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Stockfish is a free and open-source[3] UCI chess engine, available for various desktop and mobile platforms. It is developed by Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Gary Linscott and Tord Romstad, with many contributions from a community of open-source developers.[4]

Stockfish
This is a logo for Stockfish Chess Engine.jpg
Developer(s)Marco Costalba
Joona Kiiski
Gary Linscott
Tord Romstad[1]
Initial releaseNovember 2, 2008; 10 years ago (2008-11-02)
Stable release
10 / November 29, 2018; 9 months ago (2018-11-29)
Repository Edit this at Wikidata
Written inC++
Operating systemMicrosoft Windows
macOS
Linux
iOS
Android
TypeChess engine
LicenseGPLv3[2]
Websitestockfishchess.org
DroidFish is a free Android chess program that bundles the Stockfish engine.

Stockfish is consistently ranked first or near the top of most chess-engine rating lists and is the strongest open-source conventional chess engine in the world.[5][6][7] It won the unofficial world computer chess championships in seasons 6 (2014), 9 (2016), 11 (2018), 12 (2018), 13 (2018), and 14 (2019). It finished runner-up in season 5 (2013), 7 (2014), 8 (2015), and 15 (2019).

Stockfish is derived from Glaurung, an open-source engine by Romstad released in 2004.

Contents

FeaturesEdit

Stockfish can use up to 512 CPU threads in multiprocessor systems. The maximal size of its transposition table is 128 GB. Stockfish implements an advanced alpha–beta search and uses bitboards. Compared to other engines, it is characterized by its great search depth, due in part to more aggressive pruning, and late move reductions.[8][9]

Stockfish supports Chess960, which is one of the features that was inherited from Glaurung.

The Syzygy tablebase support, previously available in a fork maintained by Ronald de Man, was integrated into Stockfish in 2014.[10] In 2018 support for the 7-men Syzygy was added, shortly after becoming available.

HistoryEdit

The program originated from Glaurung, an open-source chess engine created by Romstad and first released in 2004. Four years later, Costalba, inspired by the strong open-source engine, decided to fork the project. He named it Stockfish because it was "produced in Norway and cooked in Italy" (Romstad is a Norwegian, Costalba is an Italian). The first version, Stockfish 1.0, was released in November 2008.[2][11] For a while, new ideas and code changes were transferred between the two programs in both directions, until Romstad decided to discontinue Glaurung in the favor of Stockfish, which was the more advanced engine at the time.[12] The last Glaurung (version 2.2) was released in December 2008.

Around 2011, Romstad decided to abandon his involvement with Stockfish and preferred to spend his time on his new iOS chess app.

On 18 June 2014 Marco Costalba announced that he had "decided to step down as Stockfish maintainer" and asked that the community create a fork of the current version and continue its development.[13] An official repository, managed by a volunteer group of core Stockfish developers, was created soon after and currently manages the development of the project.[14]

FishtestEdit

Since 2013, Stockfish has been developed using a distributed testing framework named Fishtest, where volunteers are able to donate CPU time for testing improvements to the program.[15][16][17]

Changes to game-playing code are accepted or rejected based on results of playing of tens of thousands of games on the framework against an older "reference" version of the program, using sequential probability ratio testing. Tests on the framework are verified using the chi-squared test, and only if the results are statistically significant are they deemed reliable and used to revise the software code.

As of June 2018, the framework has used a total of more than 1200 years of CPU time to play more than 840 million chess games.[18] After the inception of Fishtest, Stockfish experienced an explosive growth of 120 Elo points in just 12 months, propelling it to the top of all major rating lists.[19][20] In Stockfish 7, FishTest author Gary Linscott was added to the official list of authors in acknowledgement of his contribution to Stockfish's strength.

Competition resultsEdit

Participation in TCECEdit

In 2013 Stockfish finished runner-up at both TCEC Seasons 4 and 5, with Superfinal scores of 23–25 first against Houdini 3 and later against Komodo 1142. Season 5 was notable for the winning Komodo team as they accepted the award posthumously for the program's creator Don Dailey, who succumbed to an illness during the final stage of the event. In his honor, the version of Stockfish that was released shortly after that season was named "Stockfish DD".[21]

On 30 May 2014, Stockfish 170514 (a development version of Stockfish 5 with tablebase support) convincingly won TCEC Season 6, scoring 35.5–28.5 against Komodo 7x in the Superfinal.[22] Stockfish 5 was released the following day.[23] In TCEC Season 7, Stockfish again made the Superfinal, but lost to Komodo with the score of 30.5–33.5.[22] In TCEC Season 8, despite losses on time caused by buggy code, Stockfish nevertheless qualified once more for the Superfinal, but lost the ensuing 100-game match 46.5–53.5 to Komodo.[22]

Stockfish version 8 is the winner of the 2016 Season 9 of TCEC against Houdini version 5 with the score of 54.5 versus 45.5.[24] Stockfish finished third during season 10 of TCEC and won seasons 11 (59 vs. 41 against Houdini 6.03),[25] 12 (60 vs. 40 against Komodo 12.1.1),[26] and 13 (55 vs. 45 against Komodo 2155.00)[27] convincingly.[28] In Season 14, Stockfish faced a new challenger in Leela Chess Zero, but managed to eke out a win by one game (50.5-49.5).[29] Its winning streak was finally ended in season 15, when Leela qualified again and won 53.5-46.5.[30]

Stockfish also participated in the TCEC cup, winning the first edition but was surprisingly upset by Houdini in the semifinals of the second edition.[31] Stockfish recovered to beat Komodo in the third place playoff.[32] In the third edition, Stockfish made it to the finals, but was defeated by Leela Chess Zero after blundering in a 7-man endgame tablebase draw.

