Tangsa language

Tangsa, also Tase and Tase Naga, is a Sino-Tibetan languages or language cluster spoken by the Tangsa people of Burma and north-eastern India. Some varieties, such as Shangge, are likely distinct languages. There are about 60,000 speakers in Burma and 40,000 speakers in India.

Tangsa
Tase
Native toBurma, India
EthnicityTangsa people
Native speakers
108,624 (2010-2012)[1][2][3][4]
Sino-Tibetan
Dialects
  • Muklom
  • Pangwa Naga
  • Ponthai
  • Tikhak
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
nst – Tangsa (multiple varieties)
nqq – Kyan-Karyaw
nlq – Lao Naga
Glottologtang1379  Tangsa[5]

Geographical distributionEdit

Tangsa is spoken in the following locations of Myanmar (Ethnologue).

In India, Tangsa is spoken in Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. Below are locations for some varieties of Tangsa.

  • Jugli: Kantang, Longlung, and Rangran villages, central Tirap District, Arunachal (Rekhung 1988)[6]
  • Lungchang: Changlang, Rangkatu, and Kengkhu villages, eastern Tirap District, Arunachal (Rekhung 1988)[7]
  • Tutsa: Sabban area, Changlang Subdivision, western Changlang District (also in southeastern Tirap District), Arunachal (Rekhung 1992)[8]
  • Chamchang (Kimsing):Nongtham, Jotinkaikhe, Kharsang, Songking, Injan of Miao Sub-division and Nampong-Jairampur-Nampong sub-division of Changlang district. Chamchang dialect is adopted as lingua -franca by many sub-tribes in India as well as in Sagaing Division of Myanmar. In fact, the first complete Bible of the Tangsas has been translated in Chamchang(Kimsing) by the Bible Society of India.
  • Mungshang: Nayang village, Miao area & Theremkan village, Nampong circle, Changlang District, Arunachal (Rekhung 1999)[9]

Ethnologue also lists the following languages.

  • Lao Naga (Law, Loh) (ISO 639 nlq): 1,000 speakers (as of 2012) in Lahe Township. Most similar to Chen-Kayu Naga and the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga.
  • Chen-Kayu Naga (Kyan-Karyaw Naga) (ISO 639 nqq): 9,000 speakers (as of 2012) in 13 villages of Lahe Township. Dialects are Chen (Kyan) and Kayu (Kahyu, Kaiyaw, Karyaw, Kayaw). Most similar to the Chuyo and Gakat dialects of Tase Naga.

DialectsEdit

There are four principal varieties,

  • Muklom
  • Pangwa Naga
  • Ponthai
  • Tikhak

EthnologueEdit

Ethnologue lists the following dialects of Tase (Tangsa), some of which may actually be separate, mutually unintelligible languages.

  • Bote (Bongtai, Butay, Hteinpa, Nokpa, Nukpa)
  • Chamchang (Kimsing)
  • Champhang (Thamphang)
  • Chuyo (Wanggu, Wangoo)
  • Gaha (Halum)
  • Gakat (Wakka, Wanga)
  • Gaqchan (Gashan)
  • Gawkchung (Kochong)
  • Henchin (Sanching, Shangchein)
  • Kaisan (Kyetsan)
  • Khalak or Khilak (Hkalak)
  • Lakki (Lakai)
  • Lama
  • Lochang (Lanchein, Langshin)
  • Lumnu
  • Lungri
  • Moshang (Mawshang)
  • Miku (Maihku)
  • Mitay (Maitai)
  • Mungre (Mawrang, Morang)
  • Nahen (Nahim, Nahin)
  • Ngaimong (Maimong, Ngaimau)
  • Pingku (Pyengoo)
  • Ranchi (Rangchein)
  • Rasa
  • Rara
  • Ranu, Ringkhu (Rangkhu)
  • Sansik (Sheiknyo, Siknyo, Sikpo)
  • Shangti (Sangtai, Shangthi)
  • Shangwan (Changwan, Shangwal, Shawvel)
  • Shekyü (Sangche, Sanke, Shaekjeng, Shaekyeu)
  • Shokra (Sawkrang, Shaukra, Shograng)
  • Toke (Tawkay)
  • Yangno
  • Chamkok (Tamko, Thamkok)
  • Cholim (Tawlum, Tulim, Tulum)
  • Hachum (Chumnyu, Chumsa, Gachung)
  • Hakhun (Gakhun)
  • Hacheng (Hakyai)
  • Haman (Gaman)
  • Hapaw
  • Hasik (Awla, Awlay, Laju)
  • Kumka (Kum Ga, Kumga)
  • Rera (Ronrang)
  • Asen (Aasen, Hansin, Raqsa, Yasa)
  • Hakhü (Gakhi, Hachi, Hakhii, Hatse)
  • Hokuq
  • Jöngi (Dongai, Donghee, Dongi)
  • Kon (Chawang, Kyawan, Yawngkon, Yongkon)
  • Kotlum (Kawlum)
  • Lonyung (Galawn, Galun)
  • Lungkhi (Longkhai)
  • Maitai (Meitei, Mitay)
  • Riha (Lulum)

