Turks in Ukraine
|8,844 (2001 census) |
10,000 Meskhetian Turks (academic estimates)
plus 5,394 Turkish nationals (2009)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Predominantly Sunni Islam (including practising and non-practising)|
Minority Alevism, other religions, or irreligious
The First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union in 1926 recorded 8,570 Ottoman Turks living in the Soviet Union. The Ottoman Turks are no longer listed separately in the census, it is presumed that those who were living in Ukraine have either been assimilated into Ukrainian society or have left the country.
Meskhetian Turks migrationEdit
|Meskhetian Turks in Ukraine according to official Census'|
The Meskhetian Turks first arrived in Ukraine after World War II when the Soviet Union was preparing to launch a pressure campaign against Turkey. Vyacheslav Molotov, then Minister of Foreign Affairs, demanded the surrender of three Anatolian provinces (Kars, Ardahan and Artvin); thus, war against Turkey seemed possible, and Joseph Stalin wanted to clear the strategic Turkish population situated in Meskheti, located near the Turkish-Georgian border which were likely to be hostile to Soviet intentions. In 1944, the Meskhetian Turks were forcefully deported from the Meskheti region in Georgia and accused of smuggling, banditry and espionage in collaboration with their kin across the Turkish border. Nationalistic policies at the time encouraged the slogan: "Georgia for Georgians" and that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey "where they belong". Although Joseph Stalin deported the majority of Meskhetian Turks to Uzbekistan, thousands dying en route in cattle-trucks, in 1989, the Meskhetian Turks living in Uzbekistan became the victims of riots by the ethnic Uzbeks. Thus, the majority of the Meskhetian Turkish community arrived in Ukraine during 1989-1990 following ethnic persecution in the Ferghana Valley in Uzbekistan; most others immigrated later to re-unite with their relatives.
Approximately 10,000 Meskhetian Turks live in Ukraine. The majority of the Meskhetian Turkish community arrived in Ukraine during 1989-1990 following ethnic persecution in the Ferghana Valley in Uzbekistan; most others immigrated later to re-unite with their relatives. They are concentrated mostly in Crimea, Donetsk, Kherson, and Mykolaiv. A few live in Kiev. Most settled in Ukraine following the Fergana events. In 1991, they were granted Ukrainian citizenship.
Meskhetian Turks are Sunni Muslims. Due to the Soviet Union’s official policy of discouraging religion and promoting atheism, the majority of Meskhetian Turks, like Albanian Muslims, are not strictly observant Muslims.
Mainland Turkish migrationEdit
According to the 2001 Ukrainian Census there was 8,844 Turks living in Ukraine. The majority of the community was living in Kherson (3,736), Donetsk (1,791), Crimea (969) and Mykolaiv Oblast (758).
A Mosque was also built in Mariupol, Ukraine and named after Suleiman the Magnificent, the Mosque was opened in 2005. It was built by a Turkish Businessman (Salih Cihan). Five times prayers along with the Friday Prayers are offered at the mosque.
The Simferopol International School opened by Turkish entrepreneurs in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Ukraine has been listed the top school in the list of the country’s best 100 schools. Turkish, English, Crimean Tatar, and French are taught at the school. In the third year since its establishment, the school has achieved several successes in the Olympics held in the city and across the country. The Turkish school also won a bronze medal in the International Environmental Project Olympics (INEPO) held in Turkey. Turkish Parliament Speaker of the time, Cemil Cicek had visited Meridian International School founded by Turkish entrepreneurs in Ukrainian capital Kiev on April 4, 2013.
- Miray Akay, actress (Turkish father)
- Elvira Kamaloğlu, female wrestling champion (Turkish Meskhetian origin)
- Vasily Kapnist, playwright and nobleman (Turkish mother)
- Alemdar Karamanov, composer (Turkish father)
- Dzhemal Kyzylatesh, football player
- Irma St. Paule, actress (Turkish father)
- State Statistics Service of Ukraine. "Ukrainian Census (2001):The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue". Archived from the original on 2004-11-24. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Pentikäinen & Trier 2004, 20.
- Aydıngün et al. 2006, 14.
- Council of Europe 2006, 23.
- Çalışma ve Sosyal Güvenlik Bakanlığı. "YURTDIŞINDAKİ VATANDAŞLARIMIZLA İLGİLİ SAYISAL BİLGİLER (31.12.2009 tarihi itibarıyla)". Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
- Akiner 1983, 381.
- Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1939 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1959 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1970 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Демоскоп Weekly. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- Bennigsen & Broxup 1983, 30.
- Tomlinson 2005, 107.
- Kurbanov & Kurbanov 1995, 237.
- Cornell 2001, 183.
- Minority Rights Group International. "Meskhetian Turks". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
- Ryazantsev 2009, 167.
- "Turkish School Awarded 'Ukraine's Best School'". 30 March 2006. Retrieved 2014-10-24.
- Hizmet Movement blog (2013-04-06). "Parliament Speaker Cicek visits Turkish School in Kiev". Retrieved 2014-10-20.
- Miray Akay kimdir ve kaç yaşındadır?, Hürriyet, 2019, retrieved 7 May 2021,
Babası Türk annesi Ukraynalı olan Miray Akay, Balıkve Kelebeğin Rüyası gibi başarılı sinama filmlerinde rol aldı...2000 yılında Ukrayna'da dünyaya gelen Miray Akay...
- Bakar, Yakup (2017), Ahıskalı Elvira'dan ay-yıldızlı mayoyla Balkan şampiyonluğu, Anadolu Agency, retrieved 20 June 2021,
Cumhurbaşkanı Recep Tayyip Erdoğan'ın talimatı, Başbakanlık koordinasyonuyla Ukrayna'dan Türkiye'ye getirilerek Erzincan'ın Üzümlü ilçesine yerleştirilen Ahıska Türklerinden 16 yaşındaki Elvira, Slovenya'da 3-5 Kasım'da düzenlenen Yıldızlar Balkan Şampiyonası'nda kızlar 46 kiloda şampiyonluğa ulaştı.
- Brown, William Edward (1980), A History of 18th Century Russian Literature, Ardis Publishing, p. 455, ISBN 9780882333410,
D. Vasily Vasilievich Kapnist (1758-1823): The fourth and longest-lived poet of the Lvov circle was Vasily Vasilievich... there is a family tradition that his own mother was, like Zhukovsky's, a captive Turkish woman...
- Караманов Алемдар Сабитович, muzcentrum, archived from the original on 2011-11-20, retrieved 6 May 2021
- Кизилатеш: "То, что в белоцерковской команде много молодых — наш плюс", UA-Football, 2014, retrieved 7 May 2021,
Я сам турок, родился в Стамбуле и жил там до семи лет.
- Simonson, Robert (January 11, 2007). "Irma St. Paule, Stage Veteran, Is Dead". Playbill. Archived from the original on March 17, 2010. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
Irma St. Paule was born in Odessa, Ukraine. Her father was Turkish and her mother was Russian. The family moved to New York and, after she married, Ms. St. Paule followed her new husband to Chicago.
- Akiner, Shirin (1983), Islamic Peoples of the Soviet Union, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-7103-0025-5.
- Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çigğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006), Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences (PDF), Center for Applied Linguistics, archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-07-14.
- Bennigsen, Alexandre; Broxup, Marie (1983), The Islamic threat to the Soviet state, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-7099-0619-6.
- Cornell, Svante E. (2001), Small nations and great powers: a study of ethnopolitical conflict in the Caucasus, Routledge, ISBN 0-7007-1162-7.
- Council of Europe (2006), Documents: working papers, 2005 ordinary session (second part), 25-29 April 2005, Vol. 3: Documents 10407, 10449-10533, Council of Europe, ISBN 92-871-5754-5.
- Kurbanov, Rafik Osman-Ogly; Kurbanov, Erjan Rafik-Ogly (1995), "Religion and Politics in the Caucasus", in Bourdeaux, Michael (ed.), The Politics of Religion in Russia and the New States of Eurasia, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1-56324-357-1.
- Pentikäinen, Oskari; Trier, Tom (2004), Between Integration and Resettlement: The Meskhetian Turks, European Centre For Minority Issues.
- Ryazantsev, Sergey V. (2009), "Turkish Communities in the Russian Federation" (PDF), International Journal on Multicultural Societies, 11 (2): 155–173.
- Tomlinson, Kathryn (2005), "Living Yesterday in Today and Tomorrow: Meskhetian Turks in Southern Russia", in Crossley, James G.; Karner, Christian (eds.), Writing History, Constructing Religion, Ashgate Publishing, ISBN 0-7546-5183-5.