United States Fleet Forces Command

The United States Fleet Forces Command (USFF)[1] is a service component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to a wide variety of U.S. forces. The naval resources may be allocated to Combatant Commanders such as United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) under the authority of the Secretary of Defense. Originally formed as United States Atlantic Fleet (USLANTFLT) in 1906, it has been an integral part of the defense of the United States of America since the early 20th century. In 2002, the Fleet comprised over 118,000 Navy and Marine Corps personnel serving on 186 ships and in 1,300 aircraft, with an area of responsibility ranging over most of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole, the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the waters of the Pacific Ocean along the coasts of Central and South America (as far west as the Galapagos Islands).

United States Fleet Forces Command
The seal of the Commander of United States Fleet Forces Command
Founded1906; 118 years ago (1906)
Allegiance United States
Branch United States Navy
TypeForce-providing command
Part ofU.S. Northern Command
Garrison/HQNaval Support Activity Hampton Roads, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
EngagementsWorld War I
World War II
Vietnam War
Global War on Terrorism
CommanderADM Daryl L. Caudle
Deputy CommanderVADM John E. Gumbleton
Vice CommanderRADM Kenneth R. Blackmon
Fleet Master ChiefFLTCM John J. Perryman IV

In 2006 the U.S. Atlantic Fleet was renamed United States Fleet Forces Command.

The command is based at Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads in Norfolk, Virginia[2][3] and is the Navy's service component to U.S. Northern Command[4] and is the Joint Functional Maritime Component Command under the U.S. Strategic Command.[5][6]

The command's mission is to organize, man, train, and equip naval forces for assignment to Unified Command Combatant commanders; to deter, detect, and defend against homeland maritime threats; and to articulate Fleet warfighting and readiness requirements to the Chief of Naval Operations.[7]

History edit

Expansion and contraction edit

Atlantic Squadron parade Seattle, 1908
President Theodore Roosevelt addresses crewmen on Connecticut, upon her return from the Fleet's cruise around the world, 22 February 1909.

The Atlantic Fleet was established by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, at the same time as the Pacific Fleet, as protection for new bases in the Caribbean acquired as a result of the Spanish–American War. The Fleet was a combination of the North Atlantic Fleet and the South Atlantic Squadron.

The first commander of the fleet was Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans, who hoisted his flag in the battleship USS Maine (BB-10) on 1 January 1906. The following year, he took his 16 battleships, now dubbed the Great White Fleet, on a round-the-world cruise that lasted until 1909, a goodwill tour that also served the purpose of advertising the United States' naval strength and reach to all other nations of the globe.

In January 1913 the fleet consisted of six first-line divisions, a torpedo flotilla, submarines, and fleet auxiliaries.[8] The fleet was under the command of Rear Admiral Hugo Osterhaus.

The Cruiser and Transport Force, under Rear Admiral Albert Gleaves served in Atlantic waters during World War I moving the American Expeditionary Forces to Europe. United States Battleship Division Nine joined the Grand Fleet in the UK.

The Atlantic Fleet was reorganized into the Scouting Force in 1923, which was under the United States Fleet along with the Pacific Fleet. In January 1939 the Atlantic Squadron, United States Fleet, was formed,[9] with Vice Admiral Alfred Wilkinson Johnson commanded.[10] The aircraft carrier USS Ranger (CV-4) was transferred to the Atlantic Ocean, to join three battleships.

On 1 November 1940 the Atlantic Squadron was renamed the Patrol Force. The Patrol Force was organized into type commands: Battleships, Patrol Force; Cruisers, Patrol Force; Destroyers, Patrol Force; and, Train, Patrol Force (the logistics arms).[9]

World War II edit

On 1 February 1941, the Atlantic Fleet was resurrected and organized from the Patrol Force. Along with the Pacific Fleet and Asiatic Fleet, the fleet was to be under the command of a full admiral, which jumped the fleet's commander Ernest J. King from a two-star to a four-star. King's flagship was USS Texas (BB-35).

Subsequently, the headquarters was in a rather odd assortment of ships; the USS Augusta (CA-31), then the old wooden ship USS Constellation, USS Vixen (PG-53), and then USS Pocono (AGC-16). In 1948, the HQ moved into the former naval hospital at Norfolk, Virginia, and has remained there ever since.

In July 1942, eight months after the United States entered the war, the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy's America and West Indies Station based at Admiralty House, Bermuda had his title changed to Senior British Naval Officer, Western Atlantic. USS Augusta visited Bermuda in September, 1941.[11][12]

Composition of the Atlantic Fleet in December 1941 edit

USS Augusta

On 7 December 1941 the Fleet comprised a number of separate components:

  • United States Atlantic Fleet - Commander: Admiral Ernest J. King (Flagship: USS Augusta)
    • Battleships, Atlantic Fleet (made up of three Battleship Divisions) - Commander: Rear Admiral David M. LeBreton (Flagship: USS New York)
    • Aircraft, Atlantic Fleet (made up of one Carrier Division) - Commander: Rear Admiral Arthur B. Cook (Flagship: USS Yorktown)
    • Cruisers, Atlantic Fleet (made up of four Cruiser Divisions) - Commander: Rear Admiral H. Kent Hewitt (Flagship: USS Philadelphia)
    • Destroyers, Atlantic Fleet (made up of three Destroyer Flotillas) - Commander: Rear Admiral Ferdinand L. Reichmuth (Flagship: USS Denebola)
    • Patrol Wings, Atlantic Fleet (made up of five Patrol Wings) - Commander: Rear Admiral Ernest McWhorter (Flagship: USS Clemson)
    • Submarines, Atlantic Fleet (made up of four Submarine Squadrons) - Commander: Rear Admiral Richard S. Edwards (Flagship: USS Vixen)

§ = Divisional flagship

Battleships, Atlantic Fleet edit
USS New Mexico
USS Yorktown

Battleships, Atlantic Fleet was made up of three Battleship Divisions

Of these, Battleship Division 5 was a training unit consisting of the oldest remaining battleships in service, while Division 6 was responsible for working up the two most recently commissioned battleships, North Carolina and Washington.

Aircraft, Atlantic Fleet edit

The aircraft carriers Yorktown and Long Island were directly attached to Aircraft, Atlantic Fleet, as was the newly commissioned Hornet, which was in the process of working up.

Cruisers, Atlantic Fleet edit
USS Vincennes
Destroyers, Atlantic Fleet edit
  • Destroyer Flotilla Three
    • Destroyer Squadron 7
    • Destroyer Squadron 9
    • Destroyer Squadron 11
  • Destroyer Flotilla Four
    • Destroyer Squadron 2
    • Destroyer Squadron 8
  • Destroyer Flotilla Eight
    • Destroyer Squadron 27
    • Destroyer Squadron 30
    • Destroyer Squadron 31
Patrol Wings, Atlantic Fleet edit
Submarines, Atlantic Fleet edit
  • Submarine Squadron One
    • Submarine Division 11
    • Submarine Division 12
    • Experimental Division 1
  • Submarine Squadron Three
    • Submarine Division 72
  • Submarine Squadron Five
    • Submarine Division 51
    • Submarine Division 52
    • Submarine Division 53
  • Submarine Squadron Seven
    • Submarine Division 31
    • Submarine Division 4
    • Submarine Division 71
Other elements of the Atlantic Fleet edit

During World War II "Transports, Amphibious Force, Atlantic Fleet" was part of this command (ComTransPhibLant). Smaller units included the Antisubmarine Development Detachment, Atlantic Fleet (ASDEVLANT) located at Quonset Point, Rhode Island.[13] The detachment was responsible for the study and development of antisubmarine gear during World War II. The Commander of the detachment was known as COMASDEVLANT.

Admiral King was appointed Commander-in-Chief, United States Fleet, on 20 December 1941. Rear Admiral Royal E. Ingersoll was designated, with the rank of vice admiral, to relieve him as Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet.[14] He took command on 1 January 1942, and was advanced to the rank of admiral on 1 July 1942. To carry out this mission and other tasks CinCLant had in the meantime been reorganized, as of 1 March 1941, into ten task forces (commanded by flag officers) numbered from one to ten and named according to their intended employment. Task Force One was the Ocean Escort Force, TF2—Striking Force, TF3—Scouting Force, TF4—Support Force, TF5—Submarine Force, TF6—Naval Coastal Frontier Forces, TF7—Bermuda Force, TF8—Patrol Wings, TF9—Service Force, and Task Force 10, 1st Marine Division (commanded by a Brigadier General).

Of many significant engagements, Captain Daniel Gallery's capture of the German submarine U-505 stands out. The capture was so top secret (because of the enigma code books captured) that the ship's flag was kept by the Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet, and not handed over to Navy authorities until after the war.[15]

Cold War edit

On 1 January 1946, Commander Minesweeping Forces, Atlantic Fleet (ComMinLant) was activated to command minesweepers assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. The Commander, Mine Forces, Atlantic was responsible for all Fleet mine warfare operations. Units under his command were divided into Minesweeping Squadrons (MineRon)s.

Between 1947 and 1985, the fleet command was a concurrent appointment with the United States Atlantic Command. The Commander-in-Chief Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT) was traditionally a navy four-star admiral who also then held the positions of Commander-in-Chief United States Atlantic Command (CINCLANT) and NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT). But after a major reorganization of the U.S. armed forces structure following the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986, CINCLANFLT was separated from the two other billets. The admiral commanding the Atlantic Fleet was designated as the Deputy Commander in Chief of the Atlantic Command until 1986.

Major crises the Atlantic Fleet was involved in during the Cold War included the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis and the 1965 United States occupation of the Dominican Republic.[16]

The general purpose forces of the Army, Navy, and Air Force began to be reorganized in response to the Cuban Missile Crisis on 16 October 1962. The command organization, as finally developed, called for the Commander in Chief, Atlantic (CINCLANT), Admiral Robert Dennison, to provide the unified command. He also retained control of all naval components involved in tactical operations, as the Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet. The responsibility for Army and Air Force components was assigned to the Continental Army Command (CONARC) and the Tactical Air Command under the designation of Army Forces, Atlantic (ARLANT), and Air Forces, Atlantic (AFLANT). The commander of the Army XVIII Airborne Corps was designated Joint Task Force Commander to plan for any joint operations that might become necessary. Over-all direction was exercised by the President and the Secretary of Defense through the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who named the Chief of Naval Operations as their representative for the quarantine.[17]

Major elements of the Strategic Army Corps were designated for use by ARLANT and placed in advanced alert status. Logistic support for the more than 100,000 men involved was directed by a newly established Peninsula Base Command. Preparatory steps were taken to make possible the immediate callup of high priority Army National Guard and Army Reserve units. Tactical Air Command moved hundreds of tactical fighter, reconnaissance, and troop carrier aircraft to the southeast. To make room for all these units, the bombers, tankers, and other aircraft not required for the current operations were ordered to other bases in the United States.[17]

From the late 1960s, nuclear ballistic missile submarines of the fleet began to make thousands of deterrent patrols.[18] The first patrol in the Atlantic Fleet area of operations was made by USS George Washington (SSBN-598).[19]

In 1972, Commander, Anti-Submarine Warfare Force, Atlantic Fleet (Task Force 81) was headquartered at Quonset Point Naval Air Station.[20] Under ASWFORLANTFLT was Hunter-Killer Force, Atlantic Fleet (Task Force 83), with Carrier Divisions 14 and 16 (Wasp and Intrepid, respectively), as well as the Quonset ASW Group (TG 81.2) with Fleet Air Wing 3 and surface units. More information on Anti-Submarine Warfare Force, Atlantic Fleet's, activities during the Cuban crisis can be found at the National Security Archive's document collections.[21]

The Commander, Naval Surface Forces Atlantic was formed on 1 July 1975, incorporating a number of previously separate smaller commands – mine warfare vessels/units, service vessels, and frigates, destroyers and cruisers, along with associated destroyer squadrons and cruiser/destroyer groups.

As part of a reorganization announced in July 1995 of the Atlantic Fleet's surface combatant ships into six core battle groups, nine destroyer squadrons, and a new Western Hemisphere Group, USS John Hancock (DD-981) was reassigned to Destroyer Squadron 24. The re-organization was to be phased in over the summer and take effect 31 August 1995, with homeport shifts occurring through 1998. In September 1995 the following ship assignments were intended to apply at the end of the transitional period:[22]

2000s edit

In February 2000, U.S. Naval Forces Southern Command was established in Puerto Rico, and the Western Hemisphere Group became Naval Surface Group 2.

After the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Atlantic Fleet sent aircraft carriers and cruisers towards New York, on the fleet commander's own initiative.[23]

On 1 October 2001, the Chief of Naval Operations designated Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT) as concurrent Commander, Fleet Forces Command (CFFC). In October–November 2002, the title of Commander in Chief, Atlantic Fleet was amended to Commander, U.S. Atlantic Fleet (COMLANTFLT).

In the CNO Guidance for 2003, Admiral Vernon Clark stipulated that the terms Carrier Battle Group and Amphibious Readiness Group would be replaced by Carrier Strike Groups (CSG) and Expeditionary Strike Groups (ESGs), respectively, by March 2003. Cruiser-Destroyer and Carrier Groups (CARGRU) were also redesignated, as Carrier Strike Groups (CSG), and aligned directly under the numbered fleet commanders. The two sets of staffs were formerly under the administrative authority of their respective air and surface U.S. Navy type commands. This realignment allowed key operational leaders authority and direct access to the personnel required to more effectively accomplish the navy's mission.

The numbered fleet commanders are now responsible for the training and certification of the entire Strike Group. The organizational structure to support the carrier strike groups focuses more on placing Strike Group commanders under the authority of the certifying officer, or the numbered fleet commander. Under this new division of responsibility, the air-side type commander gains authority over the air wing, and the surface-side type commander gains authority over the carrier itself and the rest of the ships of the battle group.

On 23 May 2006, the Chief of Naval Operations renamed COMLANTFLT to Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command (COMUSFLTFORCOM or CUSFFC), ordered to carry out the missions currently performed by COMFLTFORCOM (CFFC) and serve as primary advocate for fleet personnel, training, requirements, maintenance, and operational issues, reporting administratively directly to the CNO as an Echelon 2 command. The previous title CFFC was disestablished at the same time.[24] CUSFFC previously served as the Naval component of the US Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) until the disestablishment of USJFCOM in August 2011. CFFC is also assigned as the supporting service component commander to Commander, United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) as well as to Commander, United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM).

Enterprise entered an ESRA in 2008, but the refit took longer than expected. Thus on 11 September 2009, it was announced that the carrier strike group deployment schedule would be changed to accommodate the delay in the return of the Enterprise from its current overhaul. This resulted in extending both Carrier Strike Group Eleven's 2009–2010 deployment and Carrier Strike Group Ten's 2010 deployment to eight months.[25] Enterprise returned to Naval Station Norfolk on 19 April 2010 after completing its post-overhaul sea trials, signifying the beginning of its pre-deployment training cycle.[26]

On 24 July 2009, Admiral John C. Harvey, Jr. relieved Admiral Jonathan W. Greenert as Commander.[27]

2010s edit

News reports in July 2011 said that in connection with the disestablishment of the United States Second Fleet, Fleet Forces Command would take over Second Fleet's duties on 30 September 2011.[28] Effectively this meant Task Force 20 (TF 20), under a deputy commander of the fleet, took over that mission. Task Force 20 was succeeded by Task Force 80 effective 1 October 2012, with TF-80 being under the command of the director of the Maritime Headquarters, Fleet Forces Command.[29]

The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC), United States Naval Observatory (USNO), Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO), Naval Oceanography Operations Command, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Professional Development Center, were all realigned under U.S. Navy Information Dominance Forces on 1 October 2014.[citation needed]

Beginning in Fiscal Year 2015, the Optimized Fleet Response Plan will align carrier strike groups to a 36-month training and deployment cycle. All required maintenance, training, evaluations, plus a single eight-month overseas deployment, are scheduled throughout this 36-month cycle in order to reduce costs while increasing overall fleet readiness. This new plan streamlined the inspection and evaluation process while maintaining a surge capacity for emergency deployments. The ultimate objective is to reduce time at sea while increasing in-port time from 49% to 68%. While initially to be used by U.S. Navy carrier strike groups, the Optimized Fleet Response Plan will be adopted for all fleet operations.[30]

Accordingly, the carrier USS Harry S. Truman (CVN-75) will be the first carrier to deploy under this new O-FRP cycle, replacing the previously-scheduled Eisenhower in the deployment lineup. Additionally, the Carrier Strike Group Eight command staff will deploy with the Truman while the Eisenhower will serve as the new flagship for Carrier Strike Group Ten.

On 2 December 2020, Secretary Kenneth Braithwaite announced that U.S. Fleet Forces Command will be renamed back to United States Atlantic Fleet[31] to focus more on the growing maritime threats coming from the Atlantic.[32][33] The renaming of the command has been placed on hold, pending further review of the U.S. military footprint, resources, strategy and missions, from the global force posture review.[34]

Structure 2013 edit

In accordance with the Navigation Plan 2013–2017 guidance from the Chief of Naval Operations, U.S. Fleet Forces Command was to be based upon the three tenets of war-fighting, forward operations, and readiness.[35][36] To achieve these objectives, Fleet Forces Command was realigned to a Maritime Operations Center (MOC) and Maritime Headquarters (MHQ) command structure. Additionally, the Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command (COMUSFLTFORCOM) is designated as the Joint Forces Maritime Component Commander North (JFMCC-N) to the U.S. Northern Command.[35] Joint Forces Maritime Component Commander North consists of two Maritime Command Elements (MCE), with Maritime Command Element-East (MCE-E) being Task Force 180 and Maritime Command Element-West (MCE-W) provided from units assigned to the U.S. Pacific Fleet.[35][37]

Effective 17 May 2013, Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command was officially designated as the naval component commander for the U.S. Northern Command.[38] In this new capacity, the Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command is to contribute to the defense of North America through the coordination, collaboration, and communication with allied, coalition, and joint forces within the U.S. Northern Command's area of responsibility.[38] Under this reorganization, the Commander, Navy Installations Command is responsible for area coordination for U.S. Naval Forces Northern Command.[38] Additionally, Commander, Navy Region Mid-Atlantic is responsible for regional coordination for U.S. Naval Forces Northern Command.[38]

Maritime Operations edit

The Maritime Operations directorate leads all phases of the pre-deployment fleet response training plan (FRTP) cycle involving those naval units assigned to the Fleet Forces Command. The directorate transitions all naval units from their operational phase to their tactical phase prior to their overseas deployment.[35][37]

The Director of Maritime Operations (DMO) is an active-duty two-star rear admiral in the U.S. Navy while the Deputy Director of Maritime Operations is a one-star rear admiral from the United States Naval Reserve.[37] As of 2013, the DMO was Rear Admiral Dan Cloyd. Maritime Operations is organized into the following directorates:[37]

  • N2/39 – Intelligence and Information Warfare
  • N3/N5 – Joint / Fleet Operations
    • N31 – Maritime Operations Center (MOC)
  • N041 – Global Force Management
  • N042 – Force Protection
  • N7 – Joint / Fleet Training

Maritime Headquarters edit

The Maritime Headquarters (MHQ) leads all phases prior to the pre-deployment training cycle, including resourcing, policy development, assessment, procurement, and pre-introduction of naval units assigned to the Fleet Forces Command. The MHQ transitions all naval units from their strategical phase to their operational phase prior to their pre-deployment training cycle, and in the capacity, it supports the Maritime Operations Center.[35][37] The Director of Maritime Headquarters (DMHQ) is an active-duty two-star rear admiral in the U.S. Navy while the Deputy Director of Maritime Headquarters is a one-star rear admiral from the United States Naval Reserve.[37] As of July 2013, the DMHQ was Rear Admiral Bradley R. Gehrke.[39] The Maritime Headquarters is organized into the following directorates:[37]

  • N1 – Fleet Personnel Development and Allocation (including information architecture management and Navy Security Forces)
  • N41 – Fleet Ordnance and Supply
  • N43 – Fleet Maintenance
  • N45/46 – Fleet Installations and Environment
  • N6 – Fleet Communications and Information Systems
  • N8/N9 – Fleet Capabilities, Requirements, Concepts, and Experimentation (including missile defense)
  • N03FS – Fleet Safety and Occupational Health
  • N03G – Fleet Religious Ministries
  • N03H – Fleet Surgeon and Health Services
  • N03M – Fleet Marine

Subordinate commands edit

U.S. Fleet Forces Subordinate Commands include the following:[40]

Type commands edit

All ships are organized into categories by type. Aircraft carriers, aircraft squadrons, and air stations are under the administrative control of the appropriate Commander Naval Air Force. Submarines come under the Commander Submarine Force. All other ships fall under Commander Naval Surface Force. Type commands for Fleet Forces Command include:

Task forces edit

Functional mission task forces execute force-wide Fleet logistic functions as well as providing capabilities for Joint contingency operations. These functional mission task forces include:[37]

Joint operations task forces edit

When constituted as a joint-service task force for Joint warfare operations, functional mission task forces for the U.S. Fleet Forces Command are given a 18X designation as shown below.[37]

  • Task Force 180 – Maritime Headquarters – Joint Forces Maritime Component Commander North (MHQ – COMUSFF)
  • Task Force 183 – Logistics – Military Sealift Command Atlantic (LOG – MSCLANT)
  • Task Force 184 – Theater Antisubmarine Warfare Commander – Commander Submarine Force (TASC – COMNAVSUBFOR)
  • Task Force 185 – Mine Warfare – Naval Surface and Mine Warfighting Development Center – MIW Division (MIW – SMWDC MIW)
  • Task Force 186 – Defense Support of Civil Authorities – Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (DSCA – COMNECC)
  • Task Force 187 – Reconnaissance – Commander Patrol and Reconnaissance Group (RECON – CPRG)[43]
  • Task Force 189 – Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief – Expeditionary Strike Group Two (HADR – ESG 2)

List of commanders edit

See also edit

U.S. Armed Forces operations commands

Notes edit

References edit

  1. ^ "U.S. Fleet Forces Command is abbreviated as USFF". Archived from the original on 16 June 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
  2. ^ Draughn-Fraguada, Katisha (28 July 2021). "Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads changes command". DVIDS. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  3. ^ "Welcome to Naval Support Activity Hampton Roads". Commander, Navy Installations Command.
  4. ^ "U.S. Fleet Forces Command Naval Station Norfolk". northcom.mil. Naval Station Norfolk. 16 May 2013. Archived from the original on 10 August 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  5. ^ "Functional Components US Strategic Command". stratcom.mil. US Strategic Command. Retrieved 10 August 2019. The mission of JFMCC is to conduct joint maritime operations to execute the maritime aspects of strategic deterrence
  6. ^ "US Fleet Forces Commander Designated as NAVSTRAT, JFMCC STRAT". stratcom.mil. Norfolk, Virginia. 1 February 2019. Retrieved 10 August 2019.
  7. ^ Fleet Forces Command, U.S. Fleet Forces Command Mission Archived 5 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Svonavec, Stephen. "US Navy Atlantic Fleet, January 1, 1913". www.fleetorganization.com. Archived from the original on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  9. ^ a b "U.S. Navy, Battleships, A Short History". Archived from the original on 8 January 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2007.
  10. ^ "Alfred Wilkinson Johnson, Vice Admiral, United States Navy". www.arlingtoncemetery.net. Retrieved 2 November 2021.
  11. ^ The Andrew and The Onions: The Story of The Royal Navy in Bermuda, 1795–1975, by Lieutenant-Commander B. Ian D. Stranack. Bermuda Maritime Museum Press
  12. ^ Kennedy-Purvis, Sir Charles Edward, Royal Navy (RN) Officers, 1939-1945. Unit Histories; Curteis, Sir Alban Thomas Buckley, Royal Navy (RN) Officers, 1939-1945. Unit Histories; ADMIRALS IN BERMUDA EMPHASIZE VIGILANCE; Need Continues, American and British Chiefs Assert, New York Times. 1 February 1942
  13. ^ This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
  14. ^ "HyperWar: Administration of the Navy Department in World War II [Chapter 4 - Fleet Organization]". Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2021 – via ibiblio.org.
  15. ^ "Columbia University Libraries: Oral Histories Portal: Collection Overview". 2010.
  16. ^ Naval Historical Center, Caribbean Tempest: The Dominican Republic Intervention of 1965 Archived 6 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ a b "Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962: Online Documentation". Archived from the original on 5 January 2015.
  18. ^ Petty, Dan. "The US Navy – Fact File: Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarines – SSBN". www.navy.mil. Archived from the original on 2 January 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  19. ^ "Federation of American Scientists". Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
  20. ^ Sean P. Milligan, Quonset Point Naval Air Station, 1996, 127.
  21. ^ "The Submarines of October".
  22. ^ 'Fleet's structure reorganized,' All Hands, September 1995, p.1-2
  23. ^ Clark, "Against All Enemies," 22.
  24. ^ "A Brief History Of The U.S. Fleet Forces Command". Archived from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  25. ^ "Navy Carrier Strike Group Deployment Schedules to Shift". NNS090911-22. U.S. Fleet Forces Command. 11 September 2009. Archived from the original on 17 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2012.
  26. ^ Ensign Michael Hatfield, USN (19 April 2012). "Enterprise Completes Sea Trials, Rejoins the Fleet". NNS100419-03. USS Enterprise Public Affairs. Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  27. ^ "One of region's four-star admirals heads off to Washington". Archived from the original on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
  28. ^ "Navy's Fleet Forces Command taking over Second Fleet duties". WVEC.com. 1 July 2011. Archived from the original on 21 September 2011.
  29. ^ "USFF Commanders Guidance Brief to Senior Staff 17 Sep_FINAL". Scribd.com. 17 September 2012. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2012. Slides 21, 45, 46
  30. ^ "Document: The Navy's New Deployment Plan". News Blog. United States Naval Institute. 24 January 2014. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
  31. ^ Eckstein, Megan (14 January 2021). "UPDATED: Adm. Grady: Redesignation to Atlantic Fleet May Have Implications for Homeland Defense Mission". USNI News. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  32. ^ Ziezulewicz, Geoff (3 December 2020). "Navy bringing back US Atlantic Fleet". Navy Times. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  33. ^ "SECNAV Announces the Return of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Focus Will be on Russian Threat". USNI News. 2 December 2020. Retrieved 7 December 2020.
  34. ^ Burgess, Richard R. (5 April 2021). "Fleet Forces Re-Designation to Atlantic Fleet On Hold, CNO Says". Seapower. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  35. ^ a b c d e Admiral William E. Gortney, USN (October 2012). "Commander's Vision and Guidance: Executive Summary". pp. 1–4. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  36. ^ Admiral Jonathan Greenert, USN (2012). "CNO's Navigation Plan 2013–2017" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i "USFF Commanders Guidance Brief to Senior Staff 17 Sep_FINAL". Scribd.com. 17 September 2012. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 15 March 2012. Slides 22, 43–49.
  38. ^ a b c d "Fleet Forces Commander to be Naval Component for US NORTHCOM". Documents. United States Navy. 22 May 2013. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 21 May 2013. OPNAVNOTE 5400 Ser DNS-33/13U102246 dated 17 May 2013.
  39. ^ "Rear Admiral Mark D. Guadagnini Director, Maritime Headquarters, U.S. Fleet Forces Command". Official Biography. United States Navy. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  40. ^ [2] Archived 8 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Accessed 26 September 2012.
  41. ^ "Task Force 83". Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2013.
  42. ^ a b "Rename and Modify Mission of Commander, Patrol and Reconnaissance Group Atlantic and Change Immediate Superior in Command of Patrol Squadron Three Zero" (PDF). Documents. United States Navy. 9 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2013. Retrieved 8 October 2013. DNS-33/12U102106. Formerly known as Patrol and Reconnaissance Group Atlantic.

Further reading edit

External links edit