Kyan and Karyaw, two closely related Konyak speech varieties, as well as Lao (Law, Loh) Naga, are reportedly similar to the Chuyo and Gakat dialects (Ethnologue).

Alternate names for Tase (Tangsa) given in Ethnologue include:

  • Haimi
  • Hawa
  • Heimi
  • Kuwa
  • Pangmi
  • Pangwa
  • Rangpan
  • Rangpang
  • Tangshang
  • Tangwa
  • Tase

Morey (2017)Edit

Within Tangsa, the Pangwa group has about 20 subgroups in India. The Pangwa had migrated from Myanmar to India in the 20th century (Morey 2017). Pangwa subgroups are listed below, with autonyms listed in parentheses.[10]

  • Tonglum (autonym: cho¹lim¹, ʨolim, Cholim)
  • Langching (autonym: lo²cʰaŋ³, loʨʰaŋ, Lochhang)
  • Kimsing (autonym: ʨamʨaŋ, Chamchang)
  • Ngaimong (autonym: ŋaimɔŋ)
  • Maitai (maitai; Motai)
  • Ronrang (autonym: rɯra, Rera, Rüra)
  • Sangkhe
  • Lakkai (Lakki)
  • Mossang (Mueshaung)
  • Morang (Mungray)
  • Hachheng (Hacheng)
  • Khalak (Khilak)
  • Longri
  • Sangwal
  • Jogly (Joglei)
  • Lungkhe
  • Haso
  • Dunghi

The Tikhak group consists of:[10]

  • Longchang
  • Tikhak
  • Nokjah
  • Yongkuk
  • Kato (currently extinct)

Other subgroups that do not belong to either the Pangwa or Tikhak groups are:[10]

  • Moklum
  • Ponthai (Nukta)
  • Havi (Hawoi)
  • Hakhun (haˀkʰun)
  • Thamphang (ʨampaŋ, Champang)
  • Thamkok (Chamkok)
  • Halang (Hehle)

Besides Pangwa and Tikhak, other Tangsa groups are:[11]

  • Muklom (Muklom, Hawoi)
  • Phong (also known as Ponthai)

Lann (2018)Edit

Lann (2018:8) classifies the Tangsa language varieties as follows, and recognizes 11 subgroups.[12] IPA transcriptions for dialect names are also provided (Lann 2018:4-6).[13]

