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The Toyota Kijang (Japanese: トヨタ・キジャン Toyota Kijan), an acronym of "Kerja Sama Indonesia-Jepang" (English: Indonesia-Japan Cooperation), is a series of pickup trucks and MPVs sold mainly in Southeast Asia by Toyota. "Kijang", meaning deer/muntjac in Indonesian, was first introduced in Indonesia in 1977 and it had become the most popular car in the country of its time. The same vehicle was earlier produced in the Philippines as the Toyota Tamaraw, where it was launched in December 1976. Fourth generation models in the Philippines were sold under the Toyota Revo name. This car also sold in other countries, and is known as the Toyota Qualis in India and Nepal (third generation), Toyota Zace in Taiwan (third and fourth generation), Toyota Unser in Malaysia (fourth generation), and Toyota Stallion in Africa for the basic models (second, third and fourth generation), with higher specifications labelled Toyota Venture (third generation) and Toyota Condor in South Africa (fourth generation).
2003 Toyota Kijang LGX 1.8 EFI (KF82, Indonesia)
|Production||May 1977 – 2007|
|Body and chassis|
It is relatively affordable in the markets where it was sold when compared to the four-wheel-drive vehicles (the Kijang is a rear-wheel-drive vehicle) and has high seating capacity, high ground clearance and rugged suspension, popular features in an area with generally poor road conditions and large extended families.
It is manufactured as a CKD (complete knock-down) unit in almost every country it is sold in, and many of the parts come from each of the markets in which it is sold. The Kijang was designed with ease of manufacture in mind; in 1986 assembly of a Kijang only cost 42 percent of the cost of assembling the much smaller Corolla 1300.
First generation (F10; 1976–1981)Edit
|First generation (F10)|
Toyota Kijang with aftermarket square headlamps (KF10, Indonesia)
|Designer||Osamu Ohta and Ohyama (1972)|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Compact pickup truck|
|Body style||2-door pickup|
|Engine||1.2 L 3K I4 (petrol)|
|Power output||40 kW (54 hp; 54 PS)|
|Wheelbase||2,500 mm (98.4 in)|
|Length||4,070 mm (160.2 in)|
|Width||1,550 mm (61.0 in)|
|Height||1,760 mm (69.3 in)|
|Curb weight||940 kg (2,072 lb)|
The prototype was displayed at the 1975 Jakarta Fair, and production began in 1977. The first Kijang was a compact, light pickup truck powered by 1.2-liter 3K engine matched to four-speed manual transmission. A pickup variant with rear body and roof was also produced. The Kijang Minibus (van/wagon version) was built by a local company.
The Kijang first entered the Indonesian market on 9 June 1977, although it had been on sale in the Philippines since 2 December 1976. It was a boxy pickup truck with externally hinged half doors and plastic/canvas windows. Designated "KF10", it shared the 3K engine with the 1972 Corolla, coupled to a four-speed manual transmission. It was nicknamed "Kijang Buaya" (Crocodile Kijang) as the engine hood resembled a crocodile's mouth once opened. The KF10 Kijang sold 26,806 units until 1981, when it was replaced by the second generation model.
In the Philippines, the Kijang was sold as the Tamaraw (named for one of the country's national animals, the Tamaraw), produced in the 1970s up to the early 1980s. Introduced in December 1976, it started as a small 3⁄4 ton high-side pick-up (HSPU) with the 1.2L "4K" petrol engine (producing 56 horsepower), and was produced by the now-defunct Delta Motors, which assembled Toyota vehicles in the Philippines. It was considered a BUV, or "Basic Utility Vehicle". It had a four-speed transmission, and some models had no driver- or front passenger-side doors. Because of its ruggedness and ease of maintenance, even its upgradability (some swap the 4K engine with a more powerful engine, usually a diesel engine or any in Toyota's "K" series of engines), some of these vehicles survive today, and its designs are sometimes copied or modified by local assemblers to this day. It was so successful that General Motors (through Francisco Motors), Ford, and Chrysler (with Mitsubishi) created their own versions, including the two versions of the Pinoy and the Ford Fiera and Cimarron.
