Victory Day over Nazism in World War II (Ukrainian: День перемоги над нацизмом у Другій світовій війні, romanized: Den peremohy nad natsyzmom u Druhii svitovii viini) was a national holiday and a non-working day in Ukraine from 2015 to 2023.
|Victory Day over Nazism |
in World War II
|Official name||Ukrainian: День перемоги над нацизмом у Другій світовій війні|
|First time||9 May 2015|
|Last time||9 May 2023|
The holiday was first celebrated on 9 May 2015 and followed the Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation on 8 May (which paid tribute to the victims of World War II and was also first celebrated in 2015). The holiday replaced Victory Day, which is celebrated in other post-Soviet states.
On May 8, 2023, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy submitted to the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's national parliament) a bill establishing May 8, the Day of Remembrance and Victory over Nazism in World War II 1939 – 1945. On May 29, 2023, parliament made the Day of Remembrance and Victory over Nazism in World War II 1939 – 1945 on May 8 as a public holiday, canceling the Victory Day over Nazism in World War II on May 9.
On April 9, 2015, the Ukrainian parliament approved a set of decommunization laws which included the annulment of the Soviet law commonly cited as the "Law of Perpetuation of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945", which had established Victory Day as a Ukrainian holiday. The holiday was replaced with a new holiday, officially named "Victory Day over Nazism in World War II".
According to Ukraine's decommunization laws, both Communist and Nazi symbols have been prohibited in Ukraine since May 15th, 2015, which means that Soviet symbols may not be used during the celebration of this holiday. The term "Great Patriotic War" was itself removed from all official Ukrainian legislation shortly after the change of holiday, and, while not illegal, the phrase "Great Patriotic War" is rarely used due to its frequent use by the USSR, and later, the Russian Federation, with Ukrainian institutions preferring the phrase "World War II".
Ukraine has also worked to shift the narrative of the holiday away from a glorification of war and conflict and instead to "celebrate personal histories", with an aim to "honor, rather than celebrate" the events of the war, in a manner more similar to the United Kingdom's Remembrance Day than to Russia's Victory Day.
On May 8, 2023, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy signed a decree according to which Ukraine celebrates Europe Day on May 9, and submitted to the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's national parliament) a bill establishing May 8, the Day of Remembrance and Victory over Nazism in World War II 1939 – 1945, as a day off instead of Victory Day over Nazism in World War II on May 9.
On May 29, 2023, the Verkhovna Rada made the Day of Remembrance and Victory over Nazism in World War II 1939 – 1945 on May 8 as a public holiday, canceling the Victory Day over Nazism in World War II on May 9.
On June 12, 2023, President Zelenskyy signed this law.
According to opinion polling by Kyiv International Institute of Sociology, in 2010 almost 60% of citizens considered Victory Day one of the biggest holidays while in 2022, only 13% of Ukrainians were ready to celebrate May 9.
9 May as a triple anniversary edit
This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2023)
While 9 May is the general commemoration of the termination of the Second World War and the allied victory in Europe and North Africa, in Ukraine it is in recent years a triple anniversary aside from Europe Day being marked on said date - 9 May being the date of the 1920 Kyiv Polish-Ukrainian victory parade during the Ukrainian War of Independence, the first ever military parade in modern times to be held in the capital following the Polish-Ukrainian Kyiv offensive. No major commemorations of the parade have been held so far, however.
Celebrations by year edit
The Ukrainian Institute of National Memory have published teaching materials in advance and recommended the holiday be celebrated in a new format. Despite the fact that the law "About perpetuation of the victory over Nazism in World War II 1939 - 1945" officially did not came into force, the holiday in Ukraine officially was celebrated in a format different from Russian formats of celebration of "Victory Day". On this day there were ceremony of laying flowers at monuments to unknown soldiers of the Red Army, in Kyiv - a peace march involving military brass bands from Ukraine, Estonia, Jordan, Lithuania, Poland, and Serbia. It was after the ceremony of oath of cadets in the presence of the President of Ukraine Petro Poroshenko.
The day before, Poroshenko delivered a speech to a Verkhovna Rada filled with veterans of the Red Army, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Anti-Terrorist Operation veterans, as well as former presidents of Ukraine (Leonid Kravchuk, Leonid Kuchma and Viktor Yushchenko) and Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-Moon.
2016 was the first year that the holiday was celebrated as an official holiday (although the first celebrations took place the year before, the law establishing the holiday was adopted a couple days after 9 May).
The 2020 celebrations in honor of the diamond jubilee were cancelled by order of Prime Minister Denys Shmyhal in light of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ukraine. On 7 May, Mayor of Kyiv Vitali Klitschko announced the organization of a planned event in the Park of Eternal Glory with a high security presence. President Zelensky went on a working visit to the Luhansk Oblast where he visited an urban settlement that is divided by the border between Ukraine and Russia. In the settlement, he visited the memorial complex "Ukraine to the Liberators". He also visited the Zakarpattia Oblast, where he also laid flowers at the "Hill of Glory" memorial complex. During his holiday address on 9 May, he paid tribute to Ukrainians who fought during the war, including Crimean Tatar Amet-Khan Sultan, American military personnel Alex M. Diachenko and Michael Strank, as well as Hero of the Soviet Union Ivan Kozhedub. Zelensky also announced the creation of memorial project, which would involve the placement of bells in the four corners of Ukraine.