Stockfish versus NakamuraEdit

Stockfish's strength relative to the best human chess players was most apparent in a handicap match with grandmaster Hikaru Nakamura (2798-rated) in August 2014. In the first two games of the match, Nakamura had the assistance of an older version of Rybka, and in the next two games, he received White with pawn odds but no assistance. Nakamura was the world's fifth-best human chess player at the time of the match, while Stockfish were denied use of its opening book and endgame tablebase. Stockfish won each half of the match 1.5–0.5. Both of Stockfish's wins arose from positions in which Nakamura, as is typical for his playing style, pressed for a win instead of acquiescing to a draw.[33]

An artificial-intelligence approach, designed by Jean-Marc Alliot of the Institut de recherche en informatique de Toulouse ("Toulouse Computer Science Research Institute"), which compares chess grandmaster moves against that of Stockfish, rated Magnus Carlsen as the best player of all-time, as he had the highest probability of all World Chess Champions to play the moves that Stockfish suggested.[34]

Computer chess tournamentEdit

Ever since chess.com hosted its first computer chess championship in 2018, Stockfish has dominated, winning all but one title at different time controls.

Chess.com Computer Chess Championship
Event Year Time Controls Result Ref
CCC 1: Rapid Rumble 2018 15+5 1st [35]
CCC 2: Blitz Battle 2018 5+2 1st [36]
CCC 3: Rapid Redux 2019 30+5 1st [37]
CCC 4: Bullet Brawl 2019 1+2 1st [38]
CCC 5: Escalation 2019 10+5 1st [39]
CCC 6: Winter Classic 2019 10+10 1st [40]
CCC 7: Blitz Bonanza 2019 5+2 2nd [41]
CCC 8: Deep Dive 2019 15+5 1st [42]
CCC 9: The Gauntlet 2019 5+2, 10+5 1st [43]

Stockfish versus AlphaZeroEdit

In December 2017, Stockfish 8 was used as a benchmark to evaluate Google division Deepmind's AlphaZero, with each engine supported by different hardware. AlphaZero was trained through self-play for a total of nine hours, and reached Stockfish's level after just four.[44][45] In 100 games from the normal starting position AlphaZero won 25 games as White, won 3 as Black, and drew the remaining 72, with 0 losses.[46] AlphaZero also played twelve 100-game matches against Stockfish starting from twelve popular openings for a final score of 290 wins, 886 draws and 24 losses, for a point score of 733:467.[47][note 1]

AlphaZero's victory over Stockfish sparked a flurry of activity in the computer chess community, leading to a new open-source engine aimed at replicating AlphaZero, known as Leela Chess Zero. By January 2019, Leela was able to defeat the version of Stockfish that played AlphaZero (Stockfish 8) in a 100-game match. An updated version of Stockfish narrowly defeated Leela Chess Zero in the superfinal of the 14th TCEC season, 50.5–49.5 (+10 =81 −9),[49] but lost the superfinal of the next season to Leela 53.5-46.5 (+14 -7 =79).[50]

PlatformsEdit

Release versions and development versions are available as C++ source code and as precompiled versions for Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux 32-bit/64-bit and Android.