The KF10 Tamaraw was imported and distributed in Papua New Guinea in 1980 by Ela Motors, a division of the Burns Philip Group. The vehicle was renamed to Toyota Traka and was described as "using the same engine as the popular Toyota Corolla, the Traka is a basic utility vehicle capable of carrying a payload of 750 kg (1,653 lb) and developing more than 60 hp".[better source needed]
Second generation (F20/F30; 1981–1986)Edit
|Second generation (F20/F30)|
1985 Toyota Kijang (KF20; facelift, Indonesia)
|Also called||Toyota Tamaraw (Philippines)|
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Compact pickup truck|
|Body style||2-door pickup|
|Power output||43 kW (58 hp; 58 PS) (1.3 L)|
The F20 series Kijang retained its boxy style although the body panels were different. Under its slimmer hood was a 1.3-liter 4K engine, which was replaced in December 1985 by a 1.5-liter 5K. The only transmission was a 4-speed manual. With the 5K, power increased from 54 PS (40 kW) to 58 PS (43 kW), both at 5600 rpm. The 1986 model can be told from the outside by rectangular headlights and a new grille. The Kijang started selling very strongly in 1983 and 1984, catching up to erstwhile market leaders such as the Suzuki Super Carry and the Daihatsu Hijet. The more powerful Kijang offered more carrying capacity, while the engine placement made it safer than its cheaper, kei truck-based competitors. In February 1985, the 100,000th Kijang left the production line.
In the Philippines, the Tamaraw was also sold as long wheelbase 30-series. A local Philippine auto brand, Dragon, later took the designs of the long wheelbase Tamaraw and marketed it. Nissan, through its local assembler Universal Motors, later assembled and marketed their own variant on the AUV theme: the Bida ("protagonist" in Tagalog), which resembles the long-wheelbase Tamaraw.
Third generation (F40/F50; 1986–1996)Edit
|Third generation (F40/F50)|
Toyota Zace (KF50; pre-facelift, Taiwan)
|Production||October 1986 – December 1996|
|Body and chassis|
|Width||1,620–1,655 mm (63.8–65.2 in)|
|Height||1,760–1,815 mm (69.3–71.5 in)|
|Curb weight||1,035–1,285 kg (2,282–2,833 lb)|
Introduced in November 1986, the Kijang was offered as short wheelbase (F40 series) and long wheelbase (F50 series). The Kijang was redesigned to be larger and heavier, and no longer prioritized as a pickup truck. The Standard trim level had a 4-speed manual transmission, while the Super variant had a 5-speed manual and a better equipped interior. Introduced in this generation was Full Pressed Body MPV built by companies appointed by Toyota. This technique were applied to reduce usage of putties up to 2–5 kg for each car.
Facelift occurred in 1992. The minibus now received a right-side rear door and adopted a new name, Toyota Original Body, instead of Full Pressed Body. In its creation process, it was fully pressed and used pointed welding. Up to this time, this model can be said as the one and only putty-free Kijang. The trim levels for the minibus were:
- Standard (SX/KF42 & LX/KF52): a base model Kijang with four-speed manual, standard dashboard and no power features.
- Deluxe (SSX/KF42 & LSX/KF52): an upgraded version of base Kijang with new refined dashboard, better quality interior materials, steel rims with center caps, single AC, basic audio system with radio receiver, etc. (Alloy wheel was available as an option.)
- Grand Extra (SGX/KF42 & LGX/KF52): top of the range model with double blower AC, alloy wheels, suede-covered door trim and seats, power steering, power mirror, power windows, tachometers, upgraded audio system with tape deck and radio receiver (CD player available as optional), alarms and power locks.
- Kijang Rover (Change to RoverAce after receiving objections from car manufacturer Rover, British) (GRX Special Edition, KF42): a coachbuilder model with more spacious interior, power windows for all 4 doors, center console, refined audio system with 4 speakers and 2 tweeters, wooden trim, specially made door trim, new alloy wheels and new rear-end.
