The Patriot Parliament is the name given to the session of the Irish Parliament called by King James II of Ireland during the War of the Two Kings in 1689. The parliament met in one session, from 7 May 1689 to 20 July 1689, and was the only session of the Irish Parliament under King James II.
The Irish House of Lords had Lord Fitton as Lord Chancellor of Ireland on the woolsack. The Irish House of Commons elected Sir Richard Nagle as its Speaker. The Lord Deputy of Ireland was Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell.
The previous session of the Irish parliament had been in 1666.
The name "Patriot Parliament" was first used in 1893 by Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, an Irish nationalist historian, in his edition of essays by his old friend Thomas Davis. In 1843 Davis himself had described the parliament as a "patriot Senate" in his essay "The Irish Parliament of James II".
The Act of Recognition was the first act of Parliament. It recognised James's right to the Imperial Crown of Ireland. It compared the usurpation by the Prince of Orange to the murder of James' father King Charles I, emphasized indefeasible hereditary rights, and asserted that the monarchy was founded on the Divine right of kings, not the result of any supposed contract between a king and his subjects.
The Declaratory Act affirmed that the Kingdom of Ireland had always been "distinct" from that of England, and that no Act of the English Parliament was binding on Ireland unless ratified by the Irish Parliament. However, Poynings' Law remained as statute law.
Parliament also passed legislation or resolutions for additional purposes:
- Liberty of Conscience. Parliament granted full freedom of worship and civic and political equality for Roman Catholics and Protestant Dissenters, and repealed the requirement of the Oath of Supremacy, but retained the Act of Uniformity. James sought the abolition of penalties against liberty of conscience but did not seek to remove himself as head of the Church of Ireland.
- Repeal of the 1652 Cromwellian land settlement, and the Act of Settlement 1662. This returned all lands forfeited in 1652 to the descendants of the former owners at the time of the Irish Rebellion of 1641.
- A Bill of attainder. "An Act for the Attainder of Divers Rebels, and for the Preserving the Interest of Loyal Subjects" named 2,000 Williamites as traitors, being opponents of James II, who were to lose their property and their lives.
Firth wrote that King James was opposed to the last two measures, but was "overborne by Tyrconnell and the Irish nationalists".
William's supporters won the War of the Two Kings and James and his supporters fled to the Continent, and in 1692 William III and Mary II summoned a loyal Irish parliament. In 1695, the next Irish parliament passed an act declaring all actions of the "late pretended Parliament" void, including attainders as well as acts; it also ordered all the Parliament's records to be destroyed.
The Parliament was overwhelmingly Old English and Roman Catholic, however, Church of Ireland Bishops retained their place as the Lords Spiritual in the House of Lords. A number of members served in James' Irish Army in the ensuing Williamite War in Ireland, with several of them losing their lives during the fighting.
The MPs in the House of Commons were:
That the Parliament had declared Ireland's autonomy was of interest to 19th century Irish nationalists, in particular the Young Irelander Thomas Davis who wrote a history of the parliament as an inspiration to his fellow countrymen.
- "The Nation" paper, essays in several issues, 1843 by TO Davis; reprinted in 1893 as The Patriot Parliament of 1689: With its statutes, votes and proceedings" Edited with an introduction by the Hon. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy.
- Bartlett, Thomas Ireland: a History Cambridge University Press (2010) p135
- Davis, Thomas Osborne (1843). The Irish Parliament of James II. CELT. University College Cork. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p 439
- Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p 444
- Simms, J.G. Jacobite Ireland 1685-91 Routledge and Kegan Paul (1969) p 80
- Bartlett, Thomas Ireland: A History Cambridge University Press (2010) p 135
- Harris, Tim Revolution: The Great Crisis of the British Monarchy 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p 441
- Firth, C. H. A commentary on Macaulay's History of England, republished by Routledge (London 1964), pp 211-212. Macaulay wrote there were 3,000 such attainders. History of England from the Accession of James the Second (London, 1855), pp 216-220, had said that t
- See also Butler, W. F. T. Confiscation in Irish History Talbot Press (Dublin 1917-1918), pp.215-216. "... if we follow King as corrected by Davis, between eighteen and nineteen hundred persons were attainted; and if we follow Harris, and a pamphlet cited by Davis as 'the List' the number may possibly be two thousand two hundred."
- Hill, Christopher (2002). The Century of Revolution, 1603-1714. Psychology Press. p. 256. ISBN 9780415267397. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- Raithby, John, ed. (1819). "1 W. & M. s.2 c.9 [Chapter IX. Rot. Parl. pt. 3. nu. 8.] An Act for the better Security and Reliefe of their Majesties Protestant Subjects of Ireland.". The Statutes of the Realm. 6: 1685-94. British History Online. pp. 154–155. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- Davis, Thomas Osborne. "The Irish Parliament of James II". CELT. University College Cork. p. 54. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "7 Will.3 c.3 An Act declaring all Attainders, and all other Acts made in the late pretended Parliament, to be void.". Statutes Passed in the Parliaments Held in Ireland. II: 1665-1712. George Grierson, printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1794. pp. 241–3.
- Harris, Tim Revolution:The Great Crisis of the British monarchy 1685-1720 Allen Lane (2006) p437
- G.E.C., ed. Vicary Gibbs and H. Arthur Doubleday, The Complete Peerage, vol. III (1913) Appendix D.
- The Complete Peerage, vol. III, p. 117.
- John D'Alton, King James's Irish Army List, vol. II (1861) p. 413.
- King James's Irish Army List, vol. II, p. 182.
- "Imposition on Grants". House of Commons Journal. London: British History Online. 12: 278–280. 20 May 1698. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- Moody,T. W., Martin,F. X. & Byrne, F. J. A New History of Ireland, Volume 3: Early Modern Ireland 1534-1691 Oxford University Press (2009) p491
- Sullivan, Eileen A. Thomas Davis Bucknell University Press; New edition (1979) pp25-26 & passim