
  3. ^ Sometimes "Where's that jolly jumbuck"


Photograph of Joseph Jenkins, a Welsh swagman, c. 1901, holding a billy and carrying a swag on his back
Painting of a swagman camped by a billabong, Gordon Coutts, 1889, Art Gallery of New South Wales

The lyrics contain many distinctively Australian English words, some now rarely used outside the song. These include:

derived from the German term auf der Walz, which means to travel while working as a craftsman and learn new techniques from other masters.[65]
a romantic term for a swagman's bundle. See below, "Waltzing Matilda".
Waltzing Matilda
from the above terms, "to waltz Matilda" is to travel with a swag, that is, with all one's belongings on one's back wrapped in a blanket or cloth. The exact origins of the term "Matilda" are disputed; one fanciful derivation states that when swagmen met each other at their gatherings, there were rarely women to dance with. Nonetheless, they enjoyed a dance and so danced with their swags, which was given a woman's name. However, this appears to be influenced by the word "waltz", hence the introduction of dancing. It seems more likely that, as a swagman's only companion, the swag came to be personified as a female.
The National Library of Australia states:
Matilda is an old Teutonic female name meaning "mighty battle maid". This may have informed the use of "Matilda" as a slang term to mean a de facto wife who accompanied a wanderer. In the Australian bush a man's swag was regarded as a sleeping partner, hence his "Matilda". (Letter to Rt. Hon. Sir Winston Churchill, KG from Harry Hastings Pearce, 19 February 1958. Harry Pearce Papers, NLA Manuscript Collection, MS2765)[66]
In Germany the terms "Waltzing Matilda" have a very specific meaning:
It refers to the tradition where craftsmen, after having completed their apprenticeship, spend 3 years away from their hometown, travelling on minimal budget, working in many places in order to acquire experience and master their craft. See Journeyman Years for a detailed description. In this context, (Walz) or (auf der Walz) refers to this activity. And (Mathilda) is the patron saint of the road, looking after the men (and women), helping them but sometimes dealing harsh lessons.
Hence (Waltzing Matilda) would refer to the activity of a journey man traveling the road, only carrying a simple swag.

"Weiter zogen wir durch die Schweiz, um uns in der Genfer Gegend neue Arbeit zu suchen. Aber Mathilda, unsere Straßengöttin, meinte es dieses Mal nicht gut mit uns. Wenn es regnete, wenn es kalt war, wenn man keinen Lift fand, kein Bett und auch keine Arbeit, dann hieß es bei uns: Kann man nichts machen, das will die Mathilda jetzt so."

We kept travelling through Switzerland, to look for work around Geneva. But Mathilda, our patron saint of the road, was not kind to us this time. When it rains, it is icy cold, or when we couldn't find a ride, a bed for the night or even no work, then we used to say: 'no can do, this is what Mathilda wants it to be'

— Franz im Glück, Meine Wanderjahre auf der Walz (2015) [67]

"Aktuell ist also Mathilda meine beste Freundin – so nennen wir die Straße. Mathilda ist unsere Schutzpatronin, sie hilft uns, wenn wir etwas brauchen. Wenn ich mir ein warmes Bett wünsche oder an ein weit entferntes Ziel mitgenommen werden möchte, hat Mathilda bisher immer dafür gesorgt, dass es klappt."

Currently Mathilda is my best friend - this is what we call the road. Mathilda is our patron saint. She helps us when we are in need. If I really long for a warm bed or look for a ride for a distant destination, I always found that Mathilda helped to make it work.

— "Jeder Tag ist ein neues Abenteuer", Spiegel.de "Mein erstes Jahr im Job" (2021)[68]
a man who travelled the country looking for work. The swagman's "swag" was a bed roll that bundled his belongings.
an oxbow lake (a cut-off river bend) found alongside a meandering river
coolibah tree
a kind of eucalyptus tree which grows near billabongs
a sheep[66]
a can for boiling water, usually 1–1.5 litres (2–3 pints)
tucker bag
a bag for carrying food
Australian squatters started as early farmers who raised livestock on land which they did not have the legal title to use; in many cases they later gained legal use of the land even though they did not have full possession, and became wealthy thanks to these large land holdings. The squatter's claim to the land may be as unfounded as is the swagman's claim to the jumbuck.