- Kijang Jantan (LGX-based model, KF52): a coachbuilder model with larger trunk capacity, air conditioning system with rear defogger, leather seats and same luxuries as Kijang Rover. Both Rover and Jantan models have different wheels and rear styling.
The Kijang Kencana (KF42/KF52) is a coachbuilder model based on Kijang Rover/Jantan with higher roof and higher ground clearance.
In 1994, the Kijang received a second facelift, including a new grille, new Enkei 14" racing aluminium wheels, new steering wheel, tachometers for deluxe trim, and the larger carbureted 1.8-litre (1,781 cc) 7K-C OHV engine. With the introduction of 7K engine, the production of 5K engine was completely stopped. On 17 August 1995, a four-speed automatic gearbox was introduced as an optional modification for the SGX and LGX models for the first time for the Kijang. This 1995–1996 version was an anniversary model and was relatively expensive—it cost Rp 100,000,000 at the time.
1992 Toyota Kijang SSX interior, with an aftermarket radio and steering cover
1.5 L 5K engine in the 1992 Kijang
1.8 L 7K engine in the 1996 Kijang
The Kijang was sold in India under the name of Toyota Qualis. The Qualis was based on the third-generation global model, but updated with front and rear styling and minor changes in appearance and sharing some fourth generation drivetrain components. Critics said the vehicle was outdated that came with an awkward design (non-aerodynamic) and did not expect it to sell well. However, Qualis was a hit as the vehicle was welcomed by taxi, fleet operators, and large Indian families over others like Tata's Sumo and Mahindra's Bolero. This Qualis is powered by either a 2.4-liter diesel engine or a 2.0-liter petrol engine. The top-end model comes with alloy wheels, disc brakes, and other comfort items designed to endear it to non-commercial buyers.
Venture/Stallion (South Africa)Edit
A version was built and sold in South Africa as the Venture, with the pickup variant called the Stallion. The advertising campaign for the Stallion had local Afrikaans comedian Tolla Van Der Merwe, and because of his popularity it is commonly called the "Tolla bakkie".
Tamaraw FX (Philippines)Edit
In the Philippines, versions of the Kijang were sold as the Tamaraw FX when it was introduced in the early 1990s. The Tamaraw FX was available with the 1.8-litre 7K-C petrol engine, or the 2.0-litre 2C diesel, all coupled with a five-speed manual transmission. Power was 78 hp (58 kW) and 69 hp (51 kW) respectively, allowing for top speeds of 130 or 125 km/h (81 or 78 mph). Standard, Deluxe and GL were the equipment levels offered.
The FX was meant for use as a passenger wagon. It still retained the ruggedness of the old Tamaraw and is ideal for rough roads and carrying heavy loads. It was assembled by Toyota Motor Philippines. Also around this time, along with the Nissan Bida, local car assembler Carter Motors came up with their own version, the Masa (Tagalog for masses, implying that the car is within reach of the masses).
Fourth generation (F60/F70/F80; 1997–2007)Edit
|Fourth generation (F60/F70/F80)|
1997 Toyota Kijang 1.8 LGX (KF80; pre-facelift, Indonesia)
|Body and chassis|
|Related||Toyota Hilux (N140/N150/N160/N170)|
|Width||1,670–1,720 mm (65.7–67.7 in)|
|Height||1,740–1,800 mm (68.5–70.9 in)|
|Curb weight||1,100–1,520 kg (2,425–3,351 lb)|
In January 1997, the Kijang received a redesign to have the completely rounded, aerodynamic shape, and was more powerful and more refined than its predecessors. The minibus, often known as "Kijang Kapsul" (Capsule Kijang), was either the F70 series (short wheelbase) or the F80 series (long wheelbase). The pickup model was designated the F60 series. The 7K or the 7K-E (1.8 L) equipped Kijang was the favorite model in Indonesia, because it was the lowest-priced model and it was enough for most people, but it is highly underpowered compared to the 1RZ-E (2.0 L) unit .[clarification needed] It was built on the same platform as the sixth generation Hilux.
