Toyota Astra Motor
PT Toyota Astra Motor (also called TAM) is a subsidiary of Toyota Motor Corporation based in Jakarta. It is a joint-venture company between Toyota Motor Corporation and PT Astra International with a distribution of shares of 50% and 50% respectively. It is currently the best-selling car brand in Indonesia and the second largest car manufacturer after Daihatsu.
|Founded||12 April 1971|
|Yoshihiro Nakata (president director)|
|Owner||Toyota Motor Corporation (50%) and Astra International (50%)|
Number of employees
TAM was established on 12 April 1971 as an importer for Toyota vehicles, and was transformed into a distributor company for the same brand vehicles a year later. Since Toyota's first entry into the Indonesian automotive market through TAM, Toyota had been known in the market through various car models. The earliest models introduced by TAM were Corona and Corolla. Corona, a mid-size family sedan, included the T-series, which periodically changed models in 1974, 1978 and every other four years until in 1998 when it was discontinued to undergo a model change to Camry. Corolla was also introduced in Indonesia in the early 1970s, and entered its third generation by 1975. This most-popular and most-sold-in-the-world compact sedan had captured the Indonesian market since then. Toyota had created a new trend in sedan design: small, compact, and with rear-wheel drive. Both Corona and Corolla were highly accepted in the market during the early years. Later, other Toyota sedans entered the Indonesian market, such as: Starlet – a small hatchback, and was discontinued in 1998, Soluna – a subcompact sedan from Thailand was launched in 2000 and discontinued in 2003, and Cressida – a large-sized sedan introduced in 1977 and discontinued in 1992, and Toyota Crown.
Toyota, through TAM also manufactured cars in other segments. In 4x4 class, Toyota introduced Land Cruiser which initially produced in 1950 and entered the Indonesian market in mid 1970s and was colloquially called “Toyota Hardtop”. This car was not only used for individual purposes, but also for industrial and military purposes. Specifically for commercial purposes, Toyota launched Toyota Dyna and Toyota HiAce; the latter was discontinued, only to return in 2012 as a large van. All of these models had been highly acceptable in the Indonesian market in the previous 26 years, but the story of Toyota's real success in Indonesia started in 1977 when the first Kijang was launched in Jakarta. This multi-utility car was known for its easy and low-cost maintenance and was later become a legend in the Indonesian automotive market.
The first generation Kijang sold only 1,168 units during 1977, but a year later drastically increased to 4,629 units, four times as many as the year before. The number continued to rise during the next several years. The second generation was launched in 1981 with a production volume of 19,323 units in 1985. The third generation was later introduced in 1986 and sold 82,687 units in 1987, the largest sale ever in Kijang's history. Half of million Kijang had been sold in Indonesia until 1995.
On 31 December 1998, TAM merged with three other companies: PT Multi Astra (a manufacturing company), PT Toyota Mobilindo (body parts manufacturing company), PT Toyota Engine Indonesia (specializing in engine manufacturing) with the name of PT Toyota Astra Motor. The merger was carried out with the goal to improve efficiency, to meet increasing consumers’ demand for quality, and to effectively face current competition in automotive industry. PT TAM initially consisted of two major departments, the production and marketing departments. The production departement, later in 2003 became PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia, conducted functional activities included casting, engine, stamping and assembling automobiles. Some components were directly supplied from Japan by Toyota Motor Corporation and the remaining was supplied by local components suppliers. Meanwhile, the marketing division was divided into overseas and domestic markets.
In 2003, TAM launched its first collaboration project with Daihatsu, the Avanza. The Avanza is developed as an entry-level compact MPV cheaper and smaller than Kijang. The car is manufactured entirely by ADM. Initial sales target was 2,500–5,000 units per month, but the actual sales achievement exceeded 15,000 units. A year later, the Kijang evolved as Kijang Innova, featuring modern look and modern features such as ABS and climate control. Kijang Innova is built above the IMV platform, which also spawned the Fortuner SUV and Hilux pick-up.
With the intention of establishing an integrated plant, TAM established a new manufacturing plant together with by parts and engine manufacturing plants. Currently, TAM was supported by two centers of production (Sunter and Karawang) and one parts center, the largest in Indonesia, which had been computerized since 1982 and was directly on line with Toyota's parts center in Haruhi, Japan. Factory in Karawang (first operated in 1998 with total investment Rp 462.2 billion) was considered to be one of the most advanced in Indonesia, built in 100 acres land with a test course and modern installation for environmental safety purposes.
- Toyota Kijang Innova (launched 2004)
- Toyota Fortuner (launched 2005, localized 2007)
- Toyota Sienta (launched 2016)
- Toyota Yaris (launched 2006, localized 2014)
- Toyota Vios (launched 2003, localized 2013)
- Toyota Avanza (launched 2003)
- Toyota Rush (launched 2006)
- Toyota Agya (launched 2012)
- Toyota Calya (launched 2016)
- Toyota Corolla Altis (launched 2001)
- Toyota Camry (launched 1998)
- Toyota C-HR (launched 2018)
- Toyota Voxy (launched 2017)
- Toyota Alphard (launched 2008)
- Toyota Vellfire (launched 2015)
- Toyota Land Cruiser
- Toyota 86 (launched 2012)
- Toyota GR Supra (launched 2019)
- Toyota Hilux (launched 2007)
- Toyota HiAce (launched 2012)
- Toyota HiAce Premio (launched 2019)
- Toyota Corona (1971–1998)
- Toyota Corolla (1971–2001)
- Toyota Crown (1971–2008, late models imported from Japan)
- Toyota Cressida (1977–1992)
- Toyota Kijang (1977–2004)
- Toyota Starlet (1984–1998)
- Toyota Soluna (2000–2003, imported from Thailand)
- Toyota Previa (2000–2011, imported from Japan)
- Toyota RAV4 (2001–2003, imported from Japan)
- Toyota Mark X (2012–2013, imported from Japan)
- Toyota NAV1 (2012–2017)
- Toyota Etios Valco (2013–2017)
- "TMMIN Corporate Information" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-06-23.
- "TAM Corporate Information – Manufacturing" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2019-06-23.
- "Wajah Toyota Kijang dari Masa ke Masa" (in Indonesian). iNews. 2017-12-04. Retrieved 2019-06-23.
- "Toyota Kijang" (pdf) (in Indonesian). Universitas Atma Jaya. Retrieved 2019-06-23.
- "Kemesraan Astra-Toyota" (in Indonesian). Inilah. 2012-12-03. Retrieved 2019-06-23.
- "Profil Perusahaan" (pdf) (in Indonesian). Institut Pertanian Bogor. Retrieved 2019-06-23.