The toonie (also spelled twonie or twoonie), formally the Canadian two-dollar coin (French: pièce de 2 dollars canadiens, nicknamed deux piastres or deux piastres rond), was introduced on February 19, 1996, by Minister of Public Works Diane Marleau. As of 2019[update], it possesses the highest monetary value of any circulating Canadian coin. The toonie is a bi-metallic coin which on the reverse side bears an image of a polar bear by artist Brent Townsend. The obverse, like all other current Canadian circulation coins, has a portrait of Queen Elizabeth II. It has the words ELIZABETH II / D.G. REGINA in a different typeface from any other Canadian coin.
(92% Cu, 6% Al, 2% Ni)
|Years of minting||1996–present|
|Design||Queen Elizabeth II|
|Design||Polar bear in early summer on an ice floe|
|Design||Polar bear in early summer on an ice floe|
The coin is manufactured using a patented distinctive bi-metallic coin-locking mechanism. The coins are estimated to last 20 years. The discontinued two-dollar bill was less expensive to manufacture but lasted only one year on average.
Coins minted prior to 2012 consist of an aluminum bronze inner core with a pure nickel outer ring; but in March–May 2012, the composition of the inner core switched to aluminum bronze coated with multi-ply plated brass, and the outer ring switched to steel coated with multi-ply plated nickel. The weight dropped from 7.30 to 6.92 g, and the thickness changed from 1.8 to 1.75 mm. The Mint stated that multi-ply plated steel technology, already used in Canada's smaller coinage, produces an electromagnetic signature that is harder to counterfeit than that of regular alloy coins; also, using steel provides cost savings and avoids fluctuations in the price or supply of nickel.
"Toonie" is a portmanteau word combining the number "two" with the name of the loonie, Canada's one-dollar coin. It is occasionally spelled "twonie" or "twoonie", but Canadian newspapers and the Royal Canadian Mint use the "toonie" spelling.
Jack Iyerak Anawak, member of Parliament from Nunatsiaq (the electoral district representing what is now the territory of Nunavut), suggested the name "Nanuq" [nanook, polar bear] in honour of Canada's Inuit people and their northern culture; however, this proposal went largely unnoticed beside the popular "toonie".
The name "toonie" became so widely accepted that in 2006, the Royal Canadian Mint (RCM) secured the rights to it. A competition to name the bear resulted in the name "Churchill", a reference both to Winston Churchill and to the common polar bear sightings in Churchill, Manitoba.
Finance Minister Paul Martin announced the replacement of the $2 banknote with a coin in the 1995 Canadian federal budget speech. The RCM spent C$17,400 to canvass 2,000 Canadian households regarding which of the 10 theme options they preferred.
Under the direction of Hieu C. Truong, the RCM engineering division designed the two-dollar coin to be made from two different metals. The metals for the bimetallic coin would be lighter and thinner than those produced anywhere in the world. To join the two parts, the engineering division selected a bimechanical locking mechanism. By the end of 1996, the Winnipeg facility had struck 375 million of these coins. The coin was officially launched at Ben's Deli in Montreal on February 19, 1996.
Unlike the loonie before it, the toonie and the $2 bill were not produced concurrently with each other, as the $2 bill was withdrawn from circulation on February 16, 1996, three days prior to the toonie's introduction.[full citation needed]
|1999||The founding of Nunavut||G. Arnaktavyok||25,130,000||Commemorating the founding of Nunavut, featuring an Inuit drummer.|
|2000||Knowledge/Le Savoir||Tony Bianco||29,880,000||Millennium edition, the coin value "2 DOLLARS" appears on the obverse instead of on the reverse. It also features three polar bears. The issue date of the 2000 coin is on the reverse instead of the obverse side.|
|2002||The 50th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth's reign||Brent Townsend||27,020,000||The issue date reads "1952–2002".|
|2006||10th anniversary of $2 coin||Tony Bianco||35,319,000||Featuring an updated pose of the bear looking up at the dramatic lines of an aurora borealis. The first circulation coin to be introduced with the new mintmark.|
The issue date reads 1996–2006.