The fourth generation Kijang vehicles were generally released in two series of trims:
- Long Series (F80/F81/F82)
- LX: Standard (Without air conditioning, cassette tape player, power windows, tachometer or other luxuries)
- LSX: Standard Plus (Equipped with standard air conditioning, cassette tape player and tachometer)
- LGX: Deluxe (Equipped with double blower air conditioning, cassette tape/CD player, power windows and garnish. Also for the first time, a four-speed automatic transmission variant was offered as standard optional equipment rather than modification).
- Krista (long series only): Luxury Edition (Same as LGX but available in only blue, red, black, silver or green color, and including sports kit and refined interior; the Krista edition also included specially made door trim and center console. The 1997-2000 Krista had no automatic transmission option)
- Limited Edition Krista (long series only): A Krista Kijang with LGX wheels, automatic transmission and rear tailgate from the Rangga complete with the spare tire and wheel mount that legend says only 3 where made in 1997
- Short Series (F70/F71/F72)
- SX: Standard (Without air conditioning, cassette tape player, power windows, tachometer or other luxuries)
- SSX: Standard Plus (Equipped with standard AC and cassette tape player)
- SGX: Deluxe (Equipped with double blower AC, cassette tape/CD player, power windows and garnish)
- Rangga (short series only, 1997–2000): Sport Edition (Same as SSX but including new front fascia, SUV-like body kit, higher ground clearance, spare tyre attached on boot, and refined interior with suede seat cover & door trim)
The pickup variant was offered with Standard Deck and Flat Deck (and it was replaced by the Hilux Single Cabin when the Kijang Pickup was discontinued in 2007). Trim levels for the minibus included SX, SSX, SGX (short), LX, LSX, LGX and Krista (long). The short wheelbase and sporty Rangga was also offered for a short time, but this model was not successful in the market, with only a very few units sold. A version called "RoverAce" and "Jantan Raider" made by local company, was also sold only a few units.
In February 2000, the Kijang got a new front end. The 2.0-litre engine was offered in the LGX and Krista models after September 2000. Another minor change was given in August 2002 with new grille, rear garnish, and some small changes with its features.
Fourth generation Kijang, in Indonesia, was changed three times:
- First edition (January 1997 – February 2000): The body's steel was thicker than 2nd edition. The window was still equipped with a rubber seal. It used 1.8-litre carburated petrol and 2.4 diesel engine.
- Second edition (February 2000 – August 2002): Thinner body-steel was used to decrease production cost; therefore, the new model was sold as the same price as the 1st model. It used compound sealant for the rear window, while the front windscreen was still using rubber seals. The design of the front panel was slightly changed (mostly on the driver's side). For this model (and upwards) customers could choose which engine they wanted to use – the original (but renewed) 2.0-litre EFI petrol engine, a 2.4-litre diesel engine or the new 1.8-litre EFI engine. LSX and SSX trim got Enkei 14" racing alloy wheels as an option.
- Third edition (August 2002 – September 2004): LSX & LGX series and SSX & SGX for short series were now equipped with suede doortrim (the older model used cloth doortrim). The interior changed into full beige color (the older models' color is mostly grey).
The fourth generation Kijang was sold in Malaysia as the Unser between mid-1998 to May 2005 when it was replaced by the Innova. Beginning in July 2000, an automatic variant was available with the 1.8 7K-E engine. In April 2001, a facelift was introduced. Changes included new multi-reflector headlamps, integrated spotlights into the front bumper, clear lenses with colored bulbs for the taillights and a new steering wheel design. For 2003, the Unser was updated again now only available with the 1.8 7K-E engine but with two variants: GLi and LGX
- 1998–2000 (F80)
The fourth generation Kijang was sold in the Philippines under the Tamaraw FX Revo nameplate. The model was introduced in 1998 to replace the Tamaraw FX (though it was sold alongside it for a while). The platform and diesel engine were based from the similar era Hilux. Engine choices include a 1.8-liter OHV EFI for the petrol engine and 2.4-literOHC diesel engine. Trim lines available are the DLX (entry level), GL, GLX, SR (Sport Runner), the high-end LXV, VX200 and the limited edition SR-J and VX200-J (part of Toyota's series of J, or Japan-spec, vehicles, which extended to the Hilux and the RAV4). The LXV trim was discontinued in the 2000 model year in favor of the VX200, while the GSX is a whole new variant. Facelifted versions were introduced in 2002; two J-spec trim lines (SR-J and VX200-J) were retired from the line, and higher-end trim versions received upgraded leather seating, entertainment systems and appointments.
The DLX has a vinyl interior, a two spoke steering wheel, a two-speaker radio/tape set-up and steel wheels with center ornaments. The GL grade has steel wheels with hubcaps, a four speaker radio/tape set-up and a fabric interior. The GLX, SR and LXV has a six speaker radio/tape set-up, fog lamps, alloy wheels, a rear wiper and all power amenities. Body graphics are exclusive to the SR and LXV only. The LXV had gold-trimmed badges. The SR has the word "Sport Runner" written in a font set similar to the one used for the Supra. It sold very well, in 1998 it accumulated a total sales of 7,700 units. Safety features were basic such as safety belts, load sensing proportioning valve, child-proof door locks and door impact beams.
The first released diesel powered Revo was notorious for being a smoke belcher, even among other diesels at that time, with some complaints from owners. Despite this, Mazda, Ford, and Isuzu released competing models, most notably the Isuzu Hi-Lander and its popular variant the Crosswind.
- 2000–2002 (F80/F81)
For 2000, Toyota revised the Revo, with badge changes and trim line revamp. Engine choices include the 1.8-liter OHV EFI and new 2.0-liter SOHC EFI petrol engines and a 2.4-liter OHC direct-injection diesel engine. The 2-liter diesel engine has been revised to address smoke-belching complaints.
The Revo received a facelift, featuring clear halogen headlamps, new wheels, new interiors and availability of new colors. Trim lines includes the DLX (entry level), GL, GSX, GLX, SR (Sport Runner), VX200, and the limited edition SR-J and VX200-J (part of Toyota's series of J, or Japan-spec, vehicles, which extended to the Hilux and the RAV4). The VX line eventually replaced the LXV; and the GSX is a whole new variant.
The DLX, the entry level, has only power steering, and no other power features. This variant lacks a tachometer, and is equipped only with a tape deck/radio receiver, 2 speakers in the front row only, vinyl interior and it has 14-inch steel wheels with center ornament. The GL is the "higher-end entry-level" with radio-cd setup, fabric interior, tachometer, and steel wheels with hubcaps. The remaining lines has all-power features, CD player/radio receiver and six-speaker setup (but upgradable to a DVD player setup), as well as rear-window defoggers. The VX and SR-J lines have leather seats and TV screens mounted on the dashboard and on the headrests. Only the SR-J, a special version of the SR (distinct wheels, unique livery), the GSX and the VX200 and VX200J had 2.0 liter petrol engines and power fender-mounted radio antennas. Front-facing third-row seats were made as an option albeit without three-point seatbelts, a rarity for the vehicle type at that time in the Philippines.
- 2003–2005 (F82)
The VX240D (2L diesel) was introduced to the new lineup in mid-2004. The Revo received its third and last refreshing. The J series of Toyota vehicles were discontinued, hence the discontinuation of its two J-spec trim lines (SR-J and VX200-J). It received a badge revision, availability of new colors and exterior and interior details, including a 3 spoke steering wheel with a chrome Toyota logo, larger headlights, Land Cruiser style tail lights (which are present in the fourth-generation Kijang), upgraded audio systems and other additional features. The top trim (VX200 and VX240D) received upgraded leather seats, upgraded entertainment systems, chrome appointments, side-steps(together with the SR variant) and upgraded dual DVD monitors. For the SR, a new livery was introduced, as well as the words "SPORT RUNNER" executed in plain text, discontinuing the use of the font used for the Supra. GLX and GSX grades received new wheels and different livery for the GSX
It had good sales expectations but was discontinued in 2005 likely due to Toyota's IMV project. The last Revos were either sold to rental fleets, police departments, or people who want to snap the last few examples, until February 2005.
Zace Surf (F60/F84/F85)/Condor (F80/F81/F85)/Stallion (F60/F61)Edit
The Zace Surf, Condor, and Stallion are high roof station wagon based on the long wheelbase Kijang minibus. For the right hand drive African market Condor was offered with a choice 2.0 L, 2.4 L Petrol engine and a 3.0 L Diesel. Unique to the condor is the 7-seat configuration with second row individual seating, door locks integrated to the inner door handles, Corolla style outside door handles and the lack of a rear cooler option. An 8-seat configuration was later made available and the third row bench seat was later exchanged for a 50/50 side folding unit. Full time 4WD, Anti-lock brakes and driver side airbag were available in TX trim. The Condor is sold as well in Ghana with 1.8 L and 3.0D engines with a 10-seat configuration.
The Stallion Panel Van was introduced initially with a 1.8-liter 2Y engine sharing the F60 designation with the Kijang/Zace pickup, later replaced by a 2.0L unit as a base engine for both the South African market Condor and Stallion models in 2003 as well as the 3.0 D engine both designated a chassis code of F61 in a 5-seat configuration with second row seats having lap belts instead of the standard three-point seat belts found in the Condor's outermost seats. The left-hand drive Zace Surf for the Taiwanese market was available in both 5- and 8-seater configurations with a choice of either a 1.8 or 2.4 petrol engine. Anti Lock brakes were optional with the 1.8 L petrol variant in GL Limited and DX trims while included as standard with Driver side airbag in 4WD equipped 2.4 L variants. The 8-seat configuration for 2.4 L variants was later discontinued and the third row seat was exchanged with a 50/50 split side folding unit and three-point seatbelts were added for outermost third row seats. Unique for the Zace Surf is the use of a printed window antenna in higher end trims. For both African and Taiwanese market vehicles only the 2.4-litre 2RZ was available with an option of an automatic transmission, standard in 2WD Zace Surfs. The single cab variant of the zace was offered with a 1.8-liter 7K engine in either flatside or standard deck configuration.
Toyota replaced the Kijang station wagon across Southeast Asia with the smaller Avanza in 2003, and the larger Innova in 2004. The latter has been retailed by Toyota-Astra Motor in Indonesia as the "Kijang Innova" to retain its linkage with the original model. Toyota categorize the Innova as the fifth and sixth generation Kijang. The Kijang pickup was sold until early 2007 when it was replaced by the Hilux pickup truck to comply with the Euro 2 emission standards.
The Indian market Qualis was replaced by the Innova, skipping the fourth generation model entirely.
The Innova was marketed in 2005 as the successor to the Revo in the Philippine market with marketing material referring to the Innova as "A Beautiful [R]evolution" referencing the Revo nameplate. Given the family oriented nature of the Innova taxi and commercial businesses served previously by the entry level DLX and GL Revo Trims were now served by the Avanza while the upmarket SR and VX trims now being catered to by the Fortuner SUV.
The Taiwanese Zace Surf was replaced with the Innova equipped with the 2.7 L 2TR-FE petrol engine with no replacement for the four-wheel-drive variant and pickup truck. The Fortuner, then codenamed IMV4, was slated to be imported by local distributor Hotai Motors as to reflect the Zace Surf's then current lineup however due to strategic consideration by Toyota, the Innova was launched in 2007 instead with the 2TR-FE to meet emission regulations with the smaller 1TR-FE being introduced later to replace the larger engine. In 2016, the Innova was discontinued from the Taiwanese market with the second generation Innova not slated to be imported.
The Africa/Ghana market Condor was replaced by the Fortuner in 2006, Avanza in 2007 and Innova introduced in late 2011 while panel van duties served by the African market Stallion were passed onto a panel van Version of the Avanza introduced in late 2013. The second generation Innova is not slated to be introduced to the South African market due to shrinking MPV market and poor sales.
Toyota IMV platformEdit
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