Stockfish has been a very popular engine for various platforms. On the desktop, it is the default chess engine bundled with the Internet Chess Club interface programs BlitzIn and Dasher. On the mobile platform, it has been bundled with the Stockfish app, SmallFish and Droidfish. Other Stockfish-compatible graphical user interfaces (GUIs) include Fritz, Arena, Stockfish for Mac, and PyChess.[51][52] As of March 2014, Stockfish is the chess engine used by Lichess,[53] a popular online chess site.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The academic paper on this sequence of games does not provide the computer resources allocated to each engine.[48]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Stockfish/src/uci.cpp". Retrieved 18 March 2016.
  2. ^ a b "About". stockfishchess.org. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  3. ^ Chabris, Christopher. "The Real Kings of Chess Are Computers". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
  4. ^ Eade, James (2016). Chess for Dummies. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. p. 476. ISBN 9781119280033. OCLC 960819719. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  5. ^ "CEGT Best Versions 40/20 (AMD 4200+)". Chess Engines Grand Tournament. 29 June 2014. Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  6. ^ "CCRL 40/40". Computer Chess Rating Lists. 29 June 2014. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ "IPON Rating List". 6 June 2014. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
  8. ^ Kaufman, Larry (24 November 2013). "Stockfish depth vs. others; challenge". talkchess.com. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  9. ^ Kislik, Erik (6 June 2014). "IM Erik Kislik analyzes the TCEC Superfinal in-depth". susanpolgar.blogspot.hu. Retrieved 7 June 2014.
  10. ^ "Stockfish development versions". abrok.eu. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. ^ Costalba, Marco (2 November 2008). "Stockfish 1.0". talkchess.com. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
  12. ^ Romstad, Tord (5 September 2009). "Re: Stockfish - Glaurung". wbec-ridderkerk.forumotion.com. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
  13. ^ Costalba, Marco (18 June 2014). "Step down". groups.google.com. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  14. ^ Linscott, Gary (18 June 2014). "New official repository". groups.google.com. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  15. ^ "Stockfish Testing Framework". tests.stockfishchess.org. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
  16. ^ "Get Involved". stockfishchess.org. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
  17. ^ Costalba, Marco (1 May 2013). "Fishtest Distributed Testing Framework". talkchess.com. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
  18. ^ "Stockfish Testing Framework - Users". test.stockfishchess.org. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  19. ^ "Fast GM Rating List".
  20. ^ "CCRL Rating List". Archived from the original on 2014-05-30. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  21. ^ "Stockfish Blog on Stockfish DD".
  22. ^ a b c "TCEC Season Archive". tcec.chessdom.com. Retrieved 9 January 2015.
  23. ^ Costalba, Marco (31 May 2014). "Stockfish 5". talkchess.com. Retrieved 19 June 2014.
  24. ^ "Stockfish is the TCEC Season 9 Grand Champion". Chessdom. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  25. ^ "TCEC Season 11 Superfinal 2018". chess24.com. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  26. ^ "TCEC Season 12 Superfinal 2018". chess24.com. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  27. ^ "TCEC Season 13 Superfinal 2018". chess24.com. Retrieved 2018-11-18.
  28. ^ "Stockfish convincingly wins TCEC Season 11". Chessdom. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  29. ^ "Stockfish continues to dominate computer chess, wins TCEC S14". Chessdom. 1 March 2019.
  30. ^ https://cd.tcecbeta.club/archive.html?season=15&div=sf&game=1 TCEC season 15
  31. ^ "Houdunit ? Most shocking chess engine game of TCEC 2019".
  32. ^ See the TCEC Cup 1 and 2 archives at http://legacy-tcec.chessdom.com/archive.php
  33. ^ http://www.chess.com/news/stockfish-outlasts-nakamura-3634.
  34. ^ "When artificial intelligence evaluates chess champions". Science Daily. CNRS. 25 April 2017.
  35. ^ Cilento, Pete. "Stockfish Wins Computer Chess Championship Rapid; Lc0 Finishes 3rd". Chess.com. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  36. ^ Cilento, Pete. "Stockfish Wins Computer Chess Championship Blitz". Chess.com. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  37. ^ Cilento, Pete. "Stockfish Wins Rapid Computer Championship Over Lc0; Bullet Chess Next". Chess.com. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  38. ^ Cilento, Pete. "Stockfish Wins Computer Chess Championship Bullet; 'Escalation' Next". Chess.com. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  39. ^ [1]
  40. ^ Cilento, Pete. "Computer Chess Championship Plays Blitz After Stockfish Defends Title". Chess.com. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  41. ^ Cilento, Pete (17 April 2019). "Lc0 Wins Computer Chess Championship, Makes History". Chess.com. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  42. ^ Pete (pete). "Stockfish Strikes Back, Tops Lc0 In Computer Chess Championship". Chess.com. Retrieved 2019-05-29.
  43. ^ "Computer Chess Championship". Chess.com. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  44. ^ Knapton, Sarah; Watson, Leon (6 December 2017). "Entire human chess knowledge learned and surpassed by DeepMind's AlphaZero in four hours". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  45. ^ Vincent, James (6 December 2017). "DeepMind's AI became a superhuman chess player in a few hours, just for fun". The Verge. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  46. ^ "'Superhuman' Google AI claims chess crown". BBC News. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  47. ^ "DeepMind's AlphaZero crushes chess". chess.com. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  48. ^ Silver, David; Hubert, Thomas; Schrittwieser, Julian; Antonoglou, Ioannis; Lai, Matthew; Guez, Arthur; Lanctot, Marc; Sifre, Laurent; Kumaran, Dharshan; Graepel, Thore; Lillicrap, Timothy; Simonyan, Karen; Hassabis, Demis (5 December 2017). "Mastering Chess and Shogi by Self-Play with a General Reinforcement Learning Algorithm". arXiv:1712.01815 [cs.AI].
  49. ^ See the Season 14 archives at http://legacy-tcec.chessdom.com/archive.php
  50. ^ crem. "Lc0 won TCEC 15". Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  51. ^ Using the Stockfish Engine, Stockfish Support.
  52. ^ ChessEngines, PyChess Github.
  53. ^ [2] Lichess uses Stockfish announcement.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit