Tvedestrand  is municipality in Agder county, Norway. It is located in the traditional district of Sørlandet. The administrative center is the town of Tvedestrand. There are many villages in the municipality including Dypvåg, Fiane, Gjeving, Gødderstad, Grønland, Kilen, Klåholmen, Krokvåg, Laget, Lyngør, Nesgrenda, Østerå, Sagesund, Sandvika, and Songe.[2]

Tvedestrand kommune
View of Tvedestrand
View of Tvedestrand
Official logo of Tvedestrand kommune
Tvedestrand within Agder
Tvedestrand within Agder
Coordinates: 58°37′26″N 08°55′40″E / 58.62389°N 8.92778°E / 58.62389; 8.92778Coordinates: 58°37′26″N 08°55′40″E / 58.62389°N 8.92778°E / 58.62389; 8.92778
CountryNorway
CountyAgder
DistrictØstre Agder
Established1 Jan 1838
Administrative centreTvedestrand
Government
 • Mayor (2020)Marianne Landaas (H)
Area
 • Total215.05 km2 (83.03 sq mi)
 • Land203.95 km2 (78.75 sq mi)
 • Water11.10 km2 (4.29 sq mi)  5.2%
 • Rank#298 in Norway
Population
 (2020)
 • Total6,053
 • Rank#157 in Norway
 • Density29.7/km2 (77/sq mi)
 • Change (10 years)
Increase +1.9%
Official language
 • Norwegian formBokmål
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNO-4213
WebsiteOfficial website

The town of Tvedestrand has a white-painted town center with irregular streets climbing steep hills around the harbor. The natural environment of the area makes it a tourist destination. The municipality includes numerous islands, which makes it popular in the summer for boaters. The number of people in the municipality practically doubles in the summer, due to vacationers. There are approximately 1,700 summer cottages ("hytter") around the fjord and coastal areas. Tvedestrand has over 2,000 buildings that are more than 100 years old.[3]

The 215-square-kilometre (83 sq mi) municipality is the 298th largest by area out of the 356 municipalities in Norway. Tvedestrand is the 157th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 6,053. The municipality's population density is 29.7 inhabitants per square kilometre (77/sq mi) and its population has increased by 1.9% over the previous 10-year period.[4][5]

General informationEdit

 
From the town centre of Tvedestrand

The town of Tvedestrand was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt law). During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1960, the rural municipalities of Dypvåg (population: 1,805) and Holt (population: 3,759) were merged with the town of Tvedestrand (population: 868) to form a new municipality named Tvedestrand.

On 1 January 1962, the Strengereid area (population: 375) of Tvedestrand was transferred to neighboring Moland municipality. Then on 1 January 1964, the Holtegården area (population: 5) was transferred from Moland to Tvedestrand. The uninhabited Folevatnet area in Tvedestrand was transferred to the municipality of Risør on 1 January 1984.[6]

NameEdit

The town (and municipality) are named after the old Tveite farm (Old Norse: Þveitar) where the town now sits. The first element is the genitive case of the farm name and the last element is strond which means "strand" or "beach". The name of the farm is the plural form of þveit which means "small farm".[2]

Coat of armsEdit

The coat of arms was granted on 4 April 1986. The white and blue arms show a white tern, a typical seabird, on a blue background. The tern and blue background were chosen to represent the sea since the municipality was historically dependent on it for its economy.[7]

ChurchesEdit

The Church of Norway has three parishes (sokn) within the municipality of Tvedestrand. It is part of the Aust-Nedenes prosti (deanery) in the Diocese of Agder og Telemark.

Churches in Tvedestrand
Parish (sokn) Church name Location of the church Year built
Dypvåg Dypvåg Church Dypvåg c. 1200
Holt Holt Church Fiane c. 1100
Laget Church Laget 1908
Tvedestrand Tvedestrand Church Tvedestrand 1861


 
View of the village of Lyngør

HistoryEdit

Holt Church probably dates from the twelfth century and it has an ancient baptismal font. The interior was decorated by Torsten Hoff.

Around 1600, Tvedestrand was mainly a harbour for the Berge and Tveite farms’ boats, hence the name Tvedestrand (strand means beach or coast in Norwegian).

Lyngør was the site of the Battle of Lyngør between English and Dano-Norwegian forces during the Napoleonic Wars resulting in the sinking of the frigate of the Dano-Norwegian forces, Najaden by the British ship-of-the-line Dictator in 1812.

The town, as it now exists, was built in the 19th century as a harbour for Norway's longest existing iron works, Næs jernverk. Lying in the parish of Holt, Næs jernverk has one of the largest and most significant of the surviving mansions in Sørlandet, built by Ulrich Schnell. Schnell bought up various iron works in the neighborhood and set up several sawmills in the district. He obtained a special license to export timber directly from Tvedestrand, establishing the basis for an international harbor.[8]

GovernmentEdit

All municipalities in Norway, including Tvedestrand, are responsible for primary education (through 10th grade), outpatient health services, senior citizen services, unemployment and other social services, zoning, economic development, and municipal roads. The municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor.[9] The municipality falls under the Aust-Agder District Court and the Agder Court of Appeal.

Municipal councilEdit

The municipal council (Kommunestyre) of Tvedestrand is made up of 25 representatives that are elected to four year terms. Currently, the party breakdown is as follows:

Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 2020–2023 [10]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)5
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)1
 Conservative Party (Høyre)5
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)5
 Liberal Party (Venstre)2
 Xtra-List (Xtra-lista)4
Total number of members:23
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 2016–2019 [11]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)6
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)1
 Green Party (Miljøpartiet De Grønne)1
 Conservative Party (Høyre)3
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)4
 Liberal Party (Venstre)2
 Tvedestrand Cross-party List (Tvedestrand Tverrpolitiske Liste)7
Total number of members:25
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 2012–2015 [12]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)6
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)1
 Conservative Party (Høyre)4
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)2
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)3
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
 Tvedestrand Cross-party List (Tvedestrand Tverrpolitiske Liste)8
Total number of members:25
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 2008–2011 [11]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)4
 Conservative Party (Høyre)5
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)2
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)4
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)2
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
 Tvedestrand cross-party list (Tvedestrand tverrpolitiske liste)7
Total number of members:25
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 2004–2007 [11]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)5
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)2
 Conservative Party (Høyre)2
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)3
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)2
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)3
 Tvedestrand cross-party list (Tvedestrand Tverrpolitiske Liste)8
Total number of members:25
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 2000–2003 [11]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)6
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)2
 Conservative Party (Høyre)4
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)5
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)4
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)2
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
 Tvedestrand cross-party list (Tvedestrand tverrpolitisk liste)5
Total number of members:29
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1996–1999 [13]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)7
 Conservative Party (Høyre)4
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)3
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)5
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)1
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
 Tvedestrand cross-party list (Tvedestrand tverrpolitiske liste)8
Total number of members:29
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1992–1995 [14]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)7
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)4
 Conservative Party (Høyre)5
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)3
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)5
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)3
 Liberal Party (Venstre)2
Total number of members:29
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1988–1991 [15]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)9
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)4
 Conservative Party (Høyre)6
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)3
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)4
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)1
 Joint list of the Liberal Party (Venstre) and
Liberal People's Party (Liberale Folkepartiet)
2
Total number of members:29
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1984–1987 [16]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)10
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)3
 Conservative Party (Høyre)7
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)4
 Liberal People's Party (Liberale Folkepartiet)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)2
 Liberal Party (Venstre)2
Total number of members:29
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1980–1983 [17]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)9
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)2
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)4
 Liberal People's Party (Liberale Folkepartiet)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)2
 Liberal Party (Venstre)3
Total number of members:29
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1976–1979 [18]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)9
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)6
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)3
 Joint list of the Liberal Party (Venstre) and
New People's Party (Nye Folkepartiet)
3
Total number of members:29
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1972–1975 [19]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)11
 Conservative Party (Høyre)5
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)4
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)4
 Liberal Party (Venstre)5
Total number of members:29
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1968–1971 [20]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)13
 Conservative Party (Høyre)9
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)5
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)4
 Liberal Party (Venstre)6
Total number of members:37
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1964–1967 [21]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)14
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)4
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)4
 Liberal Party (Venstre)7
Total number of members:37
Tvedestrand Kommunestyre 1960–1963 [22]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)13
 Conservative Party (Høyre)7
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)4
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)4
 Liberal Party (Venstre)8
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)1
Total number of members:37
Tvedestrand Bystyre 1956–1959 [23]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)5
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Joint List(s) of Non-Socialist Parties (Borgerlige Felleslister)6
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)2
Total number of members:21
Tvedestrand Bystyre 1952–1955 [24]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)5
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Liberal Party (Venstre)5
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)2
Total number of members:20
Tvedestrand Bystyre 1948–1951 [25]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)6
 Joint List(s) of Non-Socialist Parties (Borgerlige Felleslister)14
Total number of members:20
Tvedestrand Bystyre 1945–1947 [26]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)7
 Joint List(s) of Non-Socialist Parties (Borgerlige Felleslister)7
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)6
Total number of members:20
Tvedestrand Bystyre 1938–1941* [27]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)3
 Conservative Party (Høyre)10
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)7
Total number of members:20
Note: Due to the German occupation of Norway during World War II, no elections were held for new municipal councils until after the war ended in 1945.
Tvedestrand Bystyre 1935–1937 [28]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)3
 Joint List(s) of Non-Socialist Parties (Borgerlige Felleslister)17
Total number of members:20

GeographyEdit

Tvedestrand municipality lies between the towns of Arendal to the southwest and Risør to the northeast. The municipality also borders the municipalities of Arendal, Risør, Froland, Åmli, and Vegårshei.

Tvedestrand belongs to the geographical region of Sørlandet in the Østre Agder area of Agder county. The town itself lies at the end of a picturesque fjord, Tvedestrandfjorden, which is the name for the inner part of the Oksefjorden (originally Ufsefjorden, meaning the fjord with steep, rocky sides). The municipality also encompasses the islands Borøy, Sandøy, and Askerøya as well as the unique village of Lyngør which lies on several small islands. Lyngør was acclaimed "Europe's best preserved village" by Europa Nostra in 1991. Lyngør Lighthouse is located by the village. Tvedestrand municipality includes 162 islands, with a collected coastline of 214 kilometres (133 mi).

The river Storelva, one of the Southern Coast's best salmon and sea trout rivers, flows past the Næs jernverk and ultimately out into the Sandnesfjorden.

ClimateEdit

Tvedestrand has a temperate oceanic climate (Cfb, marine west coast), with autumn as the wettest season and spring as the driest. The weather station in Lyngør, 13 km from Tvedestrand town, has been recording since 1920. The all-time high at Lyngør lighthouse is 29.8 °C (85.6 °F) from 12. August 1975.

Climate data for Lyngør lighthouse 1991-2020 (4 m)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 3
(37)
3
(37)
5
(41)
10
(50)
14
(57)
18
(64)
20
(68)
19
(66)
16
(61)
12
(54)
7
(45)
4
(39)
11
(52)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
0.7
(33.3)
2.6
(36.7)
6.1
(43.0)
10.8
(51.4)
14.7
(58.5)
17
(63)
16.8
(62.2)
13.5
(56.3)
8.9
(48.0)
5.1
(41.2)
2.1
(35.8)
8.3
(47.0)
Average low °C (°F) 0
(32)
−1
(30)
1
(34)
4
(39)
8
(46)
12
(54)
15
(59)
14
(57)
11
(52)
7
(45)
4
(39)
1
(34)
6
(43)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 85.7
(3.37)
61.2
(2.41)
58.5
(2.30)
51.7
(2.04)
66.9
(2.63)
66.9
(2.63)
80.5
(3.17)
108.3
(4.26)
102.4
(4.03)
130.3
(5.13)
114.2
(4.50)
90.7
(3.57)
1,017.3
(40.04)
Source 1: Norwegian Meteorological Institute/yr.no[29]
Source 2: Weatheronline[30]

GeologyEdit

A number of rare minerals are found in Tvedestrand:

AttractionsEdit

 
Næs verk
  • The 18th century Næs jernverk are 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) from the town center.
  • Tvedestrand is recognized as a book town, a small village with a large number of second-hand or antiquarian book shops.
  • Interesting Places in Tvedestrand municipality:
    • Lyngør, a cluster of offshore islands which have been described as the 'Skagerrak Venice' and proclaimed by the European Commission to be “Europe’s best preserved village.”
    • Sagesund village
    • Sandøya island, including the villages of Kilen and Klåholmen
    • Borøya island

Notable residentsEdit

 
Knud Knudsen
 
Gina Lund, 2012

International relationsEdit

Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit

The following cities are twinned with Tvedestrand:[32]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Forskrift om målvedtak i kommunar og fylkeskommunar" (in Norwegian). Lovdata.no.
  2. ^ a b Thorsnæs, Geir, ed. (28 September 2017). "Tvedestrand". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  3. ^ Stagg, Frank Noel (1958). South Norway. George Allen & Unwin, Ltd.
  4. ^ Statistisk sentralbyrå (2020). "Table: 06913: Population 1 January and population changes during the calendar year (M)" (in Norwegian).
  5. ^ Statistisk sentralbyrå (2020). "09280: Area of land and fresh water (km²) (M)" (in Norwegian).
  6. ^ Jukvam, Dag (1999). "Historisk oversikt over endringer i kommune- og fylkesinndelingen" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Statistisk sentralbyrå.
  7. ^ "Civic heraldry of Norway - Norske Kommunevåpen". Heraldry of the World. Retrieved 4 January 2018.
  8. ^ Welle-Strand, Erling (1996). Adventure Roads in Norway. Nortrabooks. ISBN 82-90103-71-9.
  9. ^ Hansen, Tore, ed. (12 May 2016). "kommunestyre". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  10. ^ "Tall for Norge: Kommunestyrevalg 2019 - Agder". Valg Direktoratet. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  11. ^ a b c d "Table: 04813: Members of the local councils, by party/electoral list at the Municipal Council election (M)" (in Norwegian). Statistics Norway.
  12. ^ "Tall for Norge: Kommunestyrevalg 2011 - Aust-Agder". Valg Direktoratet. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  13. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1995" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1996. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  14. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1991" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1993. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  15. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1987" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1988. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  16. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1983" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1984. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  17. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1979" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1979. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  18. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1975" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1977. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  19. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1972" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1973. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  20. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1967" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1967. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  21. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1963" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1964. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  22. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1959" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1960. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  23. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1955" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1957. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  24. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1951" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1952. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  25. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1947" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1948. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  26. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1945" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1947. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  27. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1937" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1938. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  28. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1934" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1935. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  29. ^ "yr.no". Norwegian Meteorological Institute.
  30. ^ "Weatheronline Lyngør (avg high/low)".
  31. ^ IMDb Database retrieved 01 January 2021
  32. ^ "Vennskapskommuner" (in Norwegian). Tvedestrand kommune. Archived from the original on 24 July 2007. Retrieved 4 March 2009.

External linksEdit