The Dublin Gazette was the gazette, or official newspaper, of the Irish Executive, the British-controlled government in Ireland based at Dublin Castle, between 1705 and 1922. Like the London Gazette on which it was modelled, its strapline was "Published by Authority",[1] and it published notices of government business, including proclamations, the granting of royal assent to bills, writs of election, appointments to public office, commissions and promotions in the armed forces, and awards of honours, as well as notices of insolvency, grants of arms or change of name. The most important notices were generally printed in both the Dublin and London gazettes.

After the 1921–1922 partition of Ireland, The Dublin Gazette was superseded in Northern Ireland by The Belfast Gazette[2] and in the Irish Free State by Iris Oifigiúil.[1]

History edit

Announcement by Arthur Vicars in The Dublin Gazette of the mourning dress required of visitors to Dublin Castle after the 1901 death of Queen Victoria

In 1670, when Elisha Leighton became Chief Secretary for Ireland, he began a gazette in Dublin, but stopped after a few months because there was "so little news to 'stuff'" it.[3][4] Notices relating to Ireland were occasionally published in the London Gazette, for example the statutory preparation for the 1679 Irish Parliament.[5] In late 1688 James II fled London and was deposed as king; in 1689 he established a power base in Dublin, summoned an Irish Parliament in May and established a gazette.[6] After James lost the Battle of the Boyne to William III, the office of King's Printer was restored to Andrew II Crooke, whose Dublin Intelligence claimed to be "published by authority" from 1690 to 1693.[7] This newspaper's official status was marginal; Dublin Castle made little input and reprimanded it for publishing a "scandalous" notice from the Jacobite Sir Theobald Butler.[8]

In 1705, under the Lord Lieutenancy of the 2nd Duke of Ormonde, a new Dublin Gazette was founded, although in its early days it was only two pages in length. The earliest surviving copy, dated 9 February 1706, is numbered as Issue 84 and is held in the Library of Trinity College Dublin (TCD).[3] The Dublin Gazette's first printer was Edwin Sandys: a proclamation dated from Dublin Castle on 25 October 1705 notified the people of Ireland that "to prevent imposition by the publication of any false news, the Lords Justices directed the paper entitled The Dublin Gazette to be published by their authority, and had appointed their secretary, Edwin Sandys, to peruse the same constantly, before it be printed; and that Edwin Sandys, at the Custom House Printing-office, should be the printer and publisher thereof."[9]

The first act of the Parliament of Ireland referring to the Gazette was in 1727, requiring the publication in "the Dublin-Gazette published by authority" of the details of each new inmate in debtors' prison, for the benefit of creditors.[10] That year three different periodicals were using the title "Dublin Gazette": the authorised one printed and published by J. Gowan from 21 June;[11] another by Christopher Dickson was titled the "Dublin Gazette" from 3 June until 4 July, when it was renamed Dickson's News-Letter and Flying Post;[12] while Thomas Hume's Dublin Courant was in August 1726 renamed The Dublin Gazette: or, Weekly Courant, and continued until at least 1729.[13]

The official status of the Gazette, through various changes of printer, is unclear prior to 21 August 1750, when the series of copies collected in the Chief Secretary's Office begins with issue No. 1.[14] Until some decades later, ownership of the title and any profits remained with the printer.[15] Until the 1770s, The Dublin Gazette had less of the character of an organ of government than its London counterpart, since it included foreign news reports and private advertisements besides official notices.[15] However, on 18 March 1776, an Order in Council was made which banned it from publishing news not "guaranteed" by the government.[16] A notice subsequently appeared in the Gazette on 13 April 1776, dated from Dublin Castle on 27 March, stating "that it is his majesty's royal pleasure, that for the future, the Dublin Gazette shall, as nearly as possible, be put upon the same footing as the London Gazette; and that it shall contain no other articles of news than such as are authorized by his majesty's government of this kingdom, or duly authenticated; and his excellency the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland has appointed Mr W. Roseingrave compiler of the said Dublin Gazette."[17][18]

The office of Compiler of The Dublin Gazette was in fact a sinecure; William Roseingrave had been first appointed during pleasure under letters patent on 20 April 1763, at which time he was already under secretary to the Second Secretary.[19][20] Roseingrave died in 1780 and was succeeded by William Williams Hewitt, son of James Hewitt, 1st Viscount Lifford;[20][21] he died in 1798 and was succeeded by Nicholas Price, a relative of Viscount Castlereagh.[20][22][23]

The printers of the Gazette held onto their ownership until almost the end of the 18th century. There was a sensation on 9 April 1799, when two rival versions were published, one by the established publisher, Sir St George O'Kelly, and a second by George II Grierson, the King's Printer, who claimed authorisation from Price, the new Compiler.[22] O'Kelly complained, to no avail, about the expropriation of his interest, thereafter losing the right to publish the title.[24] Murphy surmises that, the year between the 1798 Rebellion and the Act of Union, the Irish government felt it needed total control.[25] The Union abolished the Irish Parliament and hugely decreased the work for a King's Printer, such that printing the Gazette provided most of Grierson's business for several years.[26] In the financial years 1819 to 1820, fees paid by the government to Grierson for printing notices in the Dublin Gazette amounted to £6,354, compared to a total of £15,021 for printing in various private newspapers.[27]

As part of the 1817 absorption of the Exchequer of Ireland into the British Exchequer, the office of Compiler was among those scheduled to be abolished upon the demise of the present holder.[28] In 1834, George III Grierson testified that he as printer paid fees of £1200 to Price as Compiler,[29] that Price also received a salary of £300 from the Dublin Castle administration,[30] and that Price did no work but was accountable for any errors.[31] Price denied that his office was a sinecure,[22] but in September 1836 he surrendered his patent in return for an annual pension of £1,590,[23] which The Spectator reckoned eight times the value of the work he had been doing.[32] In 1850, Alexander Thom took over as printer from Grierson's sons.[33] Changes in 1836 and 1850 meant the printer produced the Gazette on a contract basis rather than retaining the profits, and government notices were included without charge.[33][23] In the 1880s annual profits for the government were £400–£500.[34]

Legal changes during the Tithe War of the 1830s required Church of Ireland ministers to place notices relating to their tithes within the Gazette, causing them to complain at the expense, responsibility for which was uncertain.[35] In 1865, the Irish Court for Criminal Cases Reserved said that an 1857 issue of The Dublin Gazette which stated it was "printed by authority" was not prima facie admissible evidence under a statute requiring it to state that it was "printed by the Queen's authority".[36] By contrast, the High Court of Justice in Ireland ruled in 1902 that a similar statute was satisfied by a 1902 issue which stated at the start it was "published by authority" and at the end that it was "printed under the authority of His Majesty's Stationery Office".[37]

In evidence to an official enquiry in 1856, the Secretary to the Commissioners of Charitable Donations and Bequests for Ireland noted that a bequest for £3,000 had gone unclaimed for years despite being posted in the Gazette, and said, "there ought to be some better medium than the Gazette, which, it has been said, is a place to keep a secret."[38] When an 1891 Land Purchase Bill required certain notices be printed in the Dublin Gazette, Thomas Sexton secured an additional requirement to place the notice in a newspaper published in the same county as the land for purchase; he argued "that Gazette only circulates among officials, mainly in the City of Dublin".[39]

Until September 1887 the Gazette published average cereal prices from major towns. In 1898 the cessation was ruled in court to have the unintended consequence that quarter sessions and the Irish Land Commission lost their statutory power to alter agricultural rents based on the reported prices.[40] In the debate on the 1900 bill that removed the anomaly, Independent Nationalist MP Tim Healy said, "the editor of the Dublin Gazette ... is the one journalist who is always entitled to my sympathy, and I suppose he was so busy printing coercion proclamations that, in the language of Fleet Street, his columns were "crowded out," and he had no room for printing the corn returns. ... I think also that if these corn returns in the Dublin Gazette, and even if the Gazette itself disappeared, Ireland as a whole would not be sorry."[41]

At the beginning of the Easter Rising of 1916, the Gazette published a proclamation by Lord Wimborne, as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, of martial law. This stated that "certain evilly disposed persons" had "with deadly weapons attacked the Forces of the Crown". The Gazette ceased publication during the Rising and for more than a week following it, with the result that a compendium issue was later published for the period between 25 April and 9 May 1916.[25]

Printers edit

Printers of The Dublin Gazette[42]
Dates Name Notes Refs
1690 James Malone Authorised by James II; only known issue is dated 29 March [43]
c.Apr 1705–May 1708 Edwin Sandys Died in office [44]
1 Jun 1708–16 May 1724 Ann Sandys Using her late husband's name; their son Edwin was not a printer [45]
6 Jun 1724–23 Feb 1726 Pressick Rider and Thomas Harbin Dropped after Rider printed anti-government pamphlet. [46]
21 Jun 1727–2 Oct 1742 John and Jonathan Gowan Only John is named in the 1727 authorisation but both he and his father Jonathan in 1742 revocation; some copies credit 'J. Gowan'. Briefly restarted numbering at No. 1 but reverted. Issues after 14 July 1742 were not "printed by authority". [47]
28 Sep 1742–12 Jul 1743 Thomas Bacon briefly restarted numbering at No. 1 but reverted; last no. 1,658. [48]
23 Aug–10 Dec 1743 Augustus Long [49]
13 Dec 1743–[Jan 1746?] Augustus Long and Samuel Forbes Last known issue 10 April 1744 [50][49]
Feb 1746–[Jul 1750?] Halhed Garland Last known issue May 1748 [51]
21 Aug 1750–1754 Richard James and John Butler restarted numbering at No. 1 [52]
1754–Mar 1757 Richard James Died in office. [53]
5 Mar 1757–30 Jun 1761 Alice James widow of Richard James [53]
4 Jul 1761–1789 Timothy Dyton second husband of Alice James [54][53]
1789–Jul 1796 Timothy Dyton and St. George O'Kelly O'Kelly married Mary James, daughter of Richard and Alice James [54]
Jul 1796–Apr 1799 St. George O'Kelly After Dyton's death. [55]
Apr 1799–1821 George II Grierson King's Printer and grandson of George Grierson [56]
1821–Dec 1850 George III Grierson and John Grierson Sons of George II Grierson [33]
Jan 1851–27 Jan 1922 Alexander Thom's King's Printer from 1871. The firm of Thom's retained the contract after its founder's death. [33][57]

Supersession edit

Early issues of Iris Oifigiúil had subtitle "(The Dublin Gazette)"

From 1919, during the Irish War of Independence, the Gazette was challenged by the Irish Bulletin, the official newspaper of the rival government of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, produced clandestinely by its Department of Propaganda and appearing weekly from 11 November 1919 to 11 July 1921.[58]

The Government of Ireland Act 1920 led to the creation of Northern Ireland in May 1921 and The Belfast Gazette, which first appeared on 7 June 1921, printed notices from the Northern Ireland government and the local authorities in its jurisdiction. Various Orders in Council, made by the Lord Lieutenant in 1921 and 1922 and his successor the Governor of Northern Ireland in 1922 and 1923, provided that references in previous legislation to The Dublin Gazette would be construed in relation to Northern Ireland as to the Belfast Gazette.[59]

The War of Independence resulted in the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed in London on 6 December 1921, and a nationalist Provisional Government recognised by the British on 16 January 1922 took over administration within what had been Southern Ireland and would become the Irish Free State. The final issue of The Dublin Gazette (number 21,977) was printed by Thom's and published on 27 January 1922.[33][1][60] Four days later, now by authority of the Provisional Government, Thom's printed issue No. 1 of Iris Oifigiúil, initially with "The Dublin Gazette" as a subtitle and an essentially unchanged layout, except that the masthead changed the name and removed the royal arms.[33][25][1][61] The name "Iris Oifigiúil (the Dublin Gazette)" was also used in statutory orders made by Diarmaid Fawsitt under the authority of the Provisional Government.[62]

In December 1922, the Constitution of the Irish Free State came into force, the Provisional Government became the Executive Council, and the Free State Oireachtas passed an Adaptation of Enactments Act, which provided that references in British legislation to The Dublin Gazette would be construed as Iris Oifigiúil.[63][25]

Archives edit

A complete set of bound volumes of The Dublin Gazette 1750–1922 is now in the Oireachtas library. It was transferred to the Provisional Government from the Chief Secretary's office when Dublin Castle was handed over in January 1922.[14][64] Other large runs are in TCD Library,[65] the National Library of Ireland,[66] and the British Library.[67] The Oireachtas volumes from 1750 to 1815 (except 1759, 1776, 1777) have been digitised, and individual issues can be freely searched and downloaded from both the library's catalogue and JSTOR.[68] Subscription-based online archives include the Burney Collection of Newspapers (1708–1712; 1724–1725; 1797) and NewspaperArchive (1706–1744; from a 1950 microfilm, metadata misdates some issues as 18xx or 19xx instead of 17xx).[69]

The "Virtual Record Treasury of Ireland", a website established for the centenary of the 1922 Four Courts explosion to recreate many of the Irish public records then destroyed, intends to make freely available a complete set of The Dublin Gazette, combined from partial sets in various libraries.[1]

Sources edit

  • Hammond, Joseph W. (1953). ""The Dublin Gazette," 1705–1922". Dublin Historical Record. 13 (3–4): 108–117. ISSN 0012-6861. JSTOR 30103813.
  • Murphy, Seán (January–February 2006). "300 Years of Irish Gazetteering". History Ireland. 14 (1): 11–12. ISSN 0791-8224. JSTOR 27725383.
  • Pollard, Mary (2000). A Dictionary of Members of the Dublin Book Trade 1550–1800. Bibliographical Society. ISBN 978-0-948170-11-9.
  • Select Committee On Sinecure Offices (25 July 1834). Report; with Minutes of Evidence and Appendix. Parliamentary Papers. Vol. HC 1834 vi (519) 339. London.

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e Brown, David; Hendriks, Sarah; Murtagh, Tim; Wallace, Ciarán (14 August 2020). "Published by Authority: The Dublin Gazette". Beyond 2022. Dublin. Archived from the original on 27 September 2020. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  2. ^ Note on The London Gazette et al. at Archived December 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ a b Hammond 1953 p. 108
  4. ^ Mahaffy, Robert Pentland (1910). Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland preserved in the Public Record Office. Vol. September 1669–December 1670, with Addenda 1625–70. London: HMSO by Eyre and Spottiswoode. pp. viii, 131, 303.
  5. ^ "No. 1492". The London Gazette. 4 March 1679. p. 2.
  6. ^ O'Kelly, Charles (1850). O'Callaghan, John Cornelius (ed.). Macariae Excidium, Or, The Destruction of Cyprus: Being a Secret History of the War of the Revolution in Ireland. Irish Archaeological Society. pp. 164–165.
  7. ^ Andrews, Helen (October 2009). "Crooke, Mary". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Royal Irish Academy. Retrieved 23 May 2023.
  8. ^ Forbes, Suzanne (22 March 2018). "News". Print and Party Politics in Ireland, 1689–1714. Palgrave Studies in the History of the Media. Springer. p. 40. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-71586-5_2. ISBN 978-3-319-71586-5.
  9. ^ Madden, Richard Robert (1867). The History of Irish Periodical Literature: From the End of the 17th to the Middle of the 19th Century. Vol. I. London: T.C. Newby. pp. 234–235.
  10. ^ 1 Geo 2 c. 25 s. 10
  11. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 247
  12. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 151
  13. ^
  14. ^ a b Hammond 1953 p. 109
  15. ^ a b Murphy 2006 p. 11
  16. ^ Andrews, Alexander (1859). The History of British Journalism: From the Foundation of the Newspaper Press in England, to the Repeal of the Stamp Act in 1855. Vol. I. London: Richard Bentley. p. 294.
  17. ^ "Chronicle". The Annual Register. Vol. 7 (4 ed.). 1788 [1776]. p. 133.
  18. ^ Hammond 1953 p. 111
  19. ^ Sainty, J. C. (1977). "The Secretariat of the Chief Governors of Ireland, 1690-1800". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Section C: Archaeology, Celtic Studies, History, Linguistics, Literature. 77: 30. ISSN 0035-8991. JSTOR 25506334.
  20. ^ a b c Hammond 1953 p. 110
  21. ^ A List of the Civil Establishment of Ireland, as it stood the 13th of February, 1793. Dublin: William Sleater by Authority. 1793. p. 18.
  22. ^ a b c Select Committee on Sinecure Offices (1834) Appendix p. 29
  23. ^ a b c Timperley, Charles Henry (1839). "1836, Sept.". A dictionary of printers and printing. London: H. Johnson. p. 945.
  24. ^ Hammond 1953 pp. 111–116
  25. ^ a b c d Murphy 2006 p. 12
  26. ^ Griffith, Lisa Marie (2007). "Mobilising Office, Education and Gender in Eighteenth-Century Ireland: The Case of the Griersons". Eighteenth-Century Ireland / Iris an dá chultúr. 22: 178–179. doi:10.3828/eci.2007.6. ISSN 0790-7915. JSTOR 30071491.
  27. ^ An Abstract of the Accounts of the Particulars Showing how the Sum of £10,000 voted for Printing Proclamations in Ireland, for the Years ending 5th April 1819 and 5th April 1820, Has been Applied; also, the Commission received by the Printer of the Dublin Gazette, from the Persons obtaining Money for Proclamations and Advertisements within the same Period; with the said Accounts annexed by way of Appendix. Parliamentary Papers. Vol. HC 1821 XX (705) 213. London. 29 June 1821. pp. 3, 97–112.
  28. ^ Public Offices (Ireland) Act 1817 [57 Geo. 3 c. 62] s. 3
  29. ^ Select Committee on Sinecure Offices (1834) pp. 128–129 qq. 1951–1954
  30. ^ Select Committee on Sinecure Offices (1834) p. 129 qq. 1959–1961
  31. ^ Select Committee on Sinecure Offices (1834) p. 128–130 qq. 1945–1946, 1964–1965, 1975
  32. ^
  33. ^ a b c d e f Hammond 1953 p. 116
  34. ^ H. A. B. (1888). About Newspapers: Chiefly English and Scottish. With an Appendix, Containing an Account of the Periodical Publications Issued in Connection with the Anglican Communion in Great Britain and Ireland. Edinburgh: St. Giles'. p. 126.
  35. ^ Select Committee on Sinecure Offices (1834) pp. 129–130 qq. 1972–1973, 1981–1991
  36. ^ The Queen v Robert Wallace. The Queen v Scott. The Queen v Teevan. The Queen v Cox. The Queen v Simpson (Criminal Cases Reserved (Ireland) 12 February 1865).; 17 Ir.Com.Law Rep. 206; 18 Ir.Jur. 68
  37. ^ Rex (Lanktree) v. Timothy McCarthy, Stephen Holland, and Thomas O'Dwyer (King's Bench Division (Ireland) 20 December 1902).; 3 N.I.J.R. 76
  38. ^ Her Majesty's Commissioners appointed to inquire into the endowments, funds and actual condition of all schools endowed for the purpose of education in Ireland (1857). "The Commissioners of Charitable Donations and Bequests for Ireland". Evidence; Volume II and Index. Parliamentary Papers. Vol. HC 1857–58 XXII pt III (2336-III) 1. Dublin: HMSO. p. 227 q. 23203.
  39. ^ Thomas Sexton (1 June 1891). "Purchase of Land &c. (Ireland) Bill". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Vol. 353. United Kingdom: Commons. col. 1422.
  40. ^
  41. ^ Tim Healy (28 June 1900). "Tithe Rent-Charge (Ireland) Bill : Second Reading". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Vol. 84. Commons. col. 1384.
  42. ^ Eighteenth Century Collections Online (1705). "The Dublin gazette". Searchworks catalog entry. Stanford University. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  43. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 395
  44. ^ Pollard 2000 pp. 508–509
  45. ^ Pollard 2000 pp. 507–508
  46. ^ Pollard 2000 pp. 274, 495
  47. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 247
  48. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 18
  49. ^ a b Pollard 2000 pp. 369–370
  50. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 221
  51. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 234
  52. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 68
  53. ^ a b c Pollard 2000 p. 317
  54. ^ a b Pollard 2000 pp. 177–178
  55. ^ Pollard 2000 p. 442
  56. ^ Pollard 2000 pp. 256–257
  57. ^ Sturgeon, Sinéad; Clinton, Georgina. "Thom, Alexander". Dictionary of Irish Biography. Royal Irish Academy. Retrieved 1 May 2023.
  58. ^ McKenna, Kathleen (1970). "The Irish Bulletin". Capuchin Annual. 37: 503–527. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  59. ^ Quekett, Arthur S. (1933). The Constitution Of Northern Ireland. Vol. II. Belfast: HMSO. pp. 393, 402, 406, 541, 550.
  60. ^ "The Dublin Gazette No. 21,977, Published by Authority, 27 January 1922, Printed by Alexander Thom". Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  61. ^ "Iris Oifigiúil (The Dublin Gazette) No. 1, Published by Authority, 31 January 1922, Printed by Alexander Thom". Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  62. ^ Fawsitt, Diarmaid (30 November 1922). "The Cork, Dundalk, Fermoy, Longford, Thurles, Tipperary, Waterford, and Wicklow Gas (Charges) Orders, 1922". electronic Irish Statute Book. Dublin: Office of the Attorney General. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  63. ^ "Adaptation of Enactments Act 1922 sec. 4". electronic Irish Statute Book. Dublin: Office of the Attorney General. 20 December 1922. Retrieved 27 April 2023.
  64. ^
  65. ^
    • "The Dublin gazette". Catalogue. TCD Library. Retrieved 27 April 2023. 1705/8-9, 1713-4, 1731-43, 1751-73, 1801-2, 1822, 1824, 1826, 1830-1,1833-7, 1839 [ 2 vols. ] , 1841-4
    • "The Dublin gazette". Catalogue. TCD Library. Retrieved 27 April 2023. Publication Date Jan.1891-1922.
  66. ^ "The Dublin Gazette". Catalogue. NLI. Retrieved 27 April 2023. Newspaper Hardcopy ... 1708-1714; 1729-1731; 1760; 1765; 1767; 1775-1788; 1790 - 27 Jan. 1922
  67. ^ "The Dublin Gazette". Catalogue. British Library. Retrieved 27 April 2023. Very imperfect before 1714. Wanting the years 1732-1741, 1745-1755, 1761, 1768-1774, 1776-1781, 1787-1792, 1812-1843, 1853-54
  68. ^
  69. ^ "Dublin Gazette". NewspaperArchive. Retrieved 3 May 2023.

External links edit