USS Stewart (DD-224)
USS Stewart (DD-224) was a Clemson-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was the second ship named for Rear Admiral Charles Stewart. Scuttled in a port, she was later raised by the Japanese and commissioned as Patrol Boat No. 102. She came back under American control in 1945 after the occupation of Japan.
USS Stewart underway before WWII
|Builder:||William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia|
|Laid down:||9 September 1919|
|Launched:||4 March 1920|
|Sponsored by:||Mrs. Margaretta Stewart Stevens|
|Commissioned:||15 September 1920|
|Stricken:||25 March 1942|
|2 battle stars|
|Fate:||Scuttled at Surabaya, Java, 2 March 1942; later raised and commissioned into Imperial Japanese Navy|
|Recommissioned:||29 October 1945|
|Decommissioned:||23 May 1946|
|Stricken:||17 April 1946|
|Fate:||Sunk as a target, 24 May 1946|
|Name:||Patrol boat No.102 (Dai-102-Gō shōkaitei)|
|Builder:||102nd Naval Construction Department at Surabaya|
|Acquired:||February 1943 (raised)|
|Commissioned:||20 September 1943|
|Fate:||Surrendered, August 1945|
|General characteristics (as Clemson-class destroyer)|
|Class and type:||Clemson-class destroyer|
|Displacement:||1,215 short tons (1,102 t)|
|Length:||314 ft 5 in (95.83 m)|
|Beam:||31 ft 9 in (9.68 m)|
|Draft:||9 ft 4 in (2.84 m)|
|Speed:||35 knots (65 km/h)|
|Complement:||101 officers and enlisted|
|General characteristics (as Patrol Boat No. 102)|
|Class and type:||none|
|Displacement:||1,680 long tons (1,707 t) standard |
|Length:||98.70 m (323 ft 10 in) overall |
|Draft:||3.50 m (11 ft 6 in) |
|Speed:||26.0 knots (29.9 mph; 48.2 km/h) |
|Endurance:||2,400 nautical miles @ 12 knots (4,400 km @ 22 km/h) |
|Complement:||110 (September 1943)|
|Sensors and |
|Electronic warfare |
Stewart was laid down on 9 September 1919 by William Cramp & Sons, Philadelphia; launched on 4 March 1920; sponsored by Mrs. Margaretta Stewart Stevens, granddaughter of Rear Admiral Stewart; and commissioned on 15 September 1920, Lieutenant S. G. Lamb in command.
Between the warsEdit
After a year of coastal operations with a reserve division, Stewart joined Destroyer Squadron, Atlantic, on 12 October 1921. She participated in fleet exercises in the Caribbean from 12 January to 22 April 1922; and, after repairs, departed Newport, Rhode Island, on 20 June and proceeded, via the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, to the Philippines for service in the Asiatic Fleet. She was destined not to return to the US for 23 years.
Arriving at Chefoo, China, on 26 August, Stewart entered the routine of the Asiatic Fleet, conducting training exercises from bases at Chefoo and Tsingtao in the summer and Manila in the winter and making calls at Chinese ports during the transit in each direction. Her routine was broken briefly between 6 and 21 September 1923 by a voyage to Yokosuka, Japan, to relieve victims of the Great Kantō earthquake which had heavily damaged that city and Tokyo on 30 and 31 August.
From 25 May to 16 June, Stewart supported the flight of four Army aircraft around the world, operating first in Japan and then at Shanghai.
Between 1924 and 1928, there were outbreaks of anti-foreign disturbances at Shanghai and Canton. Stewart transported marines to Shanghai in January 1925, and during the next years, spent periods augmenting the normal gunboat patrols on the Yangtze River and on the coast near Canton. She was at Shanghai on 24 March 1927 when Chinese Communist troops attacked foreigners at Nanking, and for the next three and a half months, the destroyer was stationed at Wuhu, Nanking, Shanghai, and Chenglin to protect American nationals and shipping along the Yangtze. She was also on the China coast when the Japanese launched an air and sea attack on Shanghai in late January 1932, and protected Americans at Swatow and Amoy from 1 to 3 and 9 to 24 February and at Shanghai from 26 February to 23 May. After full-scale war between Japan and China broke out in 1937 Stewart was again often on station in Chinese ports, at Tsingtao and Shanghai from 15 August to 18 December 1937, from 21 February to 21 March 1938, and from 3 June to 4 September 1939. On the latter date, after the outbreak of war in Europe, she was ordered south for patrol duties in the Philippines, which she continued until entering the Cavite Navy Yard for overhaul on 5 April 1940. Upon leaving the yard on 1 June, Stewart acted as plane guard vessel for seaplanes flying between Guam and the Philippines and then made a final tour of Chinese Yellow Sea ports from 7 July to 23 September 1940. During 1941, she remained in the Philippines as the international situation worsened; and, on 27 November, she was ordered, along with the other major surface combatants of the Asiatic Fleet, to the Dutch East Indies.
World War IIEdit
Stewart was at Tarakan Roads, Borneo, with other American and Dutch ships, when news of hostilities with Japan arrived on 8 December. During the final weeks of 1941, she escorted naval auxiliaries from the Philippines to Port Darwin, Australia. On 9 January 1942 Stewart was one of five destroyers in an escort composed of the cruisers Boise and Marblehead, with the other destroyers Bulmer, Pope, Parrott, and Barker departing from Darwin to Surabaya escorting the transport Bloemfontein. That transport had been part of the Pensacola Convoy and had left Brisbane 30 December 1941 with Army reinforcements composed of the 26th Field Artillery Brigade and Headquarters Battery, the 1st Battalion, 131st Field Artillery and supplies from that convoy destined for Java.
On 30 January, Stewart joined Marblehead and sortied with her from Bunda Roads on 4 February to intercept Japanese forces at the south entrance to the Macassar Strait. However, Marblehead was badly damaged by air attacks during the day, and Stewart escorted her back to the base at Tjilatjap, Java.
Stewart joined Admiral Karel Doorman's striking force under the American-British-Dutch-Australian Command on 14 February for an attack on Japanese forces advancing along the northern coast of Sumatra. During the approach, Stewart had to back her engines to avoid a Dutch destroyer ahead of her which had run aground on a reef in Stolze Strait, and, on the following day, 15 February, she survived numerous air attacks in the Bangka Strait. Although they damaged no Allied ships, the air attacks convinced Admiral Doorman that further advance without air cover would be foolhardy, and the Allied force retired. Stewart was detached on 16 February to fuel at Ratai Bay in Sumatra.
Admiral Doorman's forces were scattered when the Japanese landed on Bali on 19 February, and he threw his ships against the enemy in three groups on the night of 19 and 20 February in the Battle of Badung Strait. Stewart was lead ship in the second group and, in several brief but furious night engagements, came under extremely accurate fire from Japanese destroyers. Her boats were shot away, her torpedo racks and galley were hit, and a crippling shot hit the destroyer aft below her water line, opening her seams and flooding the steering engine room. However, the steering engine continued to operate under 2 feet (610 mm) of water; and the destroyer was able to maintain her station in column and return to Surabaya the next morning.
Stewart, as the most severely damaged ship, was the first to enter the floating drydock at Surabaya on 22 February. However, she was inadequately supported in the dock, and as the dock rose, the ship fell off the keel blocks onto her side in 12 feet (3.7 m) of water, bending her propeller shafts and causing further hull damage. With the port under enemy air attack and in danger of falling to the enemy, the ship could not be repaired. Responsibility for the destruction of the ship was given to naval authorities ashore, and Stewart's last crew members left the embattled port on the afternoon of 22 February.
Subsequently, demolition charges were set off within the ship, a Japanese bomb hit amidships further damaged her, and before the port was evacuated on 2 March, the drydock containing her was scuttled. Her name was struck from the Navy list on 25 March 1942 and was soon assigned to a new destroyer escort, USS Stewart (DE-238).
Later in the war, American pilots began reporting an American warship operating far within enemy waters. The ship had a Japanese trunked funnel but the lines of her four-piper hull were unmistakable. After almost a year under water, Stewart had been raised by the Japanese in February 1943 and commissioned into the Imperial Japanese Navy on 20 September 1943 as Patrol Boat No. 102. She was armed with two 3 inch guns and operated with the Japanese Southwest Area Fleet on escort duty. On 23 August 1944, under command of Lieutenant Tomoyoshi Yoshima, she operated in consort with the anti-submarine vessel CD-22, which sank Harder with all hands, using depth charges, although PB-102 was not directly involved in this action. In November 1944, PB-102 arrived at Kure for repairs. There her antiaircraft battery was augmented, and she was given a light tripod foremast. She then sailed for the Southwest Pacific, but the American reconquest of the Philippines blocked her way. On 28 April 1945, still under control of the Southwest Area Fleet, she was bombed and damaged by United States Army aircraft at Mokpo, Korea. She was transferred on 30 April to the control of the Kure Navy District, and in August 1945, was found by American occupation forces laid up in Hiro Bay near Kure.
In an emotional ceremony on 29 October 1945, the ship was recommissioned in the United States Navy at Kure. Although officially called simply DD-224, she was nicknamed by her crew "RAMP-224," standing for "Recovered Allied Military Personnel". On the trip home, her engines gave out near Guam, and she arrived at San Francisco, California in early March 1946 at the end of a towline. DD-224 was again struck from the Navy list on 17 April 1946, decommissioned on 23 May 1946, and sunk a day later off San Francisco as a target for aircraft.
