1984 Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly election
The eighth legislative assembly election for Tamil Nadu was held on December 24, 1984. Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) won the election and its leader, incumbent M. G. Ramachandran (MGR) was sworn in as Chief Minister, for the third time. The election victory was mainly attributed to the sympathy wave created by Indira Gandhi's assassination and MGR's illness coupled with Rajiv Gandhi's popularity. This is the last election MGR contested as he died in office in 1987. This is also the only General Election which M. Karunanidhi did not contest since 1957 until his death.
All 234 seats in the Legislature of Tamil Nadu
1984 election map (by constituencies)
Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984. During the same time, M. G. Ramachandran was diagnosed with kidney failure and admitted in a hospital in New York City. Rajiv Gandhi assumed office immediately and this required a fresh mandate from the people. Indian National Congress (Indira) and Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam formed an alliance and contested the election.
National parties Bharatiya Janta Party, Communist Party of India, Communist Party of India (Marxist), Indian National Congress and Janata Party, state parties All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, Indian Conress (J), and registered unrecognised parties Ambedkar Kranti Dal, Gandhi Kamraj National and Tamil Nadu Congress (K) contested the election.
The allocation of seats were done what was later dubbed, "The MGR formula". Where the regional party would contest 70% of the assembly seats and the national party would be given 70% of the Lok Sabha seats. This would be the last election MGR contested, due to his death during his chief ministership.
M. G. Ramachandran was confined to the hospital. Video coverage of MGR recuperating in hospital along with Indira Gandhi's assassination were stitched together by ADMK man in charge of campaigning R. M. Veerappan. The video was distributed and played across all over Tamil Nadu. Rajiv Gandhi visited cyclone-hit areas in Tamil Nadu which also boosted the alliance. The sympathy wave created by Indira's assassination, MGR's illness and Rajiv Gandhi's charisma helped the alliance sweep the election. DMK leader M. Karunanidhi did not contest this election, due to the fact that the ADMK leader M.G.R was admitted to a hospital in the U.S. and Indira Gandhi being assassinated.
|1.||All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||M.G. Ramachandran||155|
|2.||Indian National Congress||M.Palaniyandi||73|
|3.||Gandhi Kamaraj Congress Party||4|
|1.||Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam||M.Karunanidhi||176|
|2.||Communist Party of India||P.Manickam||17|
|3.||Communist Party of India (Marxist)||Nallasivam||16|
Voting and ResultsEdit
Results by Pre-Poll AllianceEdit
|Alliance/Party||Seats won||Change||Popular Vote||Vote %||Adj. %‡|
‡: Vote % reflects the percentage of votes the party received compared to the entire electorate that voted in this election. Adjusted (Adj.) Vote %, reflects the % of votes the party received per constituency that they contested.
Constituency wise resultsEdit
Nedunchezhiyan remained the finance minister in MGR's third Cabinet.
After MGRS's death, VR Neduncheziyan was sworn in as Acting Chief Minister. But, one week later, the party majority led by R.M.Veerappan supported MGR's widow Janaki to become Chief minister and she was sworn in as Chief minister. Janaki doubled as the finance minister in her Cabinet. The Governor gave Janaki Ramachandran 30 days time to prove majority support in the house. This was a problem because, 30 MLAs of her own party were supporting J. Jayalalitha to become the new Chief minister. Hence Janaki had the support of only 105 MLAs in the house of 234, as VR Neduncheziyan's 10 supporters chose to remain neutral and boycott the voting.
Hence, on the day of voting, Speaker PH pandiyan disqualified and dismissed 20 MLAs of opposition party DMK and 15 MLAs of AIADMK (Jayalalitha faction ) from their MLA posts, due to demeaning behaviour in the house and thus announced that the majority was reduced to a mere 100, as the house then had only 199 members.
Before commencement of oral voting, violence erupted in the house and the speaker was injured. With bleeding head, he announced that Janaki had proved her majority with 105 MLAs and adjourned the house immediately. Then the members of the assembly were escorted out.
The Governor of state refused to accept this voting which was done under suspicious environment and recommended the Central government to dismiss the legislature and hold fresh general elections. The central government accepted the recommendation and the legislature was dissolved by the President.
- G. Palanithurai (June 1991). Role Perception of the Legislators: A Case Study of Tamil Nadu. Stosius Inc/Advent Books Division. p. 27. ISBN 81-220-0227-7.
- K. Mohandas (1992). MGR, the man and the myth. Panther Publishers. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-81-85457-09-3.
- TN Elections 2011: DMK releases candidates list for 119 seats-Karunanidhi from Tiruvarur, Stalin fielded in Kolathur
- ECI: 1984 Election Statistical Report