The lyrics of "Waltzing Matilda" have been changed since it was written. The following version, considered to be the 'original',[69] was published by Paterson himself in Saltbush Bill, J.P., and Other Verses in 1917, and appears as follows:[70][71]

Oh! there once was a swagman camped in the Billabong,
Under the shade of a Coolabah tree;
And he sang as he looked at his old billy boiling,
'Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me.'

Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda, my darling,
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water-bag—
Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me?

Down came a jumbuck to drink at the water-hole,
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him in glee;
And he sang as he put him away in his tucker-bag,
'You'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me!'

Down came the Squatter a-riding his thorough-bred;
Down came Policemen — one, two, and three.
'Whose is the jumbuck you've got in the tucker-bag?
You'll come a-waltzing Matilda with we.' [sic]

But the swagman, he up and he jumped in the water-hole,
Drowning himself by the Coolabah tree;
And his ghost may be heard as it sings in the Billabong,
'Who'll come a-waltzing Matilda with me?'

In a facsimile of the first part of the original manuscript, included in Singer of the Bush, a collection of Paterson's works published by Lansdowne Press in 1983, the first two verses appear as follows:

Oh there once was a swagman camped in the billabong,
Under the shade of a Coolibah tree,
And he sang as he looked at the old billy boiling,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Who'll come a waltzin' Matilda my darling,
Who'll come a waltzin' Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water bag,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Down came a jumbuck to drink at the water hole,
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him in glee,
And he sang as he put him away in the tucker bag,
You'll come a waltzin' Matilda with me.

You'll come a waltzing Matilda my darling,
You'll come a waltzing Matilda with me.
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water bag,
You'll come a waltzing Matilda with me.

Some corrections in the manuscript are evident; the verses originally read (differences in italics):

Oh there once was a swagman camped in the billabong,
Under the shade of a Coolibah tree,
And he sang as he looked at the old billy boiling,
Who'll come a roving Australia with me?

Who'll come a rovin (rest missing)
Who'll come a waltzin' Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a tucker bag.
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

It has been suggested that these changes were from an even earlier version and that Paterson was talked out of using this text, but the manuscript does not bear this out. In particular, the first line of the chorus was corrected before it had been finished, so the original version is incomplete.

The first published version, in 1903, differs slightly from this text:

Oh there once was a swagman camped in the billabongs,
Under the shade of a Coolibah tree,
And he sang as he looked at the old billy boiling,
"Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?"

Who'll come a waltzing Matilda, my darling,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water-bag,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Down came a jumbuck to drink at the waterhole,
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him in glee,
And he sang as he put him away in the tucker-bag,
You'll come a waltzing Matilda with me.


Up came the squatter a-riding his thoroughbred,
Up rose the troopers—one, two, a and three.
"Whose the jolly jumbuck you've got in the tucker-bag?
You'll come a waltzing Matilda with we."


Up sprang the swagman and jumped in the waterhole,
Drowning himself by the Coolibah tree.
And his voice can be heard as it sings in the billabongs,
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me.


By contrast with the original, and also with subsequent versions, the chorus of all the verses was the same in this version. This is also apparently the only version that uses "billabongs" instead of "billabong".

Current variations of the third line of the first verse are "And he sang as he sat and waited by the billabong" or "And he sang as he watched and waited till his billy boiled". Another variation is that the third line of each chorus is kept unchanged from the first chorus, or is changed to the third line of the preceding verse.

There is also the very popular so-called Queensland version[72][73] that has a different chorus, one very similar to that used by Paterson, and a completely different melody:

Oh there once was a swagman camped in a billabong
Under the shade of the coolibah tree
And he sang as he looked at his old billy boiling
Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?

Who'll come a'waltzing Matilda my darling?
Who'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me?
Waltzing Matilda and leading a water bag
Who'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me?

Down came a jumbuck to drink at the water hole
Up jumped the swagman and grabbed him with glee
And he sang as he stowed him away in his tucker bag
You'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me


Down came the squatter a'riding his thoroughbred
Down came policemen one two three
Whose is the jumbuck you've got in your tucker bag?
You'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me


But the swagman he up and he jumped in the water hole
Drowning himself by the coolibah tree
And his ghost may be heard as it sings in the billabong
Who'll come a'waltzing Matilda with me?