  • Upland Pangva: Shecyü (ɕe².ȶɯ²), Chamchang (ȶəm².ȶəŋ²), Mungre (muŋ².ɹe²), Mueshaungx (mɯ³.ɕaoŋ³), Lochang (lo³.ȶʰaŋ³), Haqcyeng (haʔ.ȶeŋ²), Ngaimong (ŋaj².moŋ²), Shangvan (ɕəŋ².van²), Joglei (juk.li²), Cholim (ȶo².lim²), Longri (loŋ³.ɹi²), Jöngi (dʒɵ².ŋi³), Maitai (maj³.taj³)
  • Eastern Pangva
    • Eastern Pangva A: Lungkhi (luŋ².kʰi³), Khalak (kʰ.lək), Gachai (ɡ.ȶʰaj²)
    • Eastern Pangva B: Rinkhu (ɹin².kʰu²), Näkkhi (nək.kʰi²), Rasi (ɹa².si²), Rasa (ɹa².sa²), Rera (ɹe².ɹa²), Kochung (ko².ȶʰuŋ²), Shokra (ɕok.ɹa²), Shangthi (ɕəŋ².tʰi²), Shanchin (ɕan².ȶʰin²), Khangchin, Khangdu, Lawnyung (lon².juŋ²), Yangbaivang (jəŋ².ban².vəŋ²), Gaqha (ɡaʔ.ha²), Raraq (ɹa².ɹaʔ), Raqnu (ɹaʔ.nu²), Kotlum (kot.lum²), Assen (a.sen²), Hasa (ha².sa³)
  • Yungkuk-Tikhak: Yungkuk (joŋ².kuk), Tikhak (ti².kʰak), Longchang (loŋ³.ȶaŋ²), Muklum (mok.lum²), Havi (ha².vi), Kato (ka².to³), Nukyaq
  • Ole: Nahen (na³.hen³), Lumnu (lum².nu³), Yangno (jɐŋ².no³), Kumgaq, Haqpo (haʔ.po²), Chamkok (ȶəm².kok), Champang (ȶəm².pəŋ²), Haqcyum (haʔ.ȶum), Tawke (to².ke³), Hokuq (ho³.kuʔ)
  • Kon-Pingnan: Yongkon (kon³), Chawang, Nukvuk, Miku (mi².ku²), Pingku (piŋ².ku²), Nansa (nan³.sa³, Nyinshao)
  • Haqte: Haqkhii (haʔ.kʰɤ²), Haqman (haʔ.man²), Bote (bo.te²), Lama (ku³.ku²), Haqkhun (haʔ.kʰun²), Nocte (nok.te²), Phong (pʰoŋ, Ponthai), Tutsa (tup.sa³)
  • Olo: Haqsik (haʔ.tsik), Lajo (la².jo²)
  • Ola: Kaishan (kaj².ɕan³)
  • Sandzik (san².ðik)
  • Cyokat: Chuyo (ȶu³.jo²), Gaqkat (ɡ.kaʔ), Wancho (vən³.ȶo²)
  • Kunyon: Kuku (ku³.ku²), Makyam (poŋ².ɲon³, Pongnyuan)

Lann (2018:4) lists the Aktung, Angsü-Angsa, Giiyii, Gawngkaq, Khangcyu, Khangdo, Kumgaq, Punlam, Nukyaq, and Vangtak-Vangkaq dialects as being extinct or nearly extinct.[14]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2018-07-07.
  2. ^ "Naga, Tangshang". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  3. ^ "Naga, Chen-Kayu". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  4. ^ "Naga, Lao". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tangsa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1988. Jugli Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  7. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1988. Lungchang Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  8. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1992. Tutsa Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  9. ^ Rekhung, Winlang. 1999. Mungshang Language Guide. Itanagar: Directorate of Research, Government of Arunachal Pradesh.
  10. ^ a b c Morey, Stephen (2011), "Tangsa song language - art or history? a common language or a remnant?", Als2011 Australian Linguistics Society Annual Conference Conference Proceedings
  11. ^ Morey, Stephen (2015). "The internal diversity of Tangsa: vocabulary and morphosyntax". In Post, Mark; Konnerth, Linda; Morey, Stephen; et al. (eds.). Language and Culture in Northeast India and Beyond: In honor of Robbins Burling. Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics. pp. 23–40. hdl:1885/38458.
  12. ^ Lann 2018, p. 8
  13. ^ Lann 2018, pp. 4–6
  14. ^ Lann 2018, p. 4

External linksEdit