|2008||400th anniversary of founding of Quebec City, the first French settlement in North America||The coin was designed by jeweller Genevieve Bertrand, a Quebec City native. The engraving was done by RCM engraver William Woodruff.||6,000,000||The design of the coin is dominated by a large fleur-de-lis. Other elements include a ship and lines representing the St. Lawrence River.|
|2011||Boreal forest||Nolin BBDO Montreal||5,000,000||Celebrates Canada's boreal forest that covers over half of Canada's landmass. Features three stylized trees, a bird and a man.|
|2012||War of 1812: HMS Shannon||Bonnie Ross||5,000,000||Part of a series of commemorative issues on the War of 1812. Features a modified reverse with HMS Shannon in the centre core, as well as artwork with "The War of 1812, HMS Shannon" in the outer ring.|
|2014||Wait for Me Daddy||Claude Dettloff||5,000,000||Inspired by the iconic photograph known as Wait for Me, Daddy, which was taken on October 1, 1940, in New Westminster, British Columbia, by photographer Claude Dettloff.|
|2015||200th anniversary of the birth of John A. Macdonald||Glen Green||5,000,000||The design features a portrait of John A. Macdonald superimposed on the map of Canada in the centre; in the outer ring are the dates "1815" and "2015".|
|2015||100th anniversary of the In Flanders Fields poem||Glen Loates||5,000,000||Part of a collection featuring a coloured and uncoloured quarter duo, the reverse depicts John McCrae sitting in a field of poppies as he composes the poem.|
|2016||75th anniversary of the Battle of the Atlantic||Yves Bérubé||5,000,000||Features a sailor aboard a Canadian warship who presses his eye to the viewfinder of his anti-aircraft gun, scanning the skies for threats. Two other Canadian vessels in the distance while a Bristol Beaufighter flies overhead.|
|2017||Canada 150||Timothy Hsia||4,000,000 (with applied colour)
6,000,000 (regular issue)
|Commemorating the 150th anniversary of the Confederation of Canada. The design is titled Dance of the Spirits and shows a pair of paddlers dwarfed by a night sky alive with the ever-shifting movement of the Aurora Borealis. The aurora portion glows in the dark. The theme of the coin is "Our Wonders".|
|2017||100th anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge||Tony Bianco||5,130,000||Designed by Canadian artist Tony Bianco, the coin design features the Canadian National Vimy Memorial in Vimy, France, flanked by a First World War soldier on the left and a veteran soldier on the right.|
|2018||100th anniversary of the Armistice of 1918||Laurie McGaw||2,000,000 (with applied colour)
1,000,000 (regular issue)
|Designed by Canadian artist Laurie McGaw, the coin design features two symbols of remembrance: a soldier's helmet represents the end of the First World War and serves as a reminder of the many lives lost during history's first mechanized war. Below the helmet lies a large poppy, the official bloom of remembrance, whose bright scarlet colour is re-created on the selectively coloured coins.|
|2019||75th anniversary of the Battle of Normandy||Alan Daniel||2,000,000 (with applied colour)
1,000,000 (regular issue)
|2020||100th anniversary of the birth of artist Bill Reid||Bill Reid||2,000,000 (with applied colour)
1,000,000 (regular issue)
|Commemorating the 100th anniversary of the birth of Haida artist Bill Reid, the design features a rendering of the Xhuwaji, the Haida grizzly bear, along with his name and the year of issue placed between two micro-engraved maple leaves.|
|2020||75th anniversary of the end of the World War II||Thomas Shingles||2,000,000 (with applied colour)
1,000,000 (regular issue)
|Commemorating the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II, the design is based on the Victory nickel by Thomas Shingles, featuring a large "V" for Victory overlaid with a torch topped by orange and yellow flames. The Canadian victory emblem is flanked by maple leaves, while the double dates "1945" and "2020" appear at both left and right, to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II. The words "Victory" (English) and "Victoire" (French) appear on the outer ring, with an inscription in International Morse code, that when translated reads "We win when we work willingly" (English) and "La bonne volonté est gage de victoire" (French). The words "Remember" (English) and "Souvenir" (French) are added to the bottom part of the outer ring.|
Specimen set editionsEdit
From 2010 to 2015, the Royal Canadian Mint issued a two-dollar coin that depicts a different and unique image of a young animal on the coin's reverse. These special toonies have limited mintages and are available only in the six-coin specimen sets.
|Year||Theme||Artist||Mintage||Full-Set Issue Price (CAD)|
|2010||Young lynx||Christie Paquet||15,000||$49.95|
|2011||Elk calf||Christie Paquet||15,000||$49.95|
|2012||Wolf cubs||Emily Damstra||15,000||$49.95|
|2013||Black bear cubs||Glen Loates||17,500||$49.95|
|2014||Baby rabbits||Pierre Leduc||17,500||$49.95|
|2015||Baby raccoons||Clinton Jammer||15,000||$49.95|
|2006||10th anniversary toonie||5,000||$15.95|
|2006||New Mint Mark||5,000||$29.95|
Separation of metalsEdit
A failure in the bimetallic locking mechanism in the first batch of toonies caused some coins to separate if struck hard or frozen. Despite media reports of defective toonies, the RCM responded that the odds of a toonie falling apart were about one in 60 million. Deliberately attempting to separate a toonie is considered to be "defacing coin currency", a summary offence under section 456 of the Canadian Criminal Code.
- Newfoundland 2-dollar coin (antedating Canada's coin)
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