To mark the 78th anniversary of Victory in Europe, President Zelensky stated that from 2023 onwards, May 8 will be the new date of the formal commemoration of victory over Nazism in World War II, in line with celebrations of Victory in Europe Day in the European Union and with commemorations in the USA and Canada, with May 9 being earmaked as Europe Day in its stead as a commemoration of the 1950 formation of the EU — all as a reaction to the Russian invasion the previous year, a break of the former precedence, and a show of gratitude to the countries that have helped Ukraine resist Russia and its allies. May 8 will remain, though, as the date of the Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation and thus the two holidays were to be merged as one. A Presidential Decree to formalize the transfer of Victory Day to May 8 and renew the Europe Day holiday on May 9 was signed in Kyiv that day.
The official symbol of celebration of both Victory Day over Nazism in World War II and Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation is the red poppy (remembrance poppy) flower, which is the common symbol of the memorable days of Second World War all over the world (more recognizable in the British Commonwealth of Nations). It has been used in Ukraine in its own styling developed by Kharkiv designer Serhii Mishakin. The motto of both days is "1939—1945. We remember. We prevail" (Ukrainian: 1939-1945. Пам’ятаємо. Перемагаємо: "Pamyataemo. Peremahaemo").
See also edit
- Ukraine celebrates Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation (Video), UNIAN (8 May 2017)
- Ukraine celebrates Day of Victory over Nazism in World War II, UNIAN (9 May 2016)
- Poroshenko signed the laws about decomunization. Ukrayinska Pravda. 15 May 2015
Poroshenko signs laws on denouncing Communist, Nazi regimes, Interfax-Ukraine. 15 May 2015
- «Велику Вітчизняну війну» замінили на «Другу світову» — закон (in Ukrainian). Fakty. ICTV. 09.04.2015
- Депутати врегулювали питання про відзначення в Україні перемоги над нацизмом (in Ukrainian). The Ukrainian Week. 09.04.2015
- День Перемоги в Україні відзначають за новою традицією. ОГО. 09.05.2015
- "Україна щорічно 9 травня відзначатиме День Європи - указ президента". www.eurointegration.com.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-05-08.
- "President's Decree declares May 9 as Europe Day in Ukraine". www.ukrinform.net. Retrieved 2023-05-08.
- Piper, Elizabeth (2023-05-08). "Ukraine moves day to mark Nazi surrender in shift towards West". Reuters. Retrieved 2023-05-08.
- "9 травня в Україні відзначатимуть День Європи, 8 травня - День пам'яті та перемоги над нацизмом у Другій світовій війні - Зеленський". Інтерфакс-Україна (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-05-08.
- Service, RFE/RL's Ukrainian. "Zelenskiy Declares May 9 'Europe Day' Ahead Of Russia's World War II Anniversary". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2023-05-08.
- "Zelensky Makes Pointed Putin Move Ahead of Russia's Victory Day Parade". MSN. Retrieved 2023-05-08.
- Service, RFE/RL's Russian. "Ukrainian Lawmakers Move Victory Day From May 9 To May 8". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2023-05-29.
- "In Ukraine, May 8 officially to be Day of Remembrance and Victory over Nazism". english.nv.ua. Retrieved 2023-05-29.
- "Rada adopts law on Day of Remembrance, Victory over Nazism in Second World War". Interfax-Ukraine. Retrieved 2023-05-29.
- "День пам'яті та перемоги над нацизмом зробили офіційним вихідним". espreso.tv (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-05-29.
- "Zelenskyy signs law recognising 8 May as Day of Remembrance and Victory over Nazism". Ukrainska Pravda. Retrieved 2023-06-12.
- Ганюкова, Ольга (2023-05-08). ""We are returning an honest history to our state": Zelensky addressed Ukrainians on the Day of Remembrance and Reconciliation. Video" [Ми повертаємо нашій державі чесну історію: Зеленський звернувся до українців у День пам'яті та примирення. Відео]. Obozrevatel (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2023-05-30.
- Наша країна відзначає День Перемоги у Другій світовій війні (in Ukrainian). Dzerkalo Tyzhnia. 09.05.2015
- Як Україна відзначає 70-річчя перемоги над нацизмом. Марафон (in Ukrainian). Espreso TV. 09.05.2015
- "Ветерани Червоної армії, УПА та герої АТО разом на Дні пам'яті та примирення". Радіо Свобода (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 2020-10-28.
- УКАЗ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА УКРАЇНИ № 249/2015 Про встановлення відзнаки Президента України — ювілейної медалі "70 років Перемоги над нацизмом". President of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). president.gov.ua. 29 April 2015. Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.
- "Ukraine celebrates Day of Victory over Nazism in World War II | UNIAN". www.unian.info.
- "Ukraine police arrest dozens at tense Victory Day events". www.irishtimes.com.
- "A meeting of a LIAISON UPA and a veteran of the Soviet army was arranged in the city of zelensky - PHOTOS". www.061.ua. May 8, 2019. Retrieved 2020-10-28.
- "Ukraine To Skip This Year's WWII Victory Day Celebrations Amid Pandemic - Prime Minister". UrduPoint.
- "On the Ukrainian-Russian border, President honored the memory of those killed in World War II". Official website of the President of Ukraine.
- "Zelensky honors memory of fallen soldiers who liberated Ukraine from Nazi invaders (Photo)". www.unian.info.
- "Address by the President on the Day of Victory over Nazism in the Second World War". Official website of the President of Ukraine.
- "Volodymyr Zelenskyy announces memorial project: bells-symbols will be placed in four corners of Ukraine". Official website of the President of Ukraine.
- Media related to Victory Day over Nazism in World War II at Wikimedia Commons
- Official Website
- Project of bill "On perpetuation of the victory over Nazism in World War II in 1939 — 1945" (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine.