This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2022)
An indirect election or hierarchical voting is an election in which voters do not choose directly among candidates or parties for an office (direct voting system), but elect people who in turn choose candidates or parties. It is one of the oldest forms of elections and is used by many countries for heads of state (such as presidents), cabinets, heads of government (such as prime ministers), and/or upper houses. It is also used for some supranational legislatures.
In nearly all cases the body that controls the executive branch (such as a cabinet) is elected indirectly. This includes the cabinets of most parliamentary systems; members of the public elect the parliamentarians, who then elect the cabinet. Upper houses, especially in federal republics, are often indirectly elected, either by the corresponding lower house or cabinet. Similarly, supranational legislatures can be indirectly elected by constituent countries' legislatures or executive governments. The indirect democracy is run by electoral college or president.
An election can be partially indirect, for example in the case of indirect single transferable voting, where only eliminated candidates select other candidates to transfer their vote share to.
Heads of state Edit
A head of state is the official leader and representative of a country. The head of state position can vary from ceremonial figurehead with limited power to powerful leader depending on the government structure and historical legacy of the country. For instance, in some cases heads of state inherit the position through a monarchy whereas others are indirectly or directed elected such as a presidents. Several examples are included below.
United States Edit
The President of the United States is elected indirectly. In a US presidential election, eligible members of the public vote for the electors of an Electoral College, who have previously pledged publicly to support a particular presidential candidate. When the Electoral College sits, soon after the election, it formally elects the candidate that has won a majority of the members of the Electoral College. Members of the federal cabinet, including the vice president, are in practice nominated by the president, and are thus elected indirectly. The Electoral College is a controversial issue in U.S. politics, especially following presidential elections when voting is polarized geographically in such a way that the electoral college elects a candidate who did not win an absolute majority of the popular vote. The National Popular Vote Interstate Compact, if enacted, would replace the indirect election via the Electoral College with a de facto plurality-based direct election.
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China specifies a system of indirect democracy. The National People's Congress elects the president, also known as the state chairman, who serves as head of state. The power of the presidency is largely ceremonial, the vast majority of power stems from the president's position as leader of the Communist Party and head of the military.
European Union Edit
Parliamentary systems Edit
Republics with parliamentary systems usually elect their head of state indirectly (e.g. Germany, Italy, Estonia, Latvia, Malta, Hungary, India, Israel, Bangladesh). Several parliamentary republics, such as Ireland, Austria, Croatia, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic, operate using a semi-presidential system with a directly elected president distinct from the prime minister.
Heads of government Edit
A head of government is in charge of the daily business of government and overseeing central government institutions. In presidential systems the president is the head of government and head of state. In parliamentary systems the head of government is usually the leader of the party with the most seats in the legislature. Several examples of heads of government who are chosen through indirect elections are summarized below.
Prime Minister Edit
The most prominent position in parliamentary democracies is the prime ministership.
Under the Westminster system, named after and typified by the parliament of the United Kingdom, a prime minister (or first minister, premier, or chief minister) is the person that can command the largest coalition of supporters in parliament. In almost all cases, the prime minister is the leader of a political party (or coalition) that has a majority in the parliament, or the lower house (such as the House of Commons), or in the situation that no one party has a majority then the largest party or a coalition of smaller parties may attempt to form a minority government. The prime minister is thus indirectly elected as political parties elect their own leader through internal democratic process, while the general public choose from amongst the local candidates of the various political parties or independents.
The Westminster model continues to be used in a number of Commonwealth countries including Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Singapore and the United Kingdom. Additionally many nations colonized by the British Empire inherited the Westminster model following their independence.
In Spain, the Congress of Deputies votes on a motion of confidence of the king's nominee (customarily the party leader whose party controls the Congress) and the nominee's political manifesto, an example of an indirect election of the prime minister of Spain.
Federal Chancellor Edit
In Germany, the federal chancellor - the most powerful position on the federal level - is elected indirectly by the Bundestag, which in turn is elected by the population. The federal president, the head of state, proposes candidates for the chancellor's office. Although this has never happened, the Bundestag may in theory also choose to elect another person into office, which the president has to accept.
Upper houses Edit
The Control Yuan of China, formerly a parliamentary chamber, was indirectly elected by its respective legislatures across the country: five from each province, two from each directly administered municipality, eight from Mongolia (by 1948 only the Inner Mongolian provinces were represented), eight from Tibet and eight from the overseas Chinese communities. As originally envisioned both the President and Vice President of the Control Yuan were to be elected by and from the members like the speaker of many other parliamentary bodies worldwide. The Control Yuan became a sole auditory body in Taiwan in 1993 after democratisation.
The Indian Rajya Sabha (upper house of parliament) is indirectly elected, largely by state legislatures; Manmohan Singh was a member of the Rajya Sabha but chosen by the majority party in the Lok Sabha (lower house of parliament) as the prime minister in 2004; as such, Singh as prime minister had never won a direct or popular election, and was introduced as a technocrat.
The United States Senate was indirectly elected by state legislatures until, after a number of attempts over the previous century, the 17th Amendment to the United States Constitution was ratified in 1913.
In some cases, most officials, including most members of legislatures – national and subnational – may be regarded as elected indirectly, because they are preselected by political parties. This kind of system is typified by the United States, at both the federal and state levels. That is primary elections and/or caucuses are responsible for choosing candidates, whose preselection is ratified by a party convention.
Some examples of indirectly elected supranational legislatures include: the parliamentary assemblies of the Council of Europe, OSCE, the WEU and NATO – in all of these cases, voters elect national parliamentarians, who in turn elect some of their own members to the assembly. The same applies to bodies formed by representatives chosen by a national government, e.g. the United Nations General Assembly – assuming the national governments in question are democratically elected in the first place.
Indirect single transferable voting is used to elect some members of the Senate in Pakistan.
See also Edit
- Tradeoffs in Hierarchical Voting Systems, Lucas Böttcher, Georgia Kernell
- "Head of state". Cambridge Dictionary. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
- Strohmeier, Gerd; Wittlinger, Ruth (2010-03-01). "Parliamentary Heads of State: Players or Figureheads? The Case of Horst Köhler". West European Politics. 33 (2): 237–257. doi:10.1080/01402380903538856. ISSN 0140-2382. S2CID 154522953.
- Prindle, David F. (1991). "Head of State and Head of Government in Comparative Perspective". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 21 (1): 55–71. ISSN 0360-4918. JSTOR 27550663.
- Ross, Robert (2016). "Federalism and the Electoral College: The Development of the General Ticket Method for Selecting Presidential Electors". Publius: The Journal of Federalism. 46 (2): 147–169. doi:10.1093/publius/pjv043.
- Uscinski, Joseph (January 2012). "Smith (and Jones) Go to Washington: Democracy and Vice-Presidential Selection". PS: Political Science & Politics. 45 (1): 58–66. doi:10.1017/S1049096511001715. ISSN 1537-5935. S2CID 155697464.
- Waller, Allyson (2021-01-05). "The Electoral College Explained". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2023-04-10.
- "The National Popular Vote, Explained". www.brennancenter.org. 21 April 2022. Retrieved 2023-04-11.
- "中国人大网". www.npc.gov.cn. Retrieved 2023-04-11.
- "A Path to 'True' Indirect Democracy in China". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 2023-04-11.
- Ruwitch, John (March 10, 2023). "China's Xi Jinping, as expected, gets 5 more years as state president". NPR.org. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
- "Elections and appointments - institutions | European Union". european-union.europa.eu. Retrieved 2023-04-11.
- Sargentich, Thomas O. (1993). "The Presidential and Parliamentary Models of National Government". American University International Law Review. 8 (2/3): 579–592.
- "Parliamentary System". Annenberg Classroom. 2017-08-04. Retrieved 2023-04-11.
- "head of government". Oxford Reference. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
- Glasgow, Garrett; Golder, Matt; Golder, Sona N. (October 2011). "Who "Wins"? Determining the Party of the Prime Minister: WHO "WINS"?". American Journal of Political Science. 55 (4): 937–954. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5907.2011.00524.x.
- Harding, Andrew (January 2004). "The 'Westminster Model' Constitution Overseas: Transplantation, Adaptation and Development in Commonwealth States". Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal. 4 (2): 143–166. doi:10.1080/14729342.2004.11421442. ISSN 1472-9342. S2CID 147155846.
- "The Westminster system". www.parliament.act.gov.au. 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
- o'Brien, Derek (2020). "The Commonwealth Caribbean and the Westminster Model". academic.oup.com. pp. 131–161. doi:10.1093/law/9780198793045.003.0006. ISBN 978-0198793045. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
- Heywood, Paul (1991-04-01). "Governing a new democracy: The power of the prime minister in Spain". West European Politics. 14 (2): 97–115. doi:10.1080/01402389108424847. ISSN 0140-2382.
- "Germany – EU member country profile | European Union". european-union.europa.eu. Retrieved 2023-04-17.
- "Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany". www.gesetze-im-internet.de.
- "Political structure". country.eiu.com. Retrieved 2023-04-11.
- Waqar, M. (2020). Gender Quotas and Political Dynasties: Explaining Women's Substantive Representation in Pakistan's National Assembly (Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University)