Waltzing Matilda mural on the side of an Ansett Boeing 737-300 in the mid-1990s

In May 1988 the Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA) chief executive, John Sturman, presented five platinum awards, "which recognised writers who had created enduring works which have become a major part of the Australian culture", at the annual APRA Awards ceremony as part of their celebrations for the Australian Bicentenary.[74] One of the platinum awards was for Paterson and Cowan's version of "Waltzing Matilda".[74][75]

Official useEdit

The song has never been the officially recognised national anthem in Australia. Unofficially, however, it is often used in similar circumstances. The song was one of four included in a national plebiscite to choose Australia's national song held on 21 May 1977 by the Fraser Government to determine which song was preferred as Australia's national anthem. "Waltzing Matilda" received 28% of the vote compared with 43% for "Advance Australia Fair", 19% for "God Save the Queen" and 10% for "Song of Australia".[76]

Australian passports issued from 2003 have had the lyrics of "Waltzing Matilda" hidden microscopically in the background pattern of most of the pages for visas and arrival/departure stamps.[77]


"Waltzing Matilda" was used at the 1974 FIFA World Cup and at the Montreal Olympic Games in 1976 and, as a response to the New Zealand All Blacks haka, it has gained popularity as a sporting anthem for the Australia national rugby union team. It is also performed, along with "Advance Australia Fair", at the annual AFL Grand Final.

Matilda the Kangaroo was the mascot at the 1982 Commonwealth Games held in Brisbane, Queensland. Matilda was a cartoon kangaroo, who appeared as a 13-metre (43 ft) high mechanical kangaroo at the opening ceremony,[78] accompanied by Rolf Harris singing "Waltzing Matilda".

The Australian women's national soccer team is nicknamed the Matildas after this song.[79]

Jessica Mauboy and Stan Walker recorded a version of "Waltzing Matilda" to promote the 2012 Summer Olympics in Australia. It was released as a single on 3 August 2012.[80][81]

Military unitsEdit

It is used as the quick march of the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment and as the official song of the US 1st Marine Division, commemorating the time the unit spent in Australia during the Second World War.[82][83] Partly also used in the British Royal Tank Regiment's slow march of "Royal Tank Regiment", because an early British tank model was called "Matilda".

Annual DayEdit

6 April has been observed as Waltzing Matilda Day annually in Australia since 2012.[84][85]

Covers and derivative worksEdit

In 1995, it was reported that at least 500 artists in Australia and overseas had released recordings of "Waltzing Matilda", and according to Peter Burgis of the National Film and Sound Archive, it is "one of the most recorded songs in the world".[86] Artists and bands who have covered the song range from rock stars to children's performers such as Burl Ives;[87] to choirs, including the Mormon Tabernacle Choir.[86] Jimmie Rodgers had a US#41 pop hit with the song in 1959.[88]

On 14 April 1981, on Space Shuttle Columbia's first mission, country singer Slim Dusty's rendition was broadcast to Earth.[89][90]


Versions of the song have been used as the title of, or been prominently featured in, a number of films and television programs.

Waltzing Matilda is a 1933 Australian film directed by and starring Pat Hanna.[91] It features a young Coral Browne.[92]

The introduction of the song was the title of Once a Jolly Swagman, a 1949 British film starring Dirk Bogarde, but it had no connection to Australia or the story told in the song.[93]

An animated short was made in 1958 for Australian television.[94]

Ernest Gold used the song and variations of it extensively in the 1959 film On the Beach.[95][96]

The 2017 short film Waltzing Tilda features various versions of the song and it is also sung by the main character.[97][98]

The song is featured in the 2019 film Deadwood: The Movie[99] despite the film being set in 1889, six years before the song was written.

TV seriesEdit

The theme song of the 1980 Australian television series Secret Valley is sung to a faster version of the tune of "Waltzing Matilda".[100]

Video gamesEdit

It is the theme song for Australia in the video game Civilization VI.[101]

The song is the basis for a side-quest in Borderlands: The Pre-Sequel, developed by 2K Australia named The Empty Billabong. The player is instructed to search for a man known only as "the Jolly Swagman" at his camp under a coolibah tree where they find his tuckerbag and an audiolog where the Jolly Swagman recounts events identical to the song.[102]


On the occasion of Queensland's 150-year celebrations in 2009, Opera Queensland produced the revue Waltzing Our Matilda, staged at the Conservatorium Theatre and subsequently touring twelve regional centres in Queensland. The show was created by Jason and Leisa Barry-Smith and Narelle French. The story line used the fictional process of Banjo Paterson writing the poem when he visited Queensland in 1895 to present episodes of four famous Australians: bass-baritone Peter Dawson (1882–1961), soprano Dame Nellie Melba (1861–1931), Bundaberg-born tenor Donald Smith (1922–1998), and soprano Gladys Moncrieff, also from Bundaberg. The performers were Jason Barry-Smith as Banjo Paterson, Guy Booth as Dawson, David Kidd as Smith, Emily Burke as Melba, Zoe Traylor as Moncrieff, and Donna Balson (piano, voice). The production toured subsequently again in several years.[103] British guitarist Brian May performed an acoustic version of the song solo during Queen + Adam Lambert's tour of Australia in 2014.[104]

Derivative musical worksEdit


  1. ^ "Who'll Come A Waltzing Matilda With Me?". National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, draft revision March 2001. "Matilda, n."[full citation needed]
  3. ^ a b "07 Jun 2011 - Who'll come a Waltzing Matilda with me? - Archived Website". Webarchive.nla.gov.au. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  4. ^ "Waltzing Matilda Centre". Matildacentre.com.au. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  5. ^ a b Arthur, Chrissy (6 April 2012). "Outback town holds first Waltzing Matilda Day". ABC News.
  6. ^ "Waltzing Matilda Day". Waltzing Matilda Centre, Winton. Archived from the original on 27 March 2012.
  7. ^ "National Film and Sound Archive: Waltzing Matilda on australianscreen online". Aso.gov.au. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  8. ^ Semmler, Clement, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 11 , 1988, online in 2006, https://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/paterson-andrew-barton-banjo-7972
  9. ^ Lindner, W Benjamin. Waltzing Matilda ─ Australia’s Accidental Anthem. Boolarong Press. Tingalpa, Queensland, Australia. 2019. ISBN 9781925877076 p 172
  10. ^ Lindner, W Benjamin. Waltzing Matilda ─ Australia’s Accidental Anthem. Boolarong Press. Tingalpa, Queensland, Australia. 2019. ISBN 9781925877076 Chapter 10
  11. ^ "Macpherson, Christina Rutherford (1864–1936)", National Library of Australia
  12. ^ Ponnamperuma, Senani. "Waltzing Matilda Australia's Favourite Song".
  13. ^ Styles, Ivan (April 1991). "The true history of the autoharp". The Autoharp Quarterly. Vol. 3.
  14. ^ May, Sydney. The Story of Waltzing Matilda. W R Smith & Paterson PTY. LTD. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 1944. p. 16
  15. ^ May, Sydney. The Story of Waltzing Matilda. W R Smith & Paterson PTY. LTD. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 1955. Pages 30/31.
  16. ^ Semple, David. "The Poems and Songs of Robert Tannahill: Songs – Bonnie Wood O Craigielee". Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  17. ^ https://webarchive.nla.gov.au/awa/20110606173517/http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/34755/20110606-1326/www.nla.gov.au/epubs/waltzingmatilda/5552-item5.html bars 10 – 42.
  18. ^ May, Sydney. The Story of Waltzing Matilda. W R Smith & Paterson PTY. LTD. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 1955. Page 69.
  19. ^ May, Sydney. The Story of Waltzing Matilda. W R Smith & Paterson PTY. LTD. Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 1944. Page 16.
  20. ^ Macpherson, Christina. Unsent, undated letter to Dr Wood circa 1935.
  21. ^ a b c O'Keeffe 2012, p. [page needed]
  22. ^ "Archives Library, Shearers". Australian National University.
  23. ^ "THE SHEARING DISPUTE". The Brisbane Courier. 28 August 1894. p. 5.
  24. ^ Lindner, W Benjamin. Waltzing Matilda ─ Australia’s Accidental Anthem. Boolarong Press. Tingalpa, Queensland, Australia. 2019. ISBN 9781925877076 p62.
  25. ^ "THE SHEARING DISPUTE". Brisbane Courier Mail. 4 September 1894. p. 5.
  26. ^ Lindner, W Benjamin. Waltzing Matilda ─ Australia’s Accidental Anthem. Boolarong Press. Tingalpa, Queensland, Australia. 2019. ISBN 9781925877076 p 75
  27. ^ "Waltzing Matilda an old cold case". Abc.net.au. 12 February 2010. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
  28. ^ Macpherson, Christina. "Undated letter from Christina Macpherson to Dr Thomas Wood, image 2". Nla.gov.au.
  29. ^ Ryan, Tom (24 August 1944). "ORIGIN OF WALTZING MATILDA". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Queensland). p. 2.
  30. ^ NLA trove, Papers relating to the song "Waltzing Matilda", circa 1900-1986 [manuscript]. Undated letter from Christina Macpherson to Dr. Thomas Wood (author of Cobbers, 1934) p 3,4 https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-224075769/view
  31. ^ NLA, trove, archived 2011, ‘Who'll come a waltzing Matilda with me?’, Origins, The first manuscripts. https://webarchive.nla.gov.au/awa/20110606173517/http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/34755/20110606-1326/www.nla.gov.au/epubs/waltzingmatilda/1-Orig-FirstManuscript.html
  32. ^ Wood, Thomas. "Cobbers". Oxford University Press, London, 1934. P 234
  33. ^ Macpherson, Christina, Undated letter from Christina Macpherson to Dr Thomas Wood (author of Cobbers, 1934) (Item 1), circa 1935, Image 1, https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-224075521/view
  34. ^ Lindner, W Benjamin. Waltzing Matilda ─ Australia’s Accidental Anthem. Boolarong Press. Tingalpa, Queensland, Australia. 2019. ISBN 9781925877076 pages 241, 242
  35. ^ Lindner, W Benjamin. Waltzing Matilda ─ Australia’s Accidental Anthem. Boolarong Press. Tingalpa, Queensland, Australia. 2019. ISBN 9781925877076 p 158
  36. ^ May, Sydney. “The Story of Waltzing Matilda” 1955 W.R. SMITH & PATERSON PTY. LTD. BRISBANE p 78, and in photos following p 72.
  37. ^ William Coleman,Their Fiery Cross of Union. A Retelling of the Creation of the Australian Federation, 1889-1914, Connor Court, Queensland, 2021, p 53.
  38. ^ "Waltzing Matilda an old cold case". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 10 February 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
  39. ^ "Waltzing Matilda" 'not socialist', BBC News, 5 May 2008
  40. ^ a b c ""Waltzing Maltida" a little ditty, historians say". ABC News. 5 May 2008.
  41. ^ > https://www.rogerclarke.com/WM/Manuscript.gif<
  42. ^ Lindner, W Benjamin. Waltzing Matilda ─ Australia’s Accidental Anthem. Boolarong Press. Tingalpa, Queensland, Australia. 2019. ISBN 9781925877076 p 44,45.
  43. ^ Semple, David. The Poems and Songs of Robert Tannahill, Alex. Gardner, Paisley, 1874 p 259 https://www.grianpress.com/Tannahill/TANNAHILL%27S%20SONGS%203.htm
  44. ^ https://digital.nls.uk/special-collections-of-printed-music/archive/90262109 p 74
  45. ^ https://electricscotland.com/poetry/kyles.pdf P 255
  46. ^ > https://www.grianpress.com/Tannahill/TANNAHILL%27S%20SONGS%203.htm<
  47. ^ "Photographic image" (GIF). Rogerclarke.com. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  48. ^ "The Bold Fusilier". National Library of Australia. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  49. ^ The Times, 15 September 2003, "Sporting anthems", Section: Features; p. 17.
  50. ^ May, Sydney. The Story of Waltzing Matilda, 1955. W. R. Smith & Paterson PTY. LTD. Brisbane. P 27
  51. ^ May, Sydney. The Story of Waltzing Matilda, 1944. W. R. Smith & Paterson PTY. LTD. Brisbane. P 17
  52. ^ Clarke, Roger. Roger Clarkes’ Waltzing Matilda Homepage, 'The Bold / Gay Fusilier' / 'The Rochester Recruiting Sergeant'. https://www.rogerclarke.com/WM/index
  53. ^ Mainly Norfolk, The Gay Fusilier / The Rochester Recruiting Sergeant https://mainlynorfolk.info/folk/songs/thegayfusilier.html
  54. ^ Walsh, Richard (2010). Traditional Australian Verse: The Essential Collection. ReadHowYouWant. p. 153. ISBN 978-1458720146.
  55. ^ a b Safran, John (20 December 2002). ""Waltzing Matilda", courtesy of a tea-leaf near you". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  56. ^ Rutledge, Martha. "Inglis, James (1845–1908)", Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, 1972. Retrieved 30 August 2018
  57. ^ Pemberton, Greg. "Waltzing Matilda's origins and chain of ownership murky." The Sydney Morning Herald, 14 August 2015. Retrieved 30 August 2018
  58. ^ Pollack, Michael (25 January 2001). "Screen Grab; Tale of the Jumbuck and the Billabong, Interpreted". The New York Times.