Five Navy F6F Hellcat fighters hit her with 18 rockets and thousands of rounds of 50 calibre ammunition but she refused to go down despite the damage. She was finally sunk by USS PC-799 which finished her off with twelve 40-mm and 17 three-inch shells fired from a range of 300 yards.
- Parkin, Robert Sinclair (2001). Blood on the Sea: American Destroyers Lost in World War II. Da Capo Press. pp. 43–49. ISBN 0-306-81069-7.
- Characteristics for Japanese career are from documentation provided by the Japanese to the United States when the ship was returned to the U.S. Navy on 15 October 1945.
- JCAHR (C08011350100), Japanese text: p. 3–14, English text: p. 15–36
- Ships of the World (1996), p. 104
- Rekishi Gunzō, p. 140
- Rekishi Gunzō, p. 148–149
- Gill 1957, p. 531.
- Masterson 1949, p. 8.
- Staff, "The End of a Unique Career", All Hands, the Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin, Washington, D.C., July 1946, Number 353, page 50.
- Associated Press, "Tough Old Ship Sent to Bottom – Heavier Guns Used After Rockets Fail", The San Bernardino Sun, San Bernardino, California, Sunday 26 May 1946, Volume 52, page 1.
- Alford, Lodwick H. (2008). Playing for Time. Lulu. ISBN 978-1-4357-5548-2.
- Gill, G. Hermon (1957). Royal Australian Navy 1939-1942. Australia in the War of 1939–1945. Series 2 – Navy. 1. Canberra: Australian War Memorial.
- "Japan Center for Asian Historical Records". (JCAHR), National Archives of Japan
- Reference code: C08030630400, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from September 21, 1943 to May 31, 1944, Patrol Boat No. 102 (1)"
- Reference code: C08030630500, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from September 21, 1943 to May 31, 1944, Patrol Boat No. 102 (2)"
- Reference code: C08030630600, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from September 21, 1943 to May 31, 1944, Patrol Boat No. 102 (3)"
- Reference code: C08030630700, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from September 21, 1943 to May 31, 1944, Patrol Boat No. 102 (4)"
- Reference code: C08030630800, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from September 21, 1943 to May 31, 1944, Patrol Boat No. 102 (5)"
- Reference code: C08030630900, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from September 21, 1943 to May 31, 1944, Patrol Boat No. 102 (6)"
- Reference code: C08030631200, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from June 1, 1944 to June 30, 1945, Patrol Boat No. 102 (1)"
- Reference code: C08030631300, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from June 1, 1944 to June 30, 1945, Patrol Boat No. 102 (2)"
- Reference code: C08030631400, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from June 1, 1944 to June 30, 1945, Patrol Boat No. 102 (3)"
- Reference code: C08030631500, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from June 1, 1944 to June 30, 1945, Patrol Boat No. 102 (4)"
- Reference code: C08030631600, "Detailed engagement report and wartime log book from June 1, 1944 to June 30, 1945, Patrol Boat No. 102 (5)"
- Reference code: C08011350100, "Patrol Special Service Craft No.102 delivery list"
- Klar, John W. (1988). "USS Stewart (DD-224) Design and Construction, Part I". Warship International. XXV (4): 376–383. ISSN 0043-0374.
- Klar, John W. (1988). "History of USS Stewart (DD-224) 1920–1941, Part II". Warship International. XXV (4): 384–398. ISSN 0043-0374.
- Klar, John W (1990). "USS DD-224 (ex-Stewart)–The Voyage Home". Warship International. XXVII (1): 74–82. ISSN 0043-0374.
- Klar, John W. (1989). "World War II Operational History of USS Stewart (DD-224), Part III". Warship International. XXVI (2): 139–167. ISSN 0043-0374.
- "Rekishi Gunzō"., History of Pacific War Vol.45 "Truth histories of the Imperial Japanese Naval Vessels", Gakken (Japan), May 2004, ISBN 4-05-603412-5
- Masterson, Dr. James R. (1949). U. S. Army Transportation In The Southwest Pacific Area 1941–1947. Washington, D. C.: Transportation Unit, Historical Division, Special Staff, U. S. Army.
- Toshio, Tamura (2015). "The Career of the Imperial Japanese Navy Patrol Boat No. 102 (ex-USS Stewart, DD-224)". Warship International. LII (3): 227–254. ISSN 0043-0374.
- Monthly Ships of the World, Special issue Vol.45, "Escort Vessels of the Imperial Japanese Navy", "Kaijinsha"., (Japan), February 1996
- The Maru Special, Japanese Naval Vessels No.49 "Japanese Subchasers and Patrol boats", Ushio Shobō (Japan), March 1981, Book code 68343-51