  59. ^ Clarke, Roger (2001). "Copyright in "Waltzing Matilda"". Roger Clarke's "Waltzing Matilda" site. Archived from the original on 9 July 2008. Retrieved 3 November 2008. The copyright has presumably expired in Australia (and in almost every other country in the world), because in most Western countries copyright lasts for only 50 years after the death of the originator. Carl Fischer Musics' copyright hold is due to end in 2011. Banjo Paterson died in 1941 and Marie Cowan in 1919, so these copyrights ought to have expired in 1991 and 1969 respectively. In the United States other rules hold and copyright for the song still appears to exist. It is claimed by Carl Fischer New York Inc.
  60. ^ Greg Pemberton (14 August 2015). "Waltzing Matilda's origins and chain of ownership murky". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  61. ^ "WebVoyage Record View 1". Cocatalog.loc.gov. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  62. ^ "Waltzing Matilda" (1905), music arranged by Marie Cowan – via Trove
  63. ^ For instance, compare the lyrics at the National Library of Australia to those at "Waltzing Matilda". Australian National University. 9 June 2007. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
  64. ^ "A Popular Bush Song". The Capricornian. Vol. 27, no. 50. Queensland, Australia. 14 December 1901. p. 8. Retrieved 10 October 2011 – via National Library of Australia.
  65. ^ Harry Hastings Pearce (1971). On the Origins of Waltzing Matilda (expression, lyric, melody). Hawthorn Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780725600303.
  66. ^ a b Glossary, National Library of Australia, archived from the original on 14 June 2011
  67. ^ Zschornack, Franz (16 April 2015). Franz im Glück: Meine Wanderjahre auf der Walz. ISBN 9783732506064.
  68. ^ Maas, Sebastian (24 March 2022). "Als junge Frau auf der Walz: »Jeder Tag ist ein neues Abenteuer«". Der Spiegel.
  69. ^ O'Keeffe 2012, p. 234.
  70. ^ Paterson, A.B. (1917). Saltbush Bill, J. P., and Other Verses. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. p. 15. OCLC 671712992.
  71. ^ Magoffin, Richard (1983). Waltzing Matilda, song of Australia : a folk history. Charters Towers, North Queensland: Mimosa Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-9598986-4-6. OCLC 11211975.
  72. ^ "Who'll come a Waltzing Matilda with me?". National Library of Australia. Archived from the original on 1 April 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  73. ^ ""Waltzing Matilda" – Lyrics, midi, history". Chinarice.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  74. ^ a b Watt, Ian (19 May 1988). "They write the songs that make the whole world sing". The Canberra Times. Vol. 62, no. 19, 218. p. 26. Retrieved 10 July 2016 – via Trove.
  75. ^ "1988 APRA Music Award Winners". Australasian Performing Right Association (APRA). Archived from the original on 21 April 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2016.
  76. ^ "Plebiscite results – see 1977 National Song Poll". Elections and referendums. Department of the Parliament (Australian federal government). 2002. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2007.
  77. ^ "Passport gets the hop on fraudsters". Archived from the original on 7 December 2003.
  78. ^ "A word to the wise guy – Sport". The Sydney Morning Herald. 9 April 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  79. ^ Independent Online (27 October 2007). "News – SA Soccer: If a name works, why fix it?". Iol.co.za. Archived from the original on 21 December 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2009.
  80. ^ "Stan Walker and Jessica Mauboy to Release New Collaboration Together for the Olympics". Take 40 Australia, MCM Entertainment. 20 July 2012. Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  81. ^ "iTunes – Music – Waltzing Matilda – Single by Jessica Mauboy & Stan Walker". iTunes Store (Australia). 3 August 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
  82. ^ "1st Marine Division celebrates 65 years". US Fed News Service, Including US State News. 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2008. Major Gen. Richard F. Natonski and Sgt. Maj. Wayne R. Bell cut the ribbon to the "Waltzing Matilda", the 1st Marine Division's official song.
  83. ^ Clarke, Roger (2003). "Roger Clarke's "Waltzing Matilda" Home-Page". Roger Clarke (hosted on ANU computers). Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 14 February 2008. I understand that the tune (without the words) is the marching song of the US 1st Marine Division. In 2003, Col Pat Garrett USMC confirmed that it was/is played every morning immediately after The Marines Hymn ('From the Halls of Montezuma ...') following the raising of the National colo(u)rs at 0800, and at Divisional parades. Further, "The Division was raised at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina in early 1941, and became associated with "Waltzing Matilda" when the Marines came to Melbourne in early 1943 for rest and refit following the successful retaking of Guadalcanal, and before it returned to combat at Cape Gloucester in New Britain in the Northern Solomons in September of that year"
  84. ^ "Celebrating 'Waltzing Matilda' with a special day - ABC (none) - Australian Broadcasting Corporation". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  85. ^ "Waltzing Matilda Day". waltzingmatildaday.info (invitation). Archived from the original on 17 April 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2022.
  86. ^ a b "Banjo's bush tale still waltzing its way into the charts and hearts" (27 January 1995), The Canberra Times. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  87. ^ "Waltzing Matilda – Burl Ives – Song Info". AllMusic. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  88. ^ "Billboard". Nielsen Business Media, Inc. 15 February 1960. Retrieved 19 March 2018 – via Google Books.
  89. ^ STS-1 audio (Orbit 16). 14 April 1981. Recorded at Orroral Valley Tracking Station. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  90. ^ Country singer Slim Dusty, whose recording of the song.... 14 April 1981. From UPI archives. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  91. ^ "Film Reviews". The Sydney Morning Herald. 19 February 1934. p. 6. Retrieved 2 June 2012 – via Trove.
  92. ^ "Carol Coombe Returns to London". The West Australian. Perth. 26 March 1935. p. 3. Retrieved 9 August 2012 – via Trove.
  93. ^ "Best ever British sports movies", oldndazed.co.uk
  94. ^ Nan Musgrove (7 August 1957). "Television Parade". The Australian Women's Weekly. p. 10. Retrieved 22 January 2020 – via Trove.
  95. ^ George Burt (1994). The Art of Film Music. University Press of New England. p. 68. ISBN 9781555532703.
  96. ^ "On the Beach" by Lee Pfeiffer, Encyclopædia Britannica, 13 April 2016
  97. ^ "Episode 5 – Waltzing Tilda – Filmmakers – Jonathan Wilhelmsson, Raquel Linde & Holly Fraser". Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  98. ^ "Sunday Shorts: Waltzing Tilda". Cinema Australia. 2 July 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2018.
  99. ^ Seitz, Matt Zoller (1 June 2019). "Why Paula Malcomson Came Back to Deadwood". Vulture. Retrieved 15 August 2021.
  100. ^ Acker, Aleksandra; Nyland, Berenice (2020). "Introduction". Adult Perspectives on Children and Music in Early Childhood. International Perspectives on Early Childhood Education and Development. Springer Nature. p. 10. ISBN 9783030576981. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
  101. ^ Civilization VI – First Look: Australia on YouTube
  102. ^ Tran, Danny. "Crikey! Australian Voices in Borderlands The Pre-sequel". Anglophone Literary Studies. Retrieved 1 May 2022.
  103. ^ "Waltzing Our Matilda" by Desley Bartlett, Stagediary, July 2011; "Waltzing Our Matilda Across Queensland", Stage Whispers, July 2011
  104. ^ Concertography Queen Queen + AL 2014, Queen on tour: Queen + Adam Lambert 2014. Retrieved 22nd March 2023.
  105. ^ Griffith, Tony (2005). "Chapter 4: Beating the Bolshoi". Beautiful Lies: Australia from Menzies to Howard. Australia: Wakefield Press. pp. 57–58. ISBN 1-86254-590-1.
  106. ^ Bebbington, Warren (1997). The Oxford Companion to Australian Music. Oxford University Press. pp. 427–428.
  107. ^ Casimir, Jon (20 April 2002). "Secret life of Matilda". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  108. ^ "Rambling Syd's Ganderbag". Freespace.virgin.net. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  109. ^ Mossman, Tam. (1983). The Family Car Song Book. Philadelphia: Running Press.
  110. ^ Humphries, Patrick (2007). The Many Lives of Tom Waits. p. 91
  111. ^ Fantasia on Waltzing Matilda on YouTube, Yo-Yo Ma (cello), Kathryn Stott (piano)
  112. ^ "Ray Chen – The Golden Age". Discogs. Retrieved 30 May 2023.
  113. ^ "2018 ARIA Awards Winners". Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). Retrieved 30 May 2023.